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Primordial germ cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809025/isolation-and-characterization-of-chicken-primordial-germ-cells-and-their-application-in-transgenesis
#1
Jae Yong Han, Bo Ram Lee
Primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of functional gametes, offer great promise for the use of genetic resources and transgenesis in chickens. PGCs can be isolated from the developing embryo at diverse early stages and are subsequently expandable in vitro. In vitro proliferating chicken PGCs can facilitate the production of efficient germline chimeras and transgenic chickens. Here, we describe methods to isolate and characterize PGCs from chicken embryos and their application to transgenesis.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796235/development-of-fertile-mouse-oocytes-from-mitotic-germ-cells-in-vitro
#2
Kanako Morohaku, Yuji Hirao, Yayoi Obata
Mammalian fetal ovaries contain numerous primordial germ cells (PGCs), although few mature oocytes are obtained from females, owing to apoptosis and follicle atresia. The regulatory mechanisms underlying oogenesis/folliculogenesis remain unknown. Development of methods for obtaining mature oocytes from PGCs in fetal ovaries in vitro could contribute to clarifying these mechanisms. The failure of follicle assembly has been found to be the most challenging aspect in conventional culture conditions. Recently, we established novel culture conditions that enable successful follicle assembly, sustaining interactions between the oocyte and somatic cells, and, in turn, promoting oocyte growth and maturation...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794128/dynamic-changes-in-h1-subtype-composition-during-epigenetic-reprogramming
#3
Annalisa Izzo, Céline Ziegler-Birling, Peter W S Hill, Lydia Brondani, Petra Hajkova, Maria-Elena Torres-Padilla, Robert Schneider
In mammals, histone H1 consists of a family of related proteins, including five replication-dependent (H1.1-H1.5) and two replication-independent (H1.10 and H1.0) subtypes, all expressed in somatic cells. To systematically study the expression and function of H1 subtypes, we generated knockin mouse lines in which endogenous H1 subtypes are tagged. We focused on key developmental periods when epigenetic reprogramming occurs: early mouse embryos and primordial germ cell development. We found that dynamic changes in H1 subtype expression and localization are tightly linked with chromatin remodeling and might be crucial for transitions in chromatin structure during reprogramming...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771225/the-ovarian-reserve-is-depleted-during-puberty-in-a-hormonally-driven-process-dependent-on-the-pro-apoptotic-protein-bmf
#4
Seng H Liew, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, Andreas Strasser, Jock K Findlay, Karla J Hutt
In females, germ cells are maintained in ovarian structures called primordial follicles. The number of primordial follicles in the ovarian reserve is a critical determinant of the length of the fertile lifespan. Despite this significance, knowledge of the precise physiological mechanisms that regulate primordial follicle number is lacking. In this study we show that a wave of primordial follicle depletion occurs during the transition to adulthood in mice. We demonstrate that this sudden and dramatic loss of primordial follicles is hormonally triggered and identify the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF), as essential for this process, implicating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway as a key mechanism...
August 3, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765643/mir-202-5p-is-a-novel-germ-plasm-specific-microrna-in-zebrafish
#5
Jing Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Jin, Peng Jia, Kuntong Jia, Meisheng Yi
Gametogenesis is a complicated biological process by which sperm and egg are produced for genetic transmission between generations. In many animals, the germline is segregated from the somatic lineage in early embryonic development through the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of gametes for reproduction and fertility. In some species, such as fruit fly and zebrafish, PGCs are determined by the maternally provided germ plasm which contains various RNAs and proteins. Here, we identified a germ plasm/PGC-specific microRNA miR-202-5p for the first time in zebrafish...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760667/cell-adhesion-molecules-expression-pattern-indicates-that-somatic-cells-arbitrate-gonadal-sex-of-differentiating-bipotential-fetal-mouse-gonad
#6
Rafal P Piprek, Michal Kolasa, Dagmara Podkowa, Malgorzata Kloc, Jacek Z Kubiak
Unlike other organ anlagens, the primordial gonad is sexually bipotential in all animals. In mouse, the bipotential gonad differentiates into testis or ovary depending on the genetic sex (XY or XX) of the fetus. During gonad development cells segregate, depending on genetic sex, into distinct compartments: testis cords and interstitium form in XY gonad, and germ cell cysts and stroma in XX gonad. However, our knowledge of mechanisms governing gonadal sex differentiation remains very vague. Because it is known that adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a key role in organogenesis, we suspected that diversified expression of CAMs should also play a crucial role in gonad development...
July 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757909/metabolic-reprogramming-autophagy-and-reactive-oxygen-species-are-necessary-for-primordial-germ-cell-reprogramming-into-pluripotency
#7
D Sainz de la Maza, A Moratilla, V Aparicio, C Lorca, Y Alcaina, D Martín, M P De Miguel
Cellular reprogramming is accompanied by a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) toward glycolysis. Previous results from our laboratory showed that hypoxia alone is able to reprogram primordial germ cells (PGCs) into pluripotency and that this action is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). As HIF1 exerts a myriad of actions by upregulating several hundred genes, to ascertain whether the metabolic switch toward glycolysis is solely responsible for reprogramming, PGCs were cultured in the presence of a pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) activator, or glycolysis was promoted by manipulating PPARγ...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754907/mapping-the-chromatin-landscape-and-blimp1-transcriptional-targets-that-regulate-trophoblast-differentiation
#8
Andrew C Nelson, Arne W Mould, Elizabeth K Bikoff, Elizabeth J Robertson
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) give rise to specialized cell types within the placenta. However, the regulatory mechanisms that guide trophoblast cell fate decisions during placenta development remain ill defined. Here we exploited ATAC-seq and transcriptional profiling strategies to describe dynamic changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility during TSC differentiation. We detect significantly increased chromatin accessibility at key genes upregulated as TSCs exit from the stem cell state. However, downregulated gene expression is not simply due to the loss of chromatin accessibility in proximal regions...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754603/a-pilgrim-s-progress-seeking-meaning-in-primordial-germ-cell-migration
#9
Andrea V Cantú, Diana J Laird
Comparative studies of primordial germ cell (PGC) development across organisms in many phyla reveal surprising diversity in the route of migration, timing and underlying molecular mechanisms, suggesting that the process of migration itself is conserved. However, beyond the perfunctory transport of cellular precursors to their later arising home of the gonads, does PGC migration serve a function? Here we propose that the process of migration plays an additional role in quality control, by eliminating PGCs incapable of completing migration as well as through mechanisms that favor PGCs capable of responding appropriately to migration cues...
July 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742996/how-primordial-germ-cells-destroy-somatic-signals
#10
Lynn Cooley
The Germ Cell-Less (GCL) protein is a key regulator of primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in Drosophila embryos. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Pae et al. (2017) show that GCL blocks somatic cell fate by specifically destroying the Torso Receptor Tyrosine Kinase.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736154/retinoic-acid-induces-differentiation-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-embryonic-stem-cells-into-germ-cells
#11
Syed Mohmad Shah, Suresh Kumar Singla, Prabhat Palta, Radhey Sham Manik, Manmohan Singh Chauhan
Development of precise and reproducible culture system for in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ cells counts as a major leap forward for understanding not only the remarkable process of gametogenesis, otherwise obscured by limited availability of precursor primordial germ cells (PGCs), but in finally treating the catastrophic infertility. Taking into account the significant role of retinoic acid (RA) during in vivo gametogenesis, we designed the present study to investigate the effects of its stimulation on directing the differentiation of ES cells into germ cells...
July 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731265/application-of-dead-end-knockout-zebrafish-as-recipients-of-germ-cell-transplantation
#12
Qian Li, Wataru Fujii, Kunihiko Naito, Goro Yoshizaki
Germ cell transplantation is a promising technology for the propagation of endangered or valuable fishes. In this technique, sterile male and female recipient fish are injected with donor germ cells so they can produce viable gametes derived from the donor cells. The dead end (dnd) gene is involved in the migration of primordial germ cells; therefore, dnd-knockout zebrafish are expected to be germ-cell-free, making them suitable recipients for germ cell transplantation. dnd mutants were produced by microinjecting 2 nl of 10 ng/μl cRNAs encoding zinc finger nucleases against dnd into the blastodisc of zebrafish embryos before the cell cleavage stage...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716939/distinct-requirements-for-energy-metabolism-in-mouse-primordial-germ-cells-and-their-reprogramming-to-embryonic-germ-cells
#13
Yohei Hayashi, Kei Otsuka, Masayuki Ebina, Kaori Igarashi, Asuka Takehara, Mitsuyo Matsumoto, Akio Kanai, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Tomoyoshi Soga, Yasuhisa Matsui
Primordial germ cells (PGCs), undifferentiated embryonic germ cells, are the only cells that have the ability to become gametes and to reacquire totipotency upon fertilization. It is generally understood that the development of PGCs proceeds through the expression of germ cell-specific transcription factors and characteristic epigenomic changes. However, little is known about the properties of PGCs at the metabolite and protein levels, which are directly responsible for the control of cell function. Here, we report the distinct energy metabolism of PGCs compared with that of embryonic stem cells...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712289/comprehensive-proteomic-analysis-of-pgc7-interacting-proteins
#14
Liu Hongliang, Zhang Lei, Wei Qing, Shi Zhaopeng, Shi Xiaoyan, Du Juan, Huang Chenyang, Zhang Yong, Guo Zekun
Primordial germ cell 7 (PGC7), a maternal factor essential for early development, plays a critical role in the regulation of DNA methylation, transcriptional repression, chromatin condensation, and cell division and the maintenance of cell pluripotentiality. Despite the fundamental roles of PGC7 in these cellular processes, only a few molecular and functional interactions of PGC7 have been reported. Here, a streptavidin-biotin affinity purification technique combined with LC-MS/MS was used to analyze potential proteins that interact with PGC7...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711945/the-molecular-characterization-of-porcine-egg-precursor-cells
#15
Te-Sha Tsai, Jacqueline Johnson, Yvonne White, Justin C St John
Female-factor infertility can be caused by poor oocyte quality and depleted ovarian reserves. Egg precursor cells (EPCs), isolated from the ovarian cortex, have the potential to be used to overcome female infertility. We aimed to define the origins of EPCs by analyzing their gene expression profiles and mtDNA content using a mini-pig model. We characterized FAC-sorted DDX4+-derived porcine EPCs by performing RNA-sequencing and determined that they utilize pathways important for cell cycle and proliferation, which supports the existence of adult mitotically active oogonial cells...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695959/migration-behavior-of-pgcs-and-asymmetrical-gonad-formation-in-pond-smelt-hypomesus-nipponensis
#16
Eisuke Takahashi, Yu Shimizu, Hirotaro Urushibata, Yutaka Kawakami, Katsutoshi Arai, Etsuro Yamaha
In teleost fish, the gonad originates from primordial germ cells (PGCs) and somatic cells. However, it is not clear whether the final gonadal position is determined by anteroposterior and dextrosinistral differentiation of endodermal organs or by the distribution of PGCs. The pond smelt has a transparent body even after hatching, enabling clear observation of PGC distribution and endodermal differentiation. Here, we first examined normal embryonic development to define the spatio-temporal characteristics of our developmental model...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691729/in-vitro-differentiation-of-primordial-germ-cells-and-oocyte-like-cells-from-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
José J N Costa, Glaucinete B Souza, Maria A A Soares, Regislane P Ribeiro, Robert van den Hurk, José R V Silva
Infertility is the result of failure due to an organic disorder of the reproductive organs, especially their gametes. Recently, much progress has been made on generating germ cells, including oocytes, from various types of stem cells. This review focuses on advances in female germ cell differentiation from different kinds of stem cells, with emphasis on embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of the derivation of female germ cells from several types of stem cells are also highlighted, as well as the ability of stem cells to generate mature and functional female gametes...
July 10, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687666/domain-specific-control-of-germ-cell-polarity-and-migration-by-multifunction-tre1-gpcr
#18
Michelle G LeBlanc, Ruth Lehmann
The migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) from their place of origin to the embryonic gonad is an essential reproductive feature in many animal species. In Drosophila melanogaster, a single G protein-coupled receptor, Trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1), mediates germ cell polarization at the onset of active migration and directs subsequent migration of PGCs through the midgut primordium. How these different aspects of cell behavior are coordinated through a single receptor is not known. We demonstrate that two highly conserved domains, the E/N/DRY and NPxxY motifs, have overlapping and unique functions in Tre1...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673325/maternal-intake-of-high-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-diet-during-pregnancy-causes-transgenerational-increase-in-mammary-cancer-risk-in-mice
#19
Nguyen M Nguyen, Fabia de Oliveira Andrade, Lu Jin, Xiyuan Zhang, Madisa Macon, M Idalia Cruz, Carlos Benitez, Bryan Wehrenberg, Chao Yin, Xiao Wang, Jianhua Xuan, Sonia de Assis, Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
BACKGROUND: Maternal and paternal high-fat (HF) diet intake before and/or during pregnancy increases mammary cancer risk in several preclinical models. We studied if maternal consumption of a HF diet that began at a time when the fetal primordial germ cells travel to the genital ridge and start differentiating into germ cells would result in a transgenerational inheritance of increased mammary cancer risk. METHODS: Pregnant C57BL/6NTac mouse dams were fed either a control AIN93G or isocaloric HF diet composed of corn oil high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids between gestational days 10 and 20...
July 3, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669364/expression-of-markers-for-germ-cells-and-oocytes-in-cow-dermal-fibroblast-treated-with-5-azacytidine-and-cultured-in-differentiation-medium-containing-bmp2-bmp4-or-follicular-fluid
#20
José Jackson do Nascimento Costa, Glaucinete Borges de Souza, Joyla Maria Pires Bernardo, Regislane Pinto Ribeiro, José Renato de Souza Passos, Francisco Taiã Gomes Bezerra, Márcia Viviane Alves Saraiva, José Roberto Viana Silva
This study aims to investigate the effect 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) during induction of pluripotency in bovine fibroblasts and to evaluate the effects of BMP2, BMP4 or follicular fluid in the differentiation of reprogrammed fibroblasts in primordial germ cells and oocytes. It also analysis the mRNA levels for OCT4, NANOG, REX, SOX2, VASA, DAZL, cKIT, SCP3, ZPA and GDF9 after culturing 5-Aza treated fibroblasts in the different tested medium. Dermal fibroblasts were cultured and exposed to 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 μM of 5-Aza for 18 h, 36 h or 72 h...
June 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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