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Tyler J Loftus, Kristina L Go, Steven J Hughes, Chasen A Croft, R Stephen Smith, Philip A Efron, Frederick A Moore, Scott C Brakenridge, Alicia M Mohr, Janeen R Jordan
BACKGROUND: Effective multidisciplinary management of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) requires effective communication. We instituted a protocol to standardize communication practices with the hypothesis that outcomes would improve following protocol initiation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 442 patients who required procedural management of acute GIB at our institution during a 50 month period spanning 25 months before and 25 months after implementation of a multidisciplinary communication protocol...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Lauren Marie Sparks, Leanne M Redman, Kevin E Conley, Mary-Ellen Harper, Fanchao Yi, Andrew Hodges, Alexey Eroshkin, Sheila R Costford, Meghan E Gabriel, Cherie Shook, Heather H Cornnell, Eric Ravussin, Steven R Smith
CONTEXT: The effects of caloric restriction (CR) on in vivo muscle mitochondrial function in humans are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate muscle mitochondrial function and associated transcriptional profiles in non-obese humans following 12 months of CR. DESIGN: Individuals from an ancillary study of the CALERIE 2 randomized, controlled trial were assessed at Baseline and 12 months after a 25% CR or ad libitum (Control) diet. SETTING: The study was performed at Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Andrew Y Hwang, Chintan Dave, Steven M Smith
Little is known of US trends in antihypertensive drug use for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). We analyzed antihypertensive use among patients with TRH (treated with ≥4 antihypertensive drugs concurrently) from July 2008 through December 2014 using Marketscan administrative data. We included adults aged 18 to 65 years, with ≥6 months of continuous enrollment, a hypertension diagnosis, and ≥1 episode of overlapping use of ≥4 antihypertensive drugs; patients with heart failure were excluded...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Mary A M Cleaton, Claire L Dent, Mark Howard, Jennifer A Corish, Isabelle Gutteridge, Ulla Sovio, Francesca Gaccioli, Nozomi Takahashi, Steven R Bauer, D Steven Charnock-Jones, Theresa L Powell, Gordon C S Smith, Anne C Ferguson-Smith, Marika Charalambous
Pregnancy is a state of high metabolic demand. Fasting diverts metabolism to fatty acid oxidation, and the fasted response occurs much more rapidly in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. The product of the imprinted DLK1 gene (delta-like homolog 1) is an endocrine signaling molecule that reaches a high concentration in the maternal circulation during late pregnancy. By using mouse models with deleted Dlk1, we show that the fetus is the source of maternal circulating DLK1. In the absence of fetally derived DLK1, the maternal fasting response is impaired...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Cunlin Wang, Robert Kane, Mark Levenson, Jeffrey Kelman, Michael Wernecke, Joo-Yeon Lee, Steven Kozlowski, Carmen Dekmezian, Zhiwei Zhang, Aliza Thompson, Kimberly Smith, Yu-Te Wu, Yuqin Wei, Yoganand Chillarige, Qin Ryan, Chris Worrall, Thomas E MaCurdy, David J Graham
Importance: In 2011, the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) changed its reimbursement policy for hemodialysis to a bundled comprehensive payment system that included the cost of erythrocyte-stimulating agents (ESAs). Also in 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration revised the drug label for ESAs, recommending more conservative dosing in patients with chronic kidney disease. In response to concerns that these measures could have adverse effects on patient care and outcomes, the CMS and the FDA initiated a collaboration to assess the effect...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Andrew Mezentsev, Nikolai Østgaard, Thomas Gjesteland, Kjetil Albrechtsen, Nikolai Lehtinen, Martino Marisaldi, David Smith, Steven Cummer
A detailed analysis of Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) is performed in association with World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) sources and very low frequency (VLF) sferics recorded at Duke University. RHESSI clock offset is evaluated and found to experience changes on the 5 August 2005 and 21 October 2013, based on the analysis of TGF-WWLLN matches. The clock offsets were found for all three periods of observations with standard deviations less than 100 μs...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
James Esposito, Zoe Brown, Wendy Stevens, Joanne Sahhar, Candice Rabusa, Jane Zochling, Janet Roddy, Jennifer Walker, Susanna M Proudman, Mandana Nikpour
BACKGROUND: In some rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), low serum complement ('hypocomplementaemia') is a feature of active disease. However, the role of hypocomplementaemia in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is unknown. We sought to determine the frequency, clinical associations and relationship to disease activity of hypocomplementaemia in SSc. METHODS: The study included 1140 patients fulfilling the 2013 American College of Rheumatology criteria for SSc...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Jamel Meslamani, Steven G Smith, Roberto Sanchez, Ming-Ming Zhou
Bromodomains are conserved structural modules responsible for recognizing acetylated-lysine residues on histone tails and other transcription-associated proteins, such as transcription factors and co-factors. Owing to their important functions in the regulation of ordered gene transcription in chromatin, bromodomains of the BET family proteins have recently been shown as druggable targets for a wide array of human diseases, including cancer and inflammation. Here we review the structural and functional features of the bromodomains and their small-molecule inhibitors...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Steven G Smith, Ming-Ming Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Jack E Henningfield, Tracy T Smith, Bethea A Kleykamp, Reginald V Fant, Eric C Donny
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Steven R. Goldberg was a pioneering behavioral pharmacologist whose intravenous drug self-administration studies advanced the understanding of conditioned stimuli and schedules of reinforcement as determinants of pattern and persistence of drug-seeking behavior, and in particular, the importance of nicotine in tobacco use. His passing in 2014 led to invitations to contribute articles to psychopharmacology dedicated to his work. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to summarize and put into historical perspective Goldberg's contributions to elucidate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and to summarize the implications of his research for medication development, tobacco regulation, and potential tobacco control policy options...
October 21, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Maxime Cailleret, Steven Jansen, Elisabeth M R Robert, Lucía Desoto, Tuomas Aakala, Joseph A Antos, Barbara Beikircher, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Marco Caccianiga, Vojtěch Čada, J Julio Camarero, Paolo Cherubini, Hervé Cochard, Marie R Coyea, Katarina Čufar, Adrian J Das, Hendrik Davi, Sylvain Delzon, Michael Dorman, Guillermo Gea-Izquierdo, Sten Gillner, Laurel J Haavik, Henrik Hartmann, Ana-Maria Hereş, Kevin R Hultine, Pavel Janda, Jeffrey M Kane, Vyacheslav I Kharuk, Thomas Kitzberger, Tamir Klein, Koen Kramer, Frederic Lens, Tom Levanic, Juan Carlos Linares Calderon, Francisco Lloret, Raquel Lobo-Do-Vale, Fabio Lombardi, Rosana López Rodríguez, Harri Mäkinen, Stefan Mayr, Ilona Mészáros, Juha M Metsaranta, Francesco Minunno, Walter Oberhuber, Andreas Papadopoulos, Mikko Peltoniemi, Any Mary Petritan, Brigitte Rohner, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Dimitrios Sarris, Jeremy M Smith, Amanda B Stan, Frank Sterck, Dejan B Stojanović, Maria Laura Suarez, Miroslav Svoboda, Roberto Tognetti, José M Torres-Ruiz, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Ricardo Villalba, Floor Vodde, Alana R Westwood, Peter H Wyckoff, Nikolay Zafirov, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key factor influencing forest functions and dynamics, but our understanding of the mechanisms leading to mortality and the associated changes in tree growth rates are still limited. We compiled a new pan-continental tree-ring width database from sites where both dead and living trees were sampled (2,970 dead and 4,224 living trees from 190 sites, including 36 species), and compared early and recent growth rates between trees that died and those that survived a given mortality event. We observed a decrease in radial growth before death in ca...
October 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
Steven D Karlen, Chengcheng Zhang, Matthew L Peck, Rebecca A Smith, Dharshana Padmakshan, Kate E Helmich, Heather C A Free, Seonghee Lee, Bronwen G Smith, Fachuang Lu, John C Sedbrook, Richard Sibout, John H Grabber, Troy M Runge, Kirankumar S Mysore, Philip J Harris, Laura E Bartley, John Ralph
Angiosperms represent most of the terrestrial plants and are the primary research focus for the conversion of biomass to liquid fuels and coproducts. Lignin limits our access to fibers and represents a large fraction of the chemical energy stored in plant cell walls. Recently, the incorporation of monolignol ferulates into lignin polymers was accomplished via the engineering of an exotic transferase into commercially relevant poplar. We report that various angiosperm species might have convergently evolved to natively produce lignins that incorporate monolignol ferulate conjugates...
October 2016: Science Advances
Summer E Hanson, Benjamin D Smith, Jun Liu, Geoffrey L Robb, Steven J Kronowitz, Patrick B Garvey
: The most commonly chosen flaps for delayed breast reconstruction after postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) are abdominal-based free flaps (ABFFs) and pedicled latissimus dorsi (LD) musculocutaneous flaps. The short-and long-term advantages and disadvantages of delayed ABFFs versus LD flaps after PMRT remain unclear. We hypothesized that after PMRT, ABFFs would result in fewer postoperative complications and a lower incidence of revision surgery than LD flaps. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained database of consecutive patients who underwent unilateral, delayed breast reconstruction after PMRT using ABFFs or pedicled LD flaps with implants at the MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2011...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
U Uzay Sezen, Jacob N Barney, Daniel Z Atwater, Gary A Pederson, Jeffrey F Pederson, J Mike Chandler, T Stan Cox, Sheila Cox, Peter Dotray, David Kopec, Steven E Smith, Jill Schroeder, Steven D Wright, Yuannian Jiao, Wenqian Kong, Valorie Goff, Susan Auckland, Lisa K Rainville, Gary J Pierce, Cornelia Lemke, Rosana Compton, Christine Phillips, Alexandra Kerr, Matthew Mettler, Andrew H Paterson
Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) is a striking example of a post-Columbian founder event. This natural experiment within ecological time-scales provides a unique opportunity for understanding patterns of continent-wide genetic diversity following range expansion. Microsatellite markers were used for population genetic analyses including leaf-optimized Neighbor-Joining tree, pairwise FST, mismatch analysis, principle coordinate analysis, Tajima's D, Fu's F and Bayesian clusterings of population structure. Evidence indicates two geographically distant introductions of divergent genotypes, which spread across much of the US in <200 years...
2016: PloS One
Kristin M Berg, Stevens S Smith, Jessica W Cook, Michael C Fiore, Douglas E Jorenby
While women Veterans have a higher prevalence of smoking than civilian women, little is known about their quitting behavior. Via a chart review, we characterized referral and enrollment patterns in tobacco cessation services (TCS), and quit attempts among 366 women Veteran smokers at a Midwestern Veterans Hospital. Cases receiving referrals to TCS (n = 183) were matched 1:1 to controls who did not (n = 183), by year of referral. Variables included age, marital status, urbanicity, smoking status, comorbidities, pregnancy, packs per day, number of prior smoking cessation medications, provider gender, provider type, and clinical location of referral placement...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Steven L Clark, Emily Hamilton, Thomas J Garite, Audra Timmins, Philip A Warrick, Samuel Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite intensive efforts directed at initial training in fetal heart rate interpretation, continuing medical education, board certification/recertification, team training and the development of specific protocols for the management of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns, the goals of consistently preventing hypoxia-induced fetal metabolic acidemia and neurologic injury remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: To validate a recently published algorithm for the management of category II fetal heart rate tracings , examine reasons for the birth of infants with significant metabolic acidemia despite the use of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and critically examine the limits of EFHRM in the prevention of neonatal metabolic acidemia...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jay M Margolis, Steven Deitelzweig, Jeffrey Kline, Oth Tran, David M Smith, Concetta Crivera, Brahim Bookhart, Jeff Schein
PURPOSE: Using real-world data, this study compares inpatient length of stay (LOS) and costs for patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) initiating treatment with oral anticoagulation with rivaroxaban versus warfarin. METHODS: Hospitalizations from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database were selected from November 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013, for adults with a primary diagnosis of PE initiating treatment with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Warfarin patients were matched 1:1 to rivaroxaban patients using exact and propensity score matching...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Craig S Rosen, Kathryn J Azevedo, Quyen Q Tiet, Carolyn J Greene, Amanda E Wood, Patrick Calhoun, Thomas Bowe, Bruce P Capehart, Eric F Crawford, Mark A Greenbaum, Alex H S Harris, Michael Hertzberg, Steven E Lindley, Brandy N Smith, Paula P Schnurr
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether adding telephone care management to usual outpatient mental health care improved treatment attendance, medication compliance, and clinical outcomes of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: In a multisite randomized controlled trial, 358 veterans were assigned to either usual outpatient mental health treatment (N=165) or usual care plus twice-a-month telephone care management (TCM) and support in the first three months of treatment (N=193)...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Zachary Scott, Howard S Ginsberg, Steven R Alm
We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Julie A Poposki, Aiko I Klingler, Whitney W Stevens, Anju T Peters, Kathryn E Hulse, Leslie C Grammer, Robert P Schleimer, Kevin C Welch, Stephanie S Smith, Douglas M Sidle, David B Conley, Bruce K Tan, Robert C Kern, Atsushi Kato
RATIONALE: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is known to be elevated and truncated in nasal polyps (NPs) of chronic rhinosinusitis and might play a significant role in type 2 inflammation in this disease. However, neither the structure nor the role of the truncated products of TSLP has been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms of truncation of TSLP in NPs and the function of the truncated products. METHODS: We incubated recombinant human TSLP with NP extracts, and determined the protein sequence of the truncated forms of TSLP using Edman protein sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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