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Chu K Yao, Asaf Rotbart, Jian Z Ou, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
Excessive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) production from gut microbial metabolism may have clinically important relevance in the pathogenesis of gut disorders, including ulcerative colitis. However, little is known regarding factors that alter its production. Using a newly-designed in vitro gas-profiling technology, the study aimed to verify real-time H2 S measurement reproducibility and thereafter, assess its production following exposure to dietary factors and 5-aminosalicylate acid (5-ASA). Measurements of H2 S, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane measurements were compared between gas-profiling systems...
March 21, 2018: Gut Microbes
Ayman S Abutair, Ihab A Naser, Amin T Hamed
Diets with high fiber content improve most metabolic syndrome (MetS) profile in non-diabetic individuals, but there is scarce information about the role of fiber intake in patients with the MetS and diabetes. The objective of this study is to determine whether soluble fiber supplementation improve MetS profile for 8 weeks of intervention in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) adult patients. After one week of dietary stabilization phase, 36 newly diagnosed T2D patients were stratified to different strata according to sex, age, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and waist circumference (WC)...
January 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
Sayan Ganguly, Subhadip Mondal, Poushali Das, Poushali Bhawal, Priti Prasanna Maity, Sabyasachi Ghosh, Santanu Dhara, Narayan Ch Das
Soft biomaterials derived from polysaccharides are generally suffers from lack of mechanical robustness and instability. The naturally occurring highly abundance low cost polysaccharide has immense aspect as biomaterial after functionalization which can be designed as stretchable and rubber-like elastic with reversible ductility. A highly swellable, stretchable, low creep, non-cytotoxic nanocomposite hydrogel has been fabricated by simple one-pot Michael type covalent grafting of acrylic acid based copolymer onto psyllium biomacromolecular chian by free radical gelation technique...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
David P Rosenbaum, Andrew Yan, Jeffrey W Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Tenapanor, a small molecule with minimal systemic availability, is a first-in-class sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) inhibitor that acts in the gut. Here, we evaluate the pharmacodynamics and safety of tenapanor in healthy adults. METHODS: Two phase I, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were performed. The first study assessed single-ascending oral tenapanor doses of 10, 50, 150, 450, and 900 mg (n = 8 per group; six tenapanor, two placebo) and multiple ascending doses over 7 days of 3, 10, 30, and 100 mg q...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
Marc P McRae
Objective: The purpose of this study was to review previously published meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary fiber on cardiovascular disease. Methods: An umbrella review of all published meta-analyses was performed. A PubMed search from January 1, 1980, to January 31, 2017, was conducted using the following search strategy: (fiber OR glucan OR psyllium OR fructans) AND (meta-analysis OR systematic review). Only English-language publications that provided quantitative statistical analysis on cardiovascular disease, lipid concentrations, or blood pressure were retrieved...
December 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
Miyuki Ogata, Tasuku Ogita, Hiroyuki Tari, Teruaki Arakawa, Takuya Suzuki
Our previous study demonstrated that supplemental psyllium fibre increased cytoprotective heat-shock protein (Hsp) 25 levels in the intestinal cells of mice. Here, we examined the effect of psyllium fibre on colonic gene and protein expression and faecal microbiota in normal and colitic mice to improve the understanding of the preventive role of the supplement. DNA microarray analysis revealed that a 10 % psyllium fibre diet administered for 5 d up-regulated eleven extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated genes, including collagens and fibronectins, in normal mice...
November 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Sean R Llewellyn, Graham J Britton, Eduardo J Contijoch, Olivia H Vennaro, Arthur Mortha, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Ari Grinspan, Jose C Clemente, Miriam Merad, Jeremiah J Faith
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is not clear how the complex interactions between diet and the intestinal microbiota affect development of mucosal inflammation or inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated interactions between dietary ingredients, nutrients, and the microbiota in specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) mice given more than 40 unique diets; we quantified individual and synergistic effects of dietary macronutrients and the microbiota on intestinal health and development of colitis...
November 23, 2017: Gastroenterology
Sukriti Chaudhary, Jitender Sharma, Balbir S Kaith, Satender Yadav, Ashish Kumar Sharma, Aayushi Goel
The present work highlights the synthesis of the adsorbent based on Gum xanthan-psyllium hybrid backbone graft co-polymerized with polyacrylic acid-co-polyitaconic acid chains for the rapid sequestration of auramine-O (Aur-O) and eriochrome black-T (EBT) dyes from the aqueous fluid. The excellent dye removal efficiency of 90.53% for EBT and 95.63% for Aur-O was found at initial dye concentration of 30mgL(-1) (EBT) and 15 mgL(-1) (Aur-O) 40mL(-1) with an adsorbent dose of 600mg within time duration of 5h and 323K temp...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
K Khan, E Jovanovski, H V T Ho, A C R Marques, A Zurbau, S B Mejia, J L Sievenpiper, V Vuksan
AIMS: Dietary fiber intake, especially viscous soluble fiber, has been established as a means to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Whether this is true for blood pressure remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate the effects of viscous soluble fiber supplementation on blood pressure and quantify the effect of individual fibers. DATA SYNTHESIS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched...
October 7, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Yuge Niu, Na Li, Sierkemideke Alaxi, Guoren Huang, Lei Chen, Ziqian Feng
A new heteropolysaccharide (PMH) with a molecular weight of 1.4 × 103 kDa was isolated from the seed husks of Plantago asiatica L. The monosaccharide composition of PMH was determined as glucose, xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and galacturonic acid with a molar ratio of 1.0 : 1.8 : 2.4 : 3.8 : 4.9 : 8.5. The backbone of PMH consisted of 1,4-β-d-GalpA with the side chains mainly composed of 1,3-α-d-Galp and 1,2-α-d-Galp which were attached to the O-3 of GlapA. The thermal analysis using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method revealed that PMH had an apparent activation energy (Ea ) of 173...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
Deepak Kumar, Jyoti Pandey, Pramendra Kumar
A binary grafted copolymer of Psyllium mucilage (Psy) with acrylic acid (AA) and acrylonitrile (An) has been successfully synthesized under microwave conditions for in vitro drug release study. The grafting was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, EDX, TGA analytical techniques and the intrinsic viscosity study. The swelling behavior of grafted material has been studied in solution of different pH and time. We also prepare Psy-g-Poly (AA-co-An) based beads with anti-cancer drug [(2-Chloro-3-(4-hydroxyphenylamino) naphthalene-1, 4-dione)]...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Wendy J Dahl, Daniela Rivero Mendoza
The high prevalence of constipation in long-term care (LTC) residents has been a long-standing issue for caregivers, attending health professionals, and the residents themselves. The traditional medical response has been to utilize pharmaceutical laxatives, enemas, and suppositories for treatment. The purpose of this review was to determine if fibre supplementation (including fibre added to foods) is effective in increasing stool frequency, improving stool consistency, and decreasing laxative use in LTC residents...
October 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Mahdieh Kamalpour, Hamid Ghalandari, Javad Nasrollahzadeh
The purpose of this study was to compare effects of a moderate carbohydrate diet supplemented with psyllium with those of a lower carbohydrate diet supplemented with placebo powder on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In an open randomized controlled trial, 37 patients with T2D with body mass index (BMI) 25-35 kg/m2 received either a low-energy, moderate carbohydrate diet plus 7 grams of psyllium powder (MoCyllium group) or a low-energy, lower carbohydrate diet plus placebo powder (LoCarb group) for 2 weeks...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Haider Rahman, Marina Kim, Galen Leung, Jesse A Green, Seymour Katz
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Eirini Dimidi, Megan Rossi, Kevin Whelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to review the most recent advances in the evidence supporting the use of various dietary interventions for the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is insufficient evidence of the effect of fibres other than psyllium in IBS, whereas the recent studies on prebiotics suggest a limited effect in IBS. Recent probiotic trials continue to provide varying results, with some probiotic strains exhibiting beneficial effects, whereas others show no effect...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Heather E Rasmussen, Bruce Hamaker, Kumar B Rajan, Ece Mutlu, Stefan J Green, Michael Brown, Amandeep Kaur, Ali Keshavarzian
Approximately one-third of individuals in the United States experience unsatisfactory bowel habits, and dietary intake, especially one low in fiber, could be partly responsible. We hypothesized that intake of a fermentable fiber (starch-entrapped microspheres, SM) that has a delayed, slow fermentation profile in vitro would improve bowel habit while exhibiting prebiotic capacity in those with self-described unsatisfactory bowel habits, all with minimal adverse effects. A total of 43 healthy volunteers completed a 3-month, double-blind, parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to assess the ability of a daily dose (9 or 12 g) of SM vs psyllium (12 g) to improve bowel habit, including stool consistency and frequency, and modify gut milieu through changes in stool microbiota and short-chain fatty acids while remaining tolerable through minimal gastrointestinal symptoms...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
André Álvares Monge Neto, Rita de Cássia Bergamasco, Flávio Faria de Moraes, Antônio Medina Neto, Rosane Marina Peralta
This study focused on evaluating a technique for the psyllium husk mucilage (PHM) purification with simultaneous microencapsulation of curcumin. PHM was extracted with water and purified with ethanol. For the mucilage purification and simultaneous microencapsulation, an ethanolic solution of curcumin was used. After dehydration, the samples were analysed by instrumental techniques and evaluated for thermal stability. The presence of curcumin in the solution did not impair the yield of precipitated polysaccharide...
2017: PloS One
Pathak M, Srinivas M, Shariff A
AIM: To determine the beneficial effects of Glutamine, Psyllium, Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA), and Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK), in preventing the histological changes after diversion colostomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After ethical clearance, male wistar rats (n=40) underwent diversion colostomy. Rats were divided into five groups of 8 rats each. Each group was given, after diversion colostomy, per rectally, one of the five agents being tested as an enema (3 ml/kg/day)...
April 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
Magdy El-Salhy, Synne Otterasen Ystad, Tarek Mazzawi, Doris Gundersen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS...
September 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ajda Ota, Nataša P Ulrih
Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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