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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678993/qualitative-longitudinal-study-of-episodic-disability-experiences-of-older-women-living-with-hiv-in-ontario-canada
#1
Patricia Solomon, Kelly K O'Brien, Stephanie Nixon, Lori Letts, Larry Baxter, Nicole Gervais
OBJECTIVES: To examine the episodic disability experiences of older women living with HIV over time. DESIGN: Qualitative longitudinal study, conducting semistructured in-depth interviews on four occasions over a 20-month time frame. Inductive thematic analyses were conducted cross-sectionally and longitudinally. SETTING: Participants were recruited from HIV community organisations in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 10 women aged 50 years or older living with HIV for more than 6 years...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678342/spending-on-health-and-hiv-aids-domestic-health-spending-and-development-assistance-in-188-countries-1995-2015
#2
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates of health spending by source, including development assistance for health, and, for the first time, estimated HIV/AIDS spending on prevention and treatment and by source of funding, for 188 countries...
April 17, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678151/analysis-of-human-es-cell-differentiation-establishes-that-the-dominant-isoforms-of-the-lncrnas-rmst-and-firre-are-circular
#3
Osagie G Izuogu, Abd A Alhasan, Carla Mellough, Joseph Collin, Richard Gallon, Jonathon Hyslop, Francesco K Mastrorosa, Ingrid Ehrmann, Majlinda Lako, David J Elliott, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Michael S Jackson
BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are predominantly derived from protein coding genes, and some can act as microRNA sponges or transcriptional regulators. Changes in circRNA levels have been identified during human development which may be functionally important, but lineage-specific analyses are currently lacking. To address this, we performed RNAseq analysis of human embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated for 90 days towards 3D laminated retina. RESULTS: A transcriptome-wide increase in circRNA expression, size, and exon count was observed, with circRNA levels reaching a plateau by day 45...
April 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674368/effectiveness-of-the-facility-based-maternal-near-miss-case-reviews-in-improving-maternal-and-newborn-quality-of-care-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#4
Marzia Lazzerini, Sonia Richardson, Valentina Ciardelli, Anna Erenbourg
OBJECTIVES: The maternal near-miss case review (NMCR) has been promoted by WHO as an approach to improve quality of care (QoC) at facility level. This systematic review synthesises evidence on the effectiveness of the NMCR on QoC and maternal and perinatal health outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Studies were searched for in six electronic databases (MEDLINE, Index Medicus, Web of Science, the Cochrane library, Embase, LILACS), with no language restrictions...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674346/from-microscopic-to-macroscopic-sports-injuries-applying-the-complex-dynamic-systems-approach-to-sports-medicine-a-narrative-review
#5
REVIEW
Rafel Pol, Robert Hristovski, Daniel Medina, Natalia Balague
A better understanding of how sports injuries occur in order to improve their prevention is needed for medical, economic, scientific and sports success reasons. This narrative review aims to explain the mechanisms that underlie the occurrence of sports injuries, and an innovative approach for their prevention on the basis of complex dynamic systems approach. First, we explain the multilevel organisation of living systems and how function of the musculoskeletal system may be impaired. Second, we use both, a constraints approach and a connectivity hypothesis to explain why and how the susceptibility to sports injuries may suddenly increase...
April 19, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673412/methods-for-the-economic-evaluation-of-changes-to-the-organisation-and-delivery-of-health-services-principal-challenges-and-recommendations
#6
Rachel Meacock
There is a requirement for economic evaluation of health technologies seeking public funding across Europe. Changes to the organisation and delivery of health services, including changes to health policy, are not covered by such appraisals. These changes also have consequences for National Health Service (NHS) funds, yet undergo no mandatory cost-effectiveness assessment. The focus on health technologies may have occurred because larger-scale service changes pose more complex challenges to evaluators. This paper discusses the principal challenges faced when performing economic evaluations of changes to the organisation and delivery of health services and provides recommendations for overcoming them...
April 20, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673395/shorter-treatment-for-minimal-tuberculosis-tb-in-children-shine-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Chishala Chabala, Anna Turkova, Margaret J Thomason, Eric Wobudeya, Syed Hissar, Vidya Mave, Marieke van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Monica Kapasa, Perumal K Bhavani, Sarath Balaji, Priyanka A Raichur, Anne-Marie Demers, Graeme Hoddinott, Ellen Owen-Powell, Aarti Kinikar, Philippa Musoke, Veronica Mulenga, Rob Aarnoutse, Helen McIlleron, Anneke Hesseling, Angela M Crook, Mark Cotton, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is frequently paucibacillary and non-severe forms of pulmonary TB are common. Evidence for tuberculosis treatment in children is largely extrapolated from adult studies. Trials in adults with smear-negative tuberculosis suggest that treatment can be effectively shortened from 6 to 4 months. New paediatric, fixed-dose combination anti-tuberculosis treatments have recently been introduced in many countries, making the implementation of World Health Organisation (WHO)-revised dosing recommendations feasible...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673169/multifocal-equine-influenza-outbreak-with-vaccination-breakdown-in-thoroughbred-racehorses
#8
Sarah Gildea, Marie Garvey, Pamela Lyons, Rachel Lyons, Jacinta Gahan, Cathal Walsh, Ann Cullinane
Equine influenza (EI) outbreaks occurred on 19 premises in Ireland during 2014. Disease affected thoroughbred (TB) and non-TB horses/ponies on a variety of premises including four racing yards. Initial clinical signs presented on 16 premises within a two-month period. Extensive field investigations were undertaken, and the diagnostic effectiveness of a TaqMan RT-PCR assay was demonstrated in regularly-vaccinated and sub-clinically-affected horses. Epidemiological data and repeat clinical samples were collected from 305 horses, of which 40% were reported as clinically affected, 39% were identified as confirmed cases and 11% were sub-clinically affected...
April 17, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672318/a-novel-2-methoxyestradiol-analogue-is-responsible-for-vesicle-disruption-and-lysosome-aggregation-in-breast-cancer-cells
#9
Sandra D Nkandeu, Iman van den Bout, Marianne J Cronjé, Dirk H van Papendorp, Anna M Joubert
BACKGROUND: 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is an endogenous metabolite of 17-β-estradiol with anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Due to 2ME2's rapid metabolism and low oral bioavailability in in vivo settings, 2ME2 analogues have been designed to alleviate these issues. One of these compounds is 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16). A previous work alluded to the ability of ESE-16 to induce autophagic cell death. Therefore, we investigated the mode of action of ESE-16 by studying its effects on autophagy, vesicle formation, and lysosomal organisation...
April 19, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671373/developing-political-capabilities-with-community-based-monitoring-for-health-accountability-the-case-of-the-mahila-swasthya-adhikar-manch
#10
Giulietta Luul Balestra, Jashodhara Dasgupta, Yatirajula Kanaka Sandhya, Jenevieve Mannell
Community-Based Monitoring (CBM) is a participatory process in which citizens gather evidence on services to hold governments accountable to their commitments. Research on CBM for health in developing countries has mostly measured its impact on service performance. Overall, these studies have produced mixed evidence of CBM's effectiveness. This has led some authors to question the role of civic engagement, especially in communities where expectations from public services and power to demand for change are low...
April 19, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668693/if-you-come-from-a-well-known-organisation-i-will-trust-you-exploring-and-understanding-the-community-s-attitudes-towards-healthcare-research-in-cambodia
#11
Sreymom Pol, Shivani Fox-Lewis, Leakhena Neou, Michael Parker, Patricia Kingori, Claudia Turner
OBJECTIVE: To explore Cambodian community members' understanding of and attitudes towards healthcare research. DESIGN: This qualitative study generated data from semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. This study was conducted at a non-governmental paediatric hospital and in nearby villages in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. A total of ten semi-structured interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted, involving 27 participants. Iterative data collection and analysis were performed concurrently...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667259/the-cost-effectiveness-of-preventive-integrated-care-for-community-dwelling-frail-older-people-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Wilhelmina Mijntje Looman, Robbert Huijsman, Isabelle Natalina Fabbricotti
Integrated care is increasingly promoted as an effective and cost-effective way to organise care for community-dwelling frail older people with complex problems but the question remains whether high expectations are justified. Our study aims to systematically review the empirical evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive, integrated care for community-dwelling frail older people and close attention is paid to the elements and levels of integration of the interventions. We searched nine databases for eligible studies until May 2016 with a comparison group and reporting at least one outcome regarding effectiveness or cost-effectiveness...
April 17, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661249/using-qualitative-and-community-based-engagement-approaches-to-gain-access-and-to-develop-a-culturally-appropriate-sti-prevention-intervention-for-foreign-female-entertainment-workers-in-singapore
#13
Raymond Boon Tar Lim, Olive N Y Cheung, Dede Kam Tyng Tham, Hanh Hao La, Thein Than Win, Roy Chan, Mee Lian Wong
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing global movement of foreign female entertainment workers (FEWs), a hard-to-reach population vulnerable to HIV/STIs. This paper described the needs assessment phase before intervention implementation where the socio-organisation, sexual risk behaviours and access to health services of foreign FEWs in Singapore were explored. We also highlighted how qualitative inquiry, census enumeration technique and community-based engagement approaches were used to gain access and to develop a culturally appropriate STI prevention intervention...
April 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661247/informing-implementation-of-quality-improvement-in-australian-primary-care
#14
Charlotte Hespe, Lucie Rychetnik, David Peiris, Mark Harris
BACKGROUND: Quality Improvement (QI) initiatives in primary care are effective at improving uptake of evidence based guidelines, but are difficult to implement and sustain. In Australia meso-level health organisations such as Primary health care Organisations (PHCO) offer new opportunities to implement area-wide QI programs. This study sought to identify enablers and barriers to implementation of an existing Australian QI program and to identify strategic directions that PHCOs can use in the ongoing development of QI in this environment...
April 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660533/role-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-photoreceptors
#15
Grace E Lidgerwood, Andrew J Morris, Alison Conquest, Maciej Daniszewski, Louise A Rooney, Shiang Y Lim, Damián Hernández, Helena H Liang, Penelope Allen, Paul P Connell, Robyn H Guymer, Alex W Hewitt, Alice Pébay
The human retina is a complex structure of organised layers of specialised cells that support the transmission of light signals to the visual cortex. The outermost layer of the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms part of the blood retina barrier and is implicated in many retinal diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid exerting pleiotropic effects in various cell types, during development, normal physiology and disease. Its producing enzyme AUTOTAXIN (ATX) is highly expressed by the pigmented epithelia of the human eye, including the RPE...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658283/-oligo-and-polysacharides-proteoglycans
#16
Lajos Jakab
After clearing up the confusion in the previously used nomenclature, the paper discusses the family of small-leucin-rich glycoproteins. After mentioning the family and its role in the organisation of the ground substance and in the regulation of inflammation, one unique molecule of proteoglycans is presented. This molecule is the inter-α-trypsin inhibitor. It has turned out that this peculiar molecule originally contains glycosaminoglycan beside the neutral carbohydrates. After summarizing the numerous connections of the proteoglycan molecule, the "self-sacrificing" nature of the molecule is presented...
April 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656423/interdisciplinary-knowledge-exchange-across-scales-in-a-globally-changing-marine-environment
#17
Karlie S McDonald, Alistair J Hobday, Elizabeth A Fulton, Peter A Thompson
The effects of anthropogenic global environmental change on biotic and abiotic processes have been reported in aquatic systems across the world. Complex synergies between concurrent environmental stressors and the resilience of the system to regime shifts, which vary in space and time, determine the capacity for marine systems to maintain structure and function with global environmental change. Consequently, an interdisciplinary approach that facilitates the development of new methods for the exchange of knowledge between scientists across multiple scales is required to effectively understand, quantify and predict climate impacts on marine ecosystem services...
April 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652822/taking-a-gamble-for-high-rewards-management-perspectives-on-the-value-of-mental-health-peer-workers
#18
Louise Byrne, Helena Roennfeldt, Peri O'Shea, Fiona Macdonald
Mental health peer work is attracting growing interest and provides a potentially impactful method of service user involvement in mental health design and delivery, contributing to mental health reform. The need to effectively support this emerging workforce is consequently increasing. This study aimed to better understand the views of management in relation to peer work and specifically explores the value of peer work from the perspective of management. This qualitative research employed grounded theory methods...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652816/the-emergency-medical-system-in-greece-opening-aeolus-bag-of-winds
#19
Ourania S Kotsiou, David S Srivastava, Panagiotis Kotsios, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis
An Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system must encompass a spectrum of care, with dedicated pre-hospital and in-hospital medical facilities. It has to be organised in such a way as to include all necessary services—such as triage accurate initial assessment, prompt resuscitation, efficient management of emergency cases, and transport to definitive care. The global economic downturn has had a direct effect on the health sector and poses additional threats to the healthcare system. Greece is one of the hardest-hit countries...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652175/the-work-programme-of-neris-in-post-accident-recovery
#20
T Schneider, S Andronopoulos, J Camps, T Duranova, E Gallego, F Gering, O Isnard, M Maître, C Murith, D Oughton, W Raskob
NERIS is the European platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery. Created in 2010 with 57 organisations from 28 different countries, the objectives of the platform are to: improve the effectiveness and coherency of current approaches to preparedness; identify further development needs; improve 'know how' and technical expertise; and establish a forum for dialogue and methodological development. The NERIS Strategic Research Agenda is now structured with three main challenges: (i) radiological impact assessments during all phases of nuclear and radiological events; (ii) countermeasures and countermeasure strategies in emergency and recovery, decision support, and disaster informatics; and (iii) setting up a multi-faceted framework for preparedness for emergency response and recovery...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
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