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Ian H Stanley, Lia J Smith, Joseph W Boffa, Jana K Tran, N Brad Schmidt, Thomas E Joiner, Anka A Vujanovic
BACKGROUND: Firefighters represent an occupational group at increased suicide risk. How suicidality develops among firefighters is poorly understood. The depression-distress amplification model posits that the effects of depression symptoms on suicide risk will be intensified in the context of anxiety sensitivity (AS) cognitive concerns. The current study tested this model among firefighters. METHODS: Overall, 831 firefighters participated (mean [SD] age = 38...
April 7, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Alan H Zhang, Gagan Sharma, Eivind A B Undheim, Xinying Jia, Mehdi Mobli
Voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) are specialised ion channels that have a voltage dependent mode of action, where ion conduction, or gating, is controlled by a voltage-sensing mechanism. VGICs are critical for electrical signalling and are therefore important pharmacological targets. Among these, voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV s) have attracted particular attention as potential analgesic targets. NaV s, however, comprise several structurally similar subtypes with unique localisations and distinct functions, ranging from amplification of action potentials in nociception (e...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Xiuwei Sun, Na Ying, Chuanjing Ju, Zhongyi Li, Na Xu, Guijuan Qu, Wensen Liu, Jiayu Wan
In a recent study, we reported a novel assay for the detection of microRNA-21 based on duplex-specific nuclease (DSN)-assisted isothermal cleavage and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) dual signal amplification. The Fam modified double-stranded DNA products were generated after the HCR, another biotin modified probe was digested by DSN and released from the magnetic beads after the addition of the target miRNA. The released sequence was then combined with HCR products to form a double-tagging dsDNA, which can be recognized by the lateral flow strips...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Fabienne De Oliveira, Pierre Cappy, Véronique Lemée, Alice Moisan, Charlotte Pronier, Laurence Bocket, Magali Bouvier-Alias, Marie-Laure Chaix, Elyanne Gault, Odile Morvan, Jean-Dominique Poveda, Véronique Schneider, Marc Wirden, Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, Thomas Mourez, Jean-Christophe Plantier
BACKGROUND: The broad genetic divergence of HIV-1/O relative to HIV-1/M has important implications for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. Despite this divergence, some HIV-1/M+O dual infections and HIV-1/MO recombinant forms have been reported, mostly in Cameroon, where both groups are prevalent. Here, we describe the characteristics of such infections detected in France in 10 new patients, and discuss their implications for biological and clinical practice, owing to the presence of group O species...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
Marta E Bull, Caroline Mitchell, Jaime Soria, Sheila Styrchak, Corey Williams-Wietzikoski, Jillian Legard, Jennifer Mckernan-Mullin, Kelli Kraft, Frankline Onchiri, Joshua Stern, Sarah Holte, Kevin J Ryan, Edward P Acosta, Alberto La Rosa, Robert W Coombs, Eduardo Ticona, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVE: During effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), low-level plasma viremias (LLV) (HIV RNA >30-1000 copies/ml) can be detected intermittently. We hypothesized that systemic inflammation is associated with LLV either as the cause or result of the production of virions from clonally expanded cells. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected ART-naïve Peruvians enrolled prior to ART and followed for 2 years. Plasma HIV RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) HIV DNA concentrations were quantified pre-ART from individuals whose plasma HIV RNA was ART-suppressed...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
Debottam Sinha, Murugan Kalimutho, Josephine Bowles, Ai-Leen Chan, D Jo Merriner, Amanda L Bain, Jacinta L Simmons, Raimundo Freire, J Alejandro Lopez, Robin M Hobbs, Moira K O'Bryan, Kum Kum Khanna
Spermatogenesis is a dynamic process involving self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis, and ultimately, the differentiation of haploid spermatids into sperm. Centrosomal protein (CEP)-55 is necessary for somatic cell abscission during cytokinesis. It facilitates equal segregation of cytoplasmic contents between daughter cells by recruiting endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery (ESCRT) at the midbody. In germ cells, CEP55, in partnership with testes expressed-14 protein (TEX14), has also been shown to be an integral component of intercellular bridge before meiosis...
April 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Massimo Stella, Sanja Selakovic, Alberto Antonioni, Cecilia Andreazzi
Despite their potential interplay, multiple routes of many disease transmissions are often investigated separately. As an unifying framework for understanding parasite spread through interdependent transmission paths, we present the 'ecomultiplex' model, where the multiple transmission paths among a diverse community of interacting hosts are represented as a spatially explicit multiplex network. We adopt this framework for designing and testing potential control strategies for T. cruzi spread in two empirical host communities...
April 23, 2018: ELife
Shiwu Zhang, Fei Fei, Hua Wang, Yanjun Gu, Chunyuan Li, Xinlu Wang, Yongjie Zhao, Yuwei Li
The initiation of spontaneous breast cancer (SBC) in Tientsin Albino 2 (TA2) mice is related to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) infection, and MMTV amplification is hormonally regulated. To explore the insertion site of MMTVLTR in TA2 mouse genome, reverse PCR and nested PCR were used to amplify the unknown sequence on both sides of the MMTV-LTRSAG gene in SBC and normal breast tissue of TA2 mice. Furthermore, the clinicopathological significance of the insertion site was evaluated in 43 samples of normal breast tissue, 46 samples of breast cystic hyperplasia, 54 samples of ductal carcinoma in situ, 142 samples of primary breast cancer, and 47 samples of lymph node metastatic breast cancer by RNA in situ hybridization...
April 23, 2018: Cancer Science
Navjot Kaur, Bhushan J Toley
There has been a recent resurgence in the use of paper as a substrate for developing point-of-care medical diagnostic tests, possibly triggered by expiring patents published in the 1990s. A hallmark of this resurgence has been the development of advanced shapes and structures made from paper to conduct multi-step fluidic operations using the wicking action of porous materials. Such devices indicate a distinct improvement over lateral flow immunoassays, which are restricted to conducting one-step operations...
April 23, 2018: Analyst
Liliana Krasinska, Daniel Fisher
Cyclin-dependent kinases are Ser/Thr protein kinases best known for their cell cycle roles, where CDK1 triggers mitotic onset in all eukaryotes. CDKs are also involved in various other cellular processes, some of which, such as transcription and centrosome duplication, are coupled to cell cycle progression. A new study suggests that the mitotic CDK network is active at low levels in non-dividing, differentiating precursors of multiciliated cells, and that it drives ciliogenesis. Manipulating the activity of CDK1 or PLK1 altered transitions between the amplification, growth, and disengagement phases, in a manner analogous to the control of passage through different phases of mitosis...
April 23, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Hartmut Jaeschke, Anup Ramachandran
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of liver injury and acute liver failure in many western countries. The mechanism of APAP-induced hepatocyte necrosis has been investigated extensively. The formation of a reactive metabolite and its binding to cellular proteins was initially thought to be responsible for cell death. A competing hypothesis was introduced that questioned the relevance of protein binding and instead suggested that P450-derived oxidant stress and lipid peroxidation causes APAP-induced liver injury...
May 2018: Reactive Oxygen Species (Apex, N.C.)
Masao Higo, Ryohei Sato, Ayu Serizawa, Yuichi Takahashi, Kento Gunji, Yuya Tatewaki, Katsunori Isobe
Background: Understanding diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for optimizing their role for phosphorus (P) nutrition of soybeans ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in P-limited soils. However, it is not clear how soybean growth and P nutrition is related to AMF colonization and diversity of AMF communities in a continuous P-unfertilized cover cropping system. Thus, we investigated the impact of P-application and cover cropping on the interaction among AMF colonization, AMF diversity in soybean roots, soybean growth and P nutrition under a five-year P-unfertilized crop rotation...
2018: PeerJ
Jan Norum, Eli Marie Grindedal, Cecilie Heramb, Inga Karsrud, Sarah Louise Ariansen, Dag Erik Undlien, Ellen Schlichting, Lovise Mæhle
Background: Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). Patients and methods: A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done...
2018: ESMO Open
Cathy B Moelans, Caroline M G van Maldegem, Elsken van der Wall, Paul J van Diest
Purpose: The short arm of chromosome 8 (8p) is a frequent target of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in cancer, and 8p LOH is commonly associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype. The 8p11-12 region is a recurrent breakpoint area characterized by a sharp decrease in gains/amplifications and increase in allelic loss towards 8pter. However, the clustering of genomic aberrations in this region, even in the absence of proximal amplifications or distal LOH, suggests that the 8p11-12 region could play a pivotal role in oncogenesis...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Timothy S Mamba, Cecilia K Mbae, Johnson Kinyua, Erastus Mulinge, Gitonga Nkanata Mburugu, Zablon K Njiru
Background. Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite and a major cause of diarrhea in children and immunocompromised patients. Current diagnostic methods for cryptosporidiosis such as microscopy have low sensitivity while techniques such as PCR indicate higher sensitivity levels but are seldom used in developing countries due to their associated cost. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique, a method with shorter time to result and with equal or higher sensitivity compared to PCR, has been developed and applied in the detection of Cryptosporidium species...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Chikara Iino, Tadashi Shimoyama, Daisuke Chinda, Tetsu Arai, Daisuke Chiba, Shigeyuki Nakaji, Shinsaku Fukuda
Background: Suppression of gastric acid by proton pump inhibitors is associated with the increase of Lactobacillus in human gut microbiota. Gastric acid secretion is also suppressed by Helicobacter pylori infection and following atrophic gastritis. However, few studies have examined the association between H. pylori infection and Lactobacillus species in gut microbiota particularly in Japan. Methods: A total of 1,123 adult subjects who participated in a health survey in Hirosaki City were studied...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shadrielle Melijah G Espiritu, Lydia Y Liu, Yulia Rubanova, Vinayak Bhandari, Erle M Holgersen, Lesia M Szyca, Natalie S Fox, Melvin L K Chua, Takafumi N Yamaguchi, Lawrence E Heisler, Julie Livingstone, Jeff Wintersinger, Fouad Yousif, Emilie Lalonde, Alexandre Rouette, Adriana Salcedo, Kathleen E Houlahan, Constance H Li, Vincent Huang, Michael Fraser, Theodorus van der Kwast, Quaid D Morris, Robert G Bristow, Paul C Boutros
The majority of newly diagnosed prostate cancers are slow growing, with a long natural life history. Yet a subset can metastasize with lethal consequences. We reconstructed the phylogenies of 293 localized prostate tumors linked to clinical outcome data. Multiple subclones were detected in 59% of patients, and specific subclonal architectures associate with adverse clinicopathological features. Early tumor development is characterized by point mutations and deletions followed by later subclonal amplifications and changes in trinucleotide mutational signatures...
April 14, 2018: Cell
R Jayashree, P A Nazeem, K Rekha, S Sreelatha, A Thulaseedharan, R Krishnakumar, R G Kala, M Vineetha, P Leda, U Jinu, P Venkatachalam
Natural rubber (cis-1, 4-polyisoprene) is being produced from bark laticifer cells of Hevea brasiliensis and the popular high latex yielding Indian rubber clones are easily prone to onset of tapping panel dryness syndrome (TPD) which is considered as a physiological syndrome affecting latex production either partially or completely. This report describes an efficient protocol for development of transgenic rubber plants by over-expression of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Co-enzyme A reductase 1 (hmgr1) gene which is considered as rate limiting factor for latex biosynthesis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
April 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
S A Metzger, L L Hernandez, J H Skarlupka, G Suen, T M Walker, P L Ruegg
The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the influence of sampling technique and exposure to different bedding types on the milk microbiome of healthy primiparous cows. Primiparous Holstein cows (n = 20) with no history of clinical mastitis or monthly somatic cell counts >150,000 cells/mL were selected for this study. From each enrolled cow, a composite milk sample was aseptically collected from all 4 mammary quarters (individual quarter somatic cell counts <100,000 cells/mL), 1 individual quarter milk sample was collected using conventional aseptic technique, and 2 individual quarter milk samples were collected directly from the gland cistern using a needle and vacuum tube...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Guigao Lin, Kuo Zhang, Rongxue Peng, Yanxi Han, Jiehong Xie, Jinming Li
Genome-edited human cell lines are important resources for producing quality control materials for clinical molecular genetic testing. Generating cell lines with defined mutations through homology-directed repair-based methods are inefficient and can lead to unwanted insertions and deletions in the target loci. Nonhomologous end joining in the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 (Cas9) system was harnessed to generate genome-engineered cell lines harboring target mutations...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
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