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Primordial germ cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929986/the-effect-of-temperature-on-the-initial-development-of-brycon-amazonicus-spix-agassiz-1829-as-tool-for-micromanipulation-of-embryos
#1
Regiane Cristina da Silva, Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, José Augusto Senhorini, Maria do Carmo Faria Paes, Fernanda Nogueira Valentin, Takafumi Fujimoto, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, George Shigueki Yasui, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
Primordial germ cell (PGC) transplant is a promising tool in aquaculture; however, successful use of this technique requires in depth knowledge of the early stages of embryo and larval development. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of different temperatures (22, 26, and 30°C) on the early development of B. amazonicus. The newly fertilized eggs were distributed into tanks with controlled temperature and oxygenation. Samples were collected at pre-established times and analysed under light and fluorescence microscopy...
September 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928204/bone-morphogenetic-protein-and-retinoic-acid-synergistically-specify-female-germ-cell-fate-in-mice
#2
Hidetaka Miyauchi, Hiroshi Ohta, So Nagaoka, Fumio Nakaki, Kotaro Sasaki, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Yukihiro Yabuta, Tomonori Nakamura, Takuya Yamamoto, Mitinori Saitou
The mechanism for sex determination in mammalian germ cells remains unclear. Here, we reconstitute the female sex determination in mouse germ cells in vitro under a defined condition without the use of gonadal somatic cells. We show that retinoic acid (RA) and its key effector, STRA8, are not sufficient to induce the female germ-cell fate. In contrast, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and RA synergistically induce primordial germ cells (PGCs)/PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into fetal primary oocytes...
September 19, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915715/epigenetic-regulation-during-the-differentiation-of-stem-cells-to-germ-cells
#3
REVIEW
Yuan-Chao Sun, Yong-Yong Wang, Wei Ge, Shun-Feng Cheng, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen
Gametogenesis is an essential process to ensure the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next. It also provides a mechanism by which genetic evolution can take place. Although the genome of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is exactly the same with somatic cells within an organism, there are significant differences between their developments. For example, PGCs eventually undergo meiosis to become functional haploid gametes, and prior to that they undergo epigenetic imprinting which greatly alter their genetic regulation...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904585/is-it-the-monster-teratoma-or-simply-meningomyelocele-our-experience-of-histological-surprise
#4
Suyash Singh, Jayesh Sardhara, Pradeep Sharma, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Kuntal Kanti Das, Kamlesh S Bhaisora, Anant Mehrotra, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari, Raj Kumar
Teratomas are one of the most common tumors in newborn with excellent prognosis arises from totipotent primordial germ cells harboring two or three germ cell layers. The tumor has been titled "Great masquerade." The teratomas of sacrococcygeal region present with lower limb weakness, urinary or bowel obstruction, and swelling at lower back or intrauterine mass in ultrasound or complicated delivery. A 2-month-old male child presented with complaints of swelling over lumbosacral region with discharging punctum since birth...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903906/the-roles-of-fanconi-anemia-genes-in-the-regulation-of-follicle-development
#5
Yan He, Meng-Nv Xie, Li Yu, Zhen Ren, Fang Zhu, Chun Fu
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive autosomal or X-linked genetic disease caused by the mutations of the FA genes. The FA genes are involved in the homologous recombination repair processes of damaged interstrand crosslinks in DNA. Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is commonly observed in female FA patients and in mice of experimental FA models with serious deficiency of germ cells, suggesting that FA genes could play an important role(s) in follicle development in mammals. Studies have showed that FA genes play significant functions in promoting the proliferation of primordial germ cell, maintaining normal meiosis of the oocytes, participating in the gonadotropin regulation of oocytes and granular cell growth, and other aspects of regulation of follicular development...
June 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885975/kinesin-superfamily-protein-kif26b-links-wnt5a-ror-signaling-to-the-control-of-cell-and-tissue-behaviors-in-vertebrates
#6
Michael W Susman, Edith P Karuna, Ryan C Kunz, Taranjit S Gujral, Andrea V Cantú, Shannon S Choi, Brigette Y Jong, Kyoko Okada, Michael K Scales, Jennie Hum, Linda S Hu, Marc W Kirschner, Ryuichi Nishinakamura, Soichiro Yamada, Diana J Laird, Li-En Jao, Steven P Gygi, Michael E Greenberg, Hsin-Yi Henry Ho
Wnt5a-Ror signaling constitutes a developmental pathway crucial for embryonic tissue morphogenesis, reproduction and adult tissue regeneration, yet the molecular mechanisms by which the Wnt5a-Ror pathway mediates these processes are largely unknown. Using a proteomic screen, we identify the kinesin superfamily protein Kif26b as a downstream target of the Wnt5a-Ror pathway. Wnt5a-Ror, through a process independent of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin-dependent pathway, regulates the cellular stability of Kif26b by inducing its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...
September 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875375/germ-cell-line-during-the-seasonal-sexual-rest-of-clams-finding-niches-of-cells-for-gonad-renewal
#7
Liliana Milani, Andrea Pecci, Fabrizio Ghiselli, Marco Passamonti, Maurizio Lazzari, Valeria Franceschini, Maria Gabriella Maurizii
Reconstitution and renewal of tissues are key topics in developmental biology. In this brief work, we analyzed the wintry spent phase of the reproductive cycle in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia, Veneridae) in order to study the gonad rebuilding that in this species occurs at the beginning of the warmer months. We labeled VASA homolog protein-a germ cell marker-and compared the histological observations of the spent phase with those of the previously analyzed gametogenic phase. In R. philippinarum, during the reproductive season, most of the body mass is represented by sack-like structures (acini) full of developing gametes...
September 5, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873404/fibroblast-growth-factor-signaling-is-required-for-early-somatic-gonad-development-in-zebrafish
#8
Dena M Leerberg, Kaori Sano, Bruce W Draper
The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870987/maternal-dead-end-1-promotes-translation-of-nanos1-through-binding-the-eif3-complex
#9
Tristan Aguero, Zhigang Jin, Sandip Chorghade, Auinash Kalsotra, Mary Lou King, Jing Yang
In the developing embryo, primordial germ cells (PGCs) represent the exclusive progenitors of the gametes, and their loss results in adult infertility. During early development, PGCs are exposed to numerous signals that specify somatic cell fates. To prevent somatic differentiation, PGCs must transiently silence their genome, an early developmental process that requires Nanos activity. However, it is unclear how nanos translation is regulated in developing embryos. We report here that translation of nanos1 after fertilization requires Dead End1 (Dnd1), a vertebrate-specific germline RNA-binding protein...
September 4, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869587/epigenetic-foundations-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-that-recapitulate-in-vivo-pluripotency
#10
Masaki Yagi, Shinya Yamanaka, Yasuhiro Yamada
In mammalian development, dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs in pre-implantation embryos and primordial germ cells and plays a critical role in conferring pluripotency on embryonic cells. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, have been derived and maintained in vitro under culture conditions that include stimulators and inhibitors of extrinsic signaling. Recent advances in stem cell cultivation have opened the possibility of capturing naive pluripotency, which is reminiscent of the pluripotency of inner cell mass cells, in vitro...
September 4, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869544/potential-roles-of-intrinsic-disorder-in-maternal-effect-proteins-involved-in-the-maintenance-of-dna-methylation
#11
Hongliang Liu, Qing Wei, Chenyang Huang, Yong Zhang, Zekun Guo
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that needs to be carefully controlled as a prerequisite for normal early embryogenesis. Compelling evidence now suggests that four maternal-effect proteins, primordial germ cell 7 (PGC7), zinc finger protein 57 (ZFP57), tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) and DNA methyltransferase (cytosine-5) 1 (DNMT1) are involved in the maintenance of DNA methylation. However, it is still not fully understood how these maternal-effect proteins maintain the DNA methylation imprint...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867677/c-x-c-chemokine-receptor-type-4-cxcr4-is-a-key-receptor-for-chicken-primordial-germ-cell-migration
#12
Jeong Hyo Lee, Jeong-Woong Park, Si Won Kim, Joonghoon Park, Tae Sub Park
In mammals, germ cells originate outside of the developing gonads and follow a unique migration pattern through the embryonic tissue toward the genital ridges. Many studies have attempted to identify critical receptors and factors involved in germ cell migration. However, relatively few reports exist on germ cell receptors and chemokines that are involved in germ cell migration in avian species. In the present study, we investigated the specific migratory function of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841213/complete-in-vitro-oogenesis-retrospects-and-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Jun-Jie Wang, Wei Ge, Jing-Cai Liu, Francesca Gioia Klinger, Paul W Dyce, Massimo De Felici, Wei Shen
Precise control of mammalian oogenesis has been a traditional focus of reproductive and developmental biology research. Recently, new reports have introduced the possibility of obtaining functional gametes derived in vitro from stem cells. The potential to produce functional gametes from stem cells has exciting applications for regenerative medicine though still remains challenging. In mammalian females ovulation and fertilization is a privilege reserved for a small number of oocytes. In reality the vast majority of oocytes formed from primordial germ cells (PGCs) will undergo apoptosis, or other forms of cell death...
August 25, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840744/the-evolution-of-chicken-stem-cell-culture-methods
#14
M Farzaneh, F Attari, P E Mozdziak, S E Khoshnam
1. The avian embryo is an excellent model for studying embryology and the production of pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic chickens. Furthermore chicken stem cells have the potential for proliferation and differentiation and emerged as an attractive tool for various cell-based technologies. 2. The objective of these studies is the derivation and culture of these stem cells is the production of transgenic birds for recombinant biomaterials and vaccine manufacture, as well as to gain insight into basic science, including cell tracking, as well as drug and cytotoxicity testing...
August 25, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834535/esrrb-an-estrogen-related-receptor-involved-in-early-development-pluripotency-and-reprogramming
#15
REVIEW
Nicola Festuccia, Nick Owens, Pablo Navarro
Estrogen-related receptor b (Esrrb) is part of a family of three orphan nuclear receptors with broad expression profiles and a generic function in regulating energy metabolism in mammals. However, Esrrb performs specific functions during early mouse development, in pluripotent and multipotent populations of the embryo as well as in primordial germ cells. Moreover, Esrrb also impinges upon the control of self-renewal in embryo-derived stem cells and enhances reprogramming. Here, we review the function of Esrrb with special emphasis on its role in pluripotency...
August 23, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815778/mapk8-regulates-chicken-male-germ-cell-differentiation-through-jnk-signaling-pathway
#16
Yingjie Wang, Yulin Bi, Qisheng Zuo, Wenhui Zhang, Dong Li, Na-Na He, Shaoze Cheng, Ya-Ni Zhang, Bichun Li
The study aims to analyze the key signaling pathways in regulating the process of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). We explored the specific regulating mechanisms of C-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in this process. Interference/overexpression of MAPK8 allows the JNK signaling pathway to be blocked/activated. In Retinoic acid (RA) induced in vitro differentiation assays, the expression of germ cell marker genes, cvh, c-kit, integrin α6 and integrin β1, was observed to upregulate while activating JNK signaling significantly...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809025/isolation-and-characterization-of-chicken-primordial-germ-cells-and-their-application-in-transgenesis
#17
Jae Yong Han, Bo Ram Lee
Primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of functional gametes, offer great promise for the use of genetic resources and transgenesis in chickens. PGCs can be isolated from the developing embryo at diverse early stages and are subsequently expandable in vitro. In vitro proliferating chicken PGCs can facilitate the production of efficient germline chimeras and transgenic chickens. Here, we describe methods to isolate and characterize PGCs from chicken embryos and their application to transgenesis.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796235/development-of-fertile-mouse-oocytes-from-mitotic-germ-cells-in-vitro
#18
Kanako Morohaku, Yuji Hirao, Yayoi Obata
Mammalian fetal ovaries contain numerous primordial germ cells (PGCs), although few mature oocytes are obtained from females, owing to apoptosis and follicle atresia. The regulatory mechanisms underlying oogenesis/folliculogenesis remain unknown. Development of methods for obtaining mature oocytes from PGCs in fetal ovaries in vitro could contribute to clarifying these mechanisms. The failure of follicle assembly has been found to be the most challenging aspect in conventional culture conditions. Recently, we established novel culture conditions that enable successful follicle assembly, sustaining interactions between the oocyte and somatic cells, and, in turn, promoting oocyte growth and maturation...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794128/dynamic-changes-in-h1-subtype-composition-during-epigenetic-reprogramming
#19
Annalisa Izzo, Céline Ziegler-Birling, Peter W S Hill, Lydia Brondani, Petra Hajkova, Maria-Elena Torres-Padilla, Robert Schneider
In mammals, histone H1 consists of a family of related proteins, including five replication-dependent (H1.1-H1.5) and two replication-independent (H1.10 and H1.0) subtypes, all expressed in somatic cells. To systematically study the expression and function of H1 subtypes, we generated knockin mouse lines in which endogenous H1 subtypes are tagged. We focused on key developmental periods when epigenetic reprogramming occurs: early mouse embryos and primordial germ cell development. We found that dynamic changes in H1 subtype expression and localization are tightly linked with chromatin remodeling and might be crucial for transitions in chromatin structure during reprogramming...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771225/the-ovarian-reserve-is-depleted-during-puberty-in-a-hormonally-driven-process-dependent-on-the-pro-apoptotic-protein-bmf
#20
Seng H Liew, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, Andreas Strasser, Jock K Findlay, Karla J Hutt
In females, germ cells are maintained in ovarian structures called primordial follicles. The number of primordial follicles in the ovarian reserve is a critical determinant of the length of the fertile lifespan. Despite this significance, knowledge of the precise physiological mechanisms that regulate primordial follicle number is lacking. In this study we show that a wave of primordial follicle depletion occurs during the transition to adulthood in mice. We demonstrate that this sudden and dramatic loss of primordial follicles is hormonally triggered and identify the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF), as essential for this process, implicating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway as a key mechanism...
August 3, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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