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Primordial germ cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101336/regulatory-elements-and-transcriptional-control-of-chicken-vasa-homologue-cvh-promoter-in-chicken-primordial-germ-cells
#1
So Dam Jin, Bo Ram Lee, Young Sun Hwang, Hong Jo Lee, Jong Seop Rim, Jae Yong Han
BACKGROUND: Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of functional gametes, have distinct characteristics and exhibit several unique molecular mechanisms to maintain pluripotency and germness in comparison to somatic cells. They express germ cell-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) by modulating tissue-specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements. Studies on gene structures of chicken vasa homologue (CVH), a chicken RNA binding protein, involved in temporal and spatial regulation are thus important not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate germ cell fate, but also for practical applications of primordial germ cells...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096217/high-throughput-analysis-reveals-novel-maternal-germline-rnas-crucial-for-primordial-germ-cell-preservation-and-proper-migration
#2
Dawn A Owens, Amanda M Butler, Tristan H Aguero, Karen M Newman, Derek Van Booven, Mary Lou King
During oogenesis, hundreds of maternal RNAs are selectively localized to the animal or vegetal pole, including determinants of somatic and germline fates. Although microarray analysis has identified localized determinants, it is not comprehensive and is limited to known transcripts. Here, we utilized high-throughput RNA-sequencing analysis to comprehensively interrogate animal and vegetal pole RNAs in the fully grown Xenopus laevis oocyte. We identified 411 (198 annotated) and 27 (15 annotated) enriched mRNAs at the vegetal and animal pole, respectively...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089945/zearalenone-exposure-impairs-ovarian-primordial-follicle-formation-via-down-regulation-of-lhx8-expression-in-vitro
#3
Guo-Liang Zhang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Yan-Zhong Feng, Bo Li, Ya-Peng Li, Fan Yang, Charles Martin Nyachoti, Wei Shen, Shi-Duo Sun, Lan Li
Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced as a secondary metabolite by numerous species of Fusarium. Previous work showed that ZEA had a negative impact on domestic animals with regard to reproduction. The adverse effects and the mechanisms of ZEA on mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis remain largely unknown, particularly its effect on primordial follicle formation. Thus, we investigated the biological effects of ZEA exposure on murine ovarian germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly...
January 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078450/genome-wide-methylation-profiles-in-primary-intracranial-germ-cell-tumors-indicate-a-primordial-germ-cell-origin-for-germinomas
#4
Shintaro Fukushima, Satoshi Yamashita, Hisato Kobayashi, Hirokazu Takami, Kohei Fukuoka, Taishi Nakamura, Kai Yamasaki, Yuko Matsushita, Hiromi Nakamura, Yasushi Totoki, Mamoru Kato, Tomonari Suzuki, Kazuhiko Mishima, Takaaki Yanagisawa, Akitake Mukasa, Nobuhito Saito, Masayuki Kanamori, Toshihiro Kumabe, Teiji Tominaga, Motoo Nagane, Toshihiko Iuchi, Koji Yoshimoto, Masahiro Mizoguchi, Kaoru Tamura, Keiichi Sakai, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Kiyotaka Yokogami, Hideo Takeshima, Yonehiro Kanemura, Masahide Matsuda, Akira Matsumura, Kazuhiko Kurozumi, Keisuke Ueki, Masahiro Nonaka, Akio Asai, Nobutaka Kawahara, Yuichi Hirose, Tatusya Takayama, Yoichi Nakazato, Yoshitaka Narita, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Masao Matsutani, Toshikazu Ushijima, Ryo Nishikawa, Koichi Ichimura
Intracranial germ cell tumors (iGCTs) are the second most common brain tumors among children under 14 in Japan. The World Health Organization classification recognizes several subtypes of iGCTs, which are conventionally subclassified into pure germinoma or non-germinomatous GCTs. Recent exhaustive genomic studies showed that mutations of the genes involved in the MAPK and/or PI3K pathways are common in iGCTs; however, the mechanisms of how different subtypes develop, often as a mixed-GCT, are unknown. To elucidate the pathogenesis of iGCTs, we investigated 61 GCTs of various subtypes by genome-wide DNA methylation profiling...
January 11, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073824/a-drosophila-toolkit-for-defining-gene-function-in-spermatogenesis
#5
Nicole A Siddall, Gary R Hime
Expression profiling and genomic sequencing methods enable the accumulation of vast quantities of data that relate to expression of genes during the maturation of male germ cells from primordial germ cells to spermatozoa, and potential mutations that underlie male infertility. However, determination of gene function in specific aspects of spermatogenesis or linking abnormal gene function with infertility remain rate limiting, as even in an era of CRISPR analysis of gene function in mammalian models, this still requires considerable resources and time...
January 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070859/mouse-bone-marrow-vsels-exhibit-differentiation-into-three-embryonic-germ-lineages-and-germ-hematopoietic-cells-in-culture
#6
Ambreen Shaikh, Sandhya Anand, Sona Kapoor, Ranita Ganguly, Deepa Bhartiya
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) have been reported in various adult tissues, express pluripotent and primordial germ cells (PGCs) specific markers, are mobilized under stress/disease conditions, give rise to tissue committed progenitors and thus help regenerate and maintain homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro differentiation potential of VSELs using a quantitative approach. VSELs were collected from mouse bone marrow after 4 days of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 150 mg/Kg) treatment, further enriched by size based filtration and cultured on a feeder support in the presence of specific differentiation media...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065608/quantitative-differences-in-a-single-maternal-factor-determine-survival-probabilities-among-drosophila-germ-cells
#7
Maija Slaidina, Ruth Lehmann
Germ cell death occurs in many species [1-3] and has been proposed as a mechanism by which the fittest, strongest, or least damaged germ cells are selected for transmission to the next generation. However, little is known about how the choice is made between germ cell survival and death. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that regulate germ cell survival during embryonic development in Drosophila. We find that the decision to die is a germ cell-intrinsic process linked to quantitative differences in germ plasm inheritance, such that higher germ plasm inheritance correlates with higher primordial germ cell (PGC) survival probability...
January 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059165/conserved-role-of-ovo-in-germline-development-in-mouse-and-drosophila
#8
Makoto Hayashi, Yuko Shinozuka, Shuji Shigenobu, Masanao Sato, Michihiko Sugimoto, Seiji Ito, Kuniya Abe, Satoru Kobayashi
Ovo, which encodes a transcription factor with Zn-finger domains, is evolutionarily conserved among animals. In Drosophila, in addition to its zygotic function for egg production, maternal ovo activity is required in primordial germ cells (PGCs) for expression of germline genes such as vasa and nanos. In this study, we found that maternal Ovo accumulates in PGC nuclei during embryogenesis. In these cells, ovo serves a dual function: activation of genes expressed predominantly in PGCs, and conversely suppression of somatic genes...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057792/a-novel-view-of-the-adult-stem-cell-compartment-from-the-perspective-of-a-quiescent-population-of-very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Janina Ratajczak, Malwina Suszynska, Donald M Miller, Magda Kucia, Dong-Myung Shin
Evidence has accumulated that adult hematopoietic tissues and other organs contain a population of dormant stem cells (SCs) that are more primitive than other, already restricted, monopotent tissue-committed SCs (TCSCs). These observations raise several questions, such as the developmental origin of these cells, their true pluripotent or multipotent nature, which surface markers they express, how they can be efficiently isolated from adult tissues, and what role they play in the adult organism. The phenotype of these cells and expression of some genes characteristic of embryonic SCs, epiblast SCs, and primordial germ cells suggests their early-embryonic deposition in developing tissues as precursors of adult SCs...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057262/cooperation-between-t-box-factors-regulates-the-continuous-segregation-of-germ-layers-during-vertebrate-embryogenesis
#10
G E Gentsch, R S Monteiro, J C Smith
A wild-type vertebrate embryo first generates its head and then extends its main body axis by successively appending trunk and tail. This rostro-caudal (head-to-tail) development is initiated by a set of morphogenetic movements known as gastrulation that recruits multipotent cells into one of the three morphologically distinct germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These primordial tissues go on to form complementary sets of connective tissues and organs to build the head and at least some of the trunk...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052023/spermatogonial-stem-cells-and-progenitors-are-refractory-to-reprogramming-to-pluripotency-by-the-transcription-factors-oct3-4-c-myc-sox2-and-klf4
#11
Sébastien Corbineau, Bruno Lassalle, Maelle Givelet, Inès Souissi-Sarahoui, Virginie Firlej, Paul Henri Romeo, Isabelle Allemand, Lydia Riou, Pierre Fouchet
The male germinal lineage, which is defined as unipotent, produces sperm through spermatogenesis. However, embryonic primordial germ cells and postnatal spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can change their fate and convert to pluripotency in culture when they are not controlled by the testicular microenvironment. The mechanisms underlying these reprogramming processes are poorly understood. Testicular germ cell tumors, including teratoma, share some molecular characteristics with pluripotent cells, suggesting that cancer could result from an abnormal differentiation of primordial germ cells or from an abnormal conversion of SCCs to pluripotency in the testis...
December 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045072/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-generation-from-a-man-carrying-a-complex-chromosomal-rearrangement-as-a-genetic-model-for-infertility-studies
#12
Aurélie Mouka, Vincent Izard, Gérard Tachdjian, Sophie Brisset, Frank Yates, Anne Mayeur, Loïc Drévillon, Rafika Jarray, Philippe Leboulch, Leila Maouche-Chrétien, Lucie Tosca
Despite progress in human reproductive biology, the cause of male infertility often remains unknown, due to the lack of appropriate and convenient in vitro models of meiosis. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the cells of infertile patients could provide a gold standard model for generating primordial germ cells and studying their development and the process of spermatogenesis. We report the characterization of a complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) in an azoospermic patient, and the successful generation of specific-iPSCs from PBMC-derived erythroblasts...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039620/primordial-germ-cell-differentiation-of-nuclear-transfer-embryonic-stem-cells-using-surface-modified-electroconductive-scaffolds
#13
Tarlan Eslami-Arshaghi, Saeid Vakilian, Ehsan Seyedjafari, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Masoud Soleimani, Mohammad Salehi
A combination of nanotopographical cues and surface modification of collagen and fibronectin is a potential platform in primordial germ cells (PGCs) differentiation. In the present study, the synergistic effect of nanotopography and surface modification on differentiation of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (nt-ESCs) toward PGC lineage was investigated. In order to achieve this goal, poly-anyline (PANi) was mix within poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). Afterward, the random composite mats were fabricated using PLLA and PANi mix solution...
December 30, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002522/primary-retroperitoneal-seminoma-embryology-histopathology-and-treatment-particularities
#14
Constantin Virgil Gîngu, Mihaela Mihai, Cătălin Baston, Mugurel Alexandru Crăsneanu, Alexandru Vladimir Dick, Vlad Olaru, Ioanel Sinescu
INTRODUCTION: Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999196/chir99021-combined-with-retinoic-acid-promotes-the-differentiation-of-primordial-germ-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#15
Tingting Cheng, Kui Zhai, Yan Chang, Guidong Yao, Jiahuan He, Fang Wang, Huijuan Kong, Hang Xin, Huiwen Wang, Meng Jin, Bing Gong, Lei Gu, Zhiguang Yang, Yanyun Wu, Guangju Ji, Yingpu Sun
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent as a desirable experimental model as well as a potential strategy for treating male infertility. Here, we developed a simple and feasible method for differentiation of PGCs from hESCs by using CHIR99021 (an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3) and retinoic acid (RA). We firstly found that the deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) protein can be detected in 3 d CHIR99021 plus 9 d retinoic acid treated cultures and 12 d CHIR99021 plus retinoic acid co-treated cultures, but not expressed in single CHIR99021 treated cultures, single retinoic acid treated cultures, as well as 3 d retinoic acid plus 9 d CHIR99021 treated cultures...
December 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997820/germ-cells-get-by-with-a-little-cannibalistic-help-from-their-friends
#16
Shefali Krishna, Michael Overholtzer
During development, primordial germ cells (PGCs) navigate a complex journey to generate the germline. In a recent paper in Nature Cell Biology, Nance and colleagues (Abdu et al., 2016) have discovered an unexpected step along the way: PGCs get cut in half by endodermal cells.
December 19, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990704/differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-stage-specific-embryonic-antigen-1-positive-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-male-germ-cells
#17
Reza Shirazi, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Masoud Soleimani, Karim Nayernia, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani
Studies published in recent years have changed the outlook on sterility and germ cell development by producing gametes from stem cells. In present study, a novel approach on differentiation of bone marrow-derived stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 positive (SSEA-1(+) ) pluripotent stem cells into male germ cells has been addressed. SSEA-1(+) stem cells were separated from murine bone marrow using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) system and propagated on a feeder layer cells. To evaluate the pluripotency characteristic of the purified cells, they were differentiated toward cells of three germ layers...
December 19, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983647/critical-function-of-prdm2-in-the-neoplastic-growth-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumors
#18
Erika Di Zazzo, Carola Porcile, Silvia Bartollino, Bruno Moncharmont
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) derive from primordial germ cells. Their maturation is blocked at different stages, reflecting histological tumor subtypes. A common genetic alteration in TGCT is a deletion of the chromosome 1 short arm, where the PRDM2 gene, belonging to the Positive Regulatory domain gene (PRDM) family, is located. Expression of PRDM2 gene is shifted in different human tumors, where the expression of the two principal protein forms coded by PRDM2 gene, RIZ1 and RIZ2, is frequently unbalanced...
December 14, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981799/expression-of-epithelial-and-mesenchymal-differentiation-markers-in-the-early-human-gonadal-development
#19
Vlatka Martinovic, Tanja Vukusic Pusic, Ivana Restovic, Ivana Bocina, Natalija Filipovic, Mirna Saraga-Babic, Katarina Vukojevic
Expressions of cytokeratin 8 (CK8), vimentin, nestin and alpha-smooth-muscle-actin (alpha-SMA) were analyzed in the developing gonads of 12, 5-9 week old (W) human conceptuses by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. During the investigated period, the number of CK8 positive cells increased from 56% to 92% in the gonadal surface epithelium, from 50% to 60% in the stroma, and from 23% to 42% in the medulla. In the early fetal period, the cell expression of CK8 increased in all gonadal parts, whereas primordial germ cells (PGC) remained negative...
December 16, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975273/localization-in-oogenesis-of-maternal-regulators-of-embryonic-development
#20
Matias Escobar-Aguirre, Yaniv M Elkouby, Mary C Mullins
Cell polarity generates intracellular asymmetries and functional regionalization in tissues and morphogenetic processes. Cell polarity in development often relies on mechanisms of RNA localization to specific subcellular domains to define the identity of future developing tissues. The totipotent egg of most animals illustrates in a grand way the importance of cell polarity and RNA localization in regulating multiple crucial developmental events. The polarization of the egg arises during its development in oogenesis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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