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Primordial germ cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906584/effects-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-beta-signaling-pathway-on-the-differentiation-of-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-into-male-germ-cells
#1
Yani Zhang, Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Dong Li, Wenhui Zhang, Chao Lian, Beibei Tang, Tianrong Xiao, Man Wang, Kehua Wang, Bichun Li
The objectives of the present study were to screen for key gene and signaling pathways involved in the production of male germ cells in poultry and to investigate the effects of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway on the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into male germ cells. The ESCs, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were sorted using flow cytometry for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. Male chicken ESCs were induced using 40 ng/mL of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898696/regulation-of-gonad-morphogenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster-by-btb-family-transcription-factors
#2
Diane Silva, Kenneth W Olsen, Magdalena N Bednarz, Andrew Droste, Christopher P Lenkeit, Edwin Chaharbakhshi, Emily R Temple-Wood, Jennifer C Jemc
During embryogenesis, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) migrate and coalesce to form the early gonad. A failure of the PGCs and SGPs to form a gonad with the proper architecture not only affects germ cell development, but can also lead to infertility. Therefore, it is critical to identify the molecular mechanisms that function within both the PGCs and SGPs to promote gonad morphogenesis. We have characterized the phenotypes of two genes, longitudinals lacking (lola) and ribbon (rib), that are required for the coalescence and compaction of the embryonic gonad in Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897161/remodelling-germ-cells-by-intercellular-cannibalism
#3
Jennifer K Heppert, Bob Goldstein
Work from the early 1980s reported strange lobes protruding from Caenorhabditis elegans germ cell precursors. However, the fate and potential significance of these lobes remained unexplored for decades. Now, neighbouring endodermal cells are shown to sever and digest these lobes, in an unexpected process of 'intercellular cannibalism', which could play an important part in regulating primordial germ cells.
November 29, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896535/generation-of-gene-edited-birds-in-one-generation-using-sperm-transfection-assisted-gene-editing-stage
#4
Caitlin A Cooper, Arjun Challagulla, Kristie A Jenkins, Terry G Wise, Terri E O'Neil, Kirsten R Morris, Mark L Tizard, Timothy J Doran
Generating transgenic and gene edited mammals involves in vitro manipulation of oocytes or single cell embryos. Due to the comparative inaccessibility of avian oocytes and single cell embryos, novel protocols have been developed to produce transgenic and gene edited birds. While these protocols are relatively efficient, they involve two generation intervals before reaching complete somatic and germline expressing transgenic or gene edited birds. Most of this work has been done with chickens, and many protocols require in vitro culturing of primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
November 28, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896428/xci-escaping-gene-kdm5c-contributes-to-ovarian-development-via-downregulating-mir-320a
#5
Yi-Xi Sun, Yi-Xin Zhang, Dan Zhang, Chen-Ming Xu, Song-Chang Chen, Jun-Yu Zhang, Ye-Chun Ruan, Feng Chen, Run-Ju Zhang, Ye-Qing Qian, Yi-Feng Liu, Lu-Yang Jin, Tian-Tian Yu, Hai-Yan Xu, Yu-Qin Luo, Xin-Mei Liu, Fei Sun, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
Mechanisms underlying female gonadal dysgenesis remain unclarified and relatively unstudied. Whether X-chromosome inactivation (XCI)-escaping genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to this condition is currently unknown. We compared 45,X Turner Syndrome women with 46,XX normal women, and investigated differentially expressed miRNAs in Turner Syndrome through plasma miRNA sequencing. We found that miR-320a was consistently upregulated not only in 45,X plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but also in 45,X fetal gonadal tissues...
November 28, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866876/prdm14-drives-oct3-4-recruitment-via-active-demethylation-in-the-transition-from-primed-to-naive-pluripotency
#6
Naoki Okashita, Yoshiaki Suwa, Osamu Nishimura, Nao Sakashita, Mitsutaka Kadota, Go Nagamatsu, Masanori Kawaguchi, Hiroki Kashida, Ayaka Nakajima, Makoto Tachibana, Yoshiyuki Seki
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified from epiblast cells in mice. Genes associated with naive pluripotency are repressed in the transition from inner cell mass to epiblast cells, followed by upregulation after PGC specification. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the reactivation of pluripotency genes are poorly characterized. Here, we exploited the in vitro differentiation of epiblast-like cells (EpiLCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to elucidate the molecular and epigenetic functions of PR domain-containing 14 (PRDM14)...
November 14, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862128/regulation-of-crucial-lncrnas-in-differentiation-of-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-to-spermatogonia-stem-cells
#7
D Li, Y Ji, F Wang, Y Wang, M Wang, C Zhang, W Zhang, Z Lu, C Sun, M F Ahmed, N He, K Jin, S Cheng, Y Wang, Y He, J Song, Y Zhang, B Li
Regulation of crucial lncRNAs involved in differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to spermatogonia stem cells (SSCs) was explored by sequencing the transcriptome of ESCs, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and SSCs with RNA-Seq; analytical bioinformatic methods were used to excavate candidate lncRNAs. We detected expression of candidate lncRNAs in ESCs, PGCs and SSCs and forecasted related target genes. Utilizing wego, david and string, function and protein-protein interactions of target genes were analyzed...
November 14, 2016: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857452/embryonic-development-and-a-quantitative-model-of-programmed-dna-elimination-in-mesocyclops-edax-s-a-forbes-1891-copepoda-cyclopoida
#8
Michelle K Clower, Ashton S Holub, Rebecca T Smith, Grace A Wyngaard
The highly programmed fragmentation of chromosomes and elimination of large amounts of nuclear DNA from the presomatic cell lineages (i.e., chromatin diminution), occurs in the embryos of the freshwater zooplankton Mesocyclops edax (S. A. Forbes, 1891) (Crustacea: Copepoda). The somatic genome is reorganized and reduced to a size five times smaller even though the germline genome remains intact. We present the first comprehensive, quantitative model of DNA content throughout embryogenesis in a copepod that possesses embryonic DNA elimination...
2016: Journal of Crustacean Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834666/proliferation-in-culture-of-primordial-germ-cells-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cell-induction-by-retinoic-acid
#9
Zohreh Makoolati, Mansoureh Movahedin, Mehdi Forouzandeh-Moghadam
An in vitro system that supports primordial germ cells (PGCs) survival and proliferation is useful for enhancement of these cells and efficient transplantation in infertility disorders. One approach is cultivation of PGCs under proper conditions that allow self-renewal and proliferation of PGCs. For this purpose, we compared the effects of different concentrations of retinoic acid (RA), and the effect of PGCs co-culture with STO cells on the proliferation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs)- derived PGCs. One-day-old embryoid body (EB) was cultured for 4 days in simple culture system at the presence of 5 ng/ml BMP4 (SCB group) for PGC induction...
November 10, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831564/skin-derived-stem-cells-as-a-source-of-primordial-germ-cell-and-oocyte-like-cells
#10
REVIEW
Wei Ge, Shun-Feng Cheng, Paul W Dyce, Massimo De Felici, Wei Shen
The skin is a unique organ that contains a variety of stem cells for the maintenance of skin homeostasis and the repair of skin tissues following injury and disease. Skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) constitute a heterogeneous population of stem cells generated in vitro from dermis, which can be cultured as spherical aggregates of cells in suspension culture. Under certain in vitro or in vivo conditions, SDSCs show multipotency and can generate a variety of neural, mesodermal, and endodermal cell types such as neurons, glia, fibroblasts, adipocytes, muscle cells, chondroblasts, osteoblats, and islet β-cell-like cells...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824029/dna-methylation-and-chromatin-accessibility-profiling-of-mouse-and-human-fetal-germ-cells
#11
Hongshan Guo, Boqiang Hu, Liying Yan, Jun Yong, Yan Wu, Yun Gao, Fan Guo, Yu Hou, Xiaoying Fan, Ji Dong, Xiaoye Wang, Xiaohui Zhu, Jie Yan, Yuan Wei, Hongyan Jin, Wenxin Zhang, Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang, Jie Qiao
Chromatin remodeling is important for the epigenetic reprogramming of human primordial germ cells. However, the comprehensive chromatin state has not yet been analyzed for human fetal germ cells (FGCs). Here we use nucleosome occupancy and methylation sequencing method to analyze both the genome-wide chromatin accessibility and DNA methylome at a series of crucial time points during fetal germ cell development in both human and mouse. We find 116 887 and 137 557 nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) in human and mouse FGCs, covering a large set of germline-specific and highly dynamic regulatory genomic elements, such as enhancers...
November 8, 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818689/epigenetic-remodeling-in-male-germline-development
#12
REVIEW
Na Li, Qiaoyan Shen, Jinlian Hua
In mammals, germ cells guarantee the inheritance of genetic and epigenetic information across generations and are the origin of a new organism. During embryo development, the blastocyst is formed in the early stage, is comprised of an inner cell mass which is pluripotent, and could give rise to the embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The inner cell mass undergoes demethylation processes and will reestablish a methylated state that is similar to that of somatic cells later in epiblast stage. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) will be formed very soon and accompanied by the process of genome-wide demethylation...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803193/imprints-and-dppa3-are-bypassed-during-pluripotency-and-differentiation-coupled-methylation-reprogramming-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumors
#13
J Keith Killian, Lambert C J Dorssers, Britton Trabert, Ad J M Gillis, Michael B Cook, Yonghong Wang, Joshua J Waterfall, Holly Stevenson, William I Smith, Natalia Noyes, Parvathy Retnakumar, J Hans Stoop, J Wolter Oosterhuis, Paul S Meltzer, Katherine A McGlynn, Leendert H J Looijenga
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) share germline ancestry but diverge phenotypically and clinically as seminoma (SE) and nonseminoma (NSE), the latter including the pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (EC) and its differentiated derivatives, teratoma (TE), yolk sac tumor (YST), and choriocarcinoma. Epigenomes from TGCTs may illuminate reprogramming in both normal development and testicular tumorigenesis. Herein we investigate pure-histological forms of 130 TGCTs for conserved and subtype-specific DNA methylation, including analysis of relatedness to pluripotent stem cell (ESC, iPSC), primordial germ cell (PGC), and differentiated somatic references...
November 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802323/derivation-of-patient-specific-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-clinically-discarded-cumulus-cells
#14
Wei-Fang Chang, Yuh-Ming Hwu, Jie Xu, Chen-Ju Lin, Sheng-Wen Wang, An-Sheng Cheng, Jean Lu, Chung-Hao Lu, Li-Ying Sung
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are powerful tools for basic and translational research, as well as regenerative medicine. In routine human in vitro fertilization (IVF) practices, cumulus cells (CCs) are discarded, representing a potential source of biological materials for regenerative medicine. In this study, we derived patient-specific iPSCs using CCs from human infertility clinics for the first time. The human cumulus cell derived iPSCs (hc-iPSCs) were characterized for growth, karyotype, expression of pluripotency genes, and were subjected to embryoid bodies (EBs) and teratoma assays to evaluate their differentiation capacity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798275/progress-towards-human-primordial-germ-cell-specification-in-vitro
#15
REVIEW
S Canovas, R Campos, E Aguilar, J B Cibelli
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) have long been considered the link between one generation and the next. PGC specification begins in the early embryo as a result of a highly orchestrated combination of transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding the molecular events that lead to proper PGC development will facilitate the development of new treatments for human infertility as well as species conservation. This article describes the latest, most relevant findings about the mechanisms of PGC formation, emphasizing human PGC...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792787/heritable-dna-methylation-in-cd4-cells-among-complex-families-displays-genetic-and-non-genetic-effects
#16
Kenneth Day, Lindsay L Waite, Arnald Alonso, Marguerite R Irvin, Degui Zhi, Krista S Thibeault, Stella Aslibekyan, Bertha Hidalgo, Ingrid B Borecki, Jose M Ordovas, Donna K Arnett, Hemant K Tiwari, Devin M Absher
DNA methylation at CpG sites is both heritable and influenced by environment, but the relative contributions of each to DNA methylation levels are unclear. We conducted a heritability analysis of CpG methylation in human CD4+ cells across 975 individuals from 163 families in the Genetics of Lipid-lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN). Based on a broad-sense heritability (H2) value threshold of 0.4, we identified 20,575 highly heritable CpGs among the 174,445 most variable autosomal CpGs (SD > 0.02). Tests for associations of heritable CpGs with genotype at 2,145,360 SNPs using 717 of 975 individuals showed that ~74% were cis-meQTLs (< 1 Mb away from the CpG), 6% of CpGs exhibited trans-meQTL associations (>1 Mb away from the CpG or located on a different chromosome), and 20% of CpGs showed no strong significant associations with genotype (based on a p-value threshold of 1e-7)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784263/multiplicity-of-buc-copies-in-atlantic-salmon-contrasts-with-loss-of-the-germ-cell-determinant-in-primates-rodents-and-axolotl
#17
Adrijana Škugor, Helge Tveiten, Hanne Johnsen, Øivind Andersen
BACKGROUND: The primordial germ cells (PGCs) giving rise to gametes are determined by two different mechanisms in vertebrates. While the germ cell fate in mammals and salamanders is induced by zygotic signals, maternally delivered germ cell determinants specify the PGCs in birds, frogs and teleost fish. Assembly of the germ plasm in the oocyte is organized by the single Buc in zebrafish, named Velo1 in Xenopus, and by Oskar in Drosophila. Secondary loss of oskar in several insect lineages coincides with changes in germline determination strategies, while the presence of buc in mammals suggests functions not associated with germline formation...
October 26, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780130/investigation-of-gene-expressions-in-differentiated-cell-derived-bone-marrow-stem-cells-during-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-treatments-with-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#18
Jaber Zafari, Fatemeh Javani Jouni, Ali Ahmadvand, Parviz Abdolmaleki, Malihe Soodi, Rezvan Zendehdel
A model was set up to predict the differentiation patterns based on the data extracted from FTIR spectroscopy. For this reason, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were differentiated to primordial germ cells (PGCs). Changes in cellular macromolecules in the time of 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96h of differentiation, as different steps of the differentiation procedure were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. Also, the expression of pluripotency (Oct-4, Nanog and c-Myc) and specific genes (Mvh, Stella and Fragilis) were investigated by real-time PCR...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770035/replication-errors-made-during-oogenesis-lead-to-detectable-de-novo-mtdna-mutations-in-zebrafish-oocytes-with-a-low-mtdna-copy-number
#19
Auke B C Otten, Alphons P M Stassen, Michiel Adriaens, Mike Gerards, Richard G J Dohmen, Adriana J Timmer, Sabina J V Vanherle, Rick Kamps, Iris B W Boesten, Jo M Vanoevelen, Marc Muller, Bert Smeets
Of all pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in humans, ~25% is de novo, although the occurrence in oocytes has never been directly assessed. We used next generation sequencing to detect point mutations directly in the mtDNA of 3-15 individual mature oocytes and three somatic tissues from eight zebrafish females. Various statistical and biological filters allowed reliable detection of de novo variants with heteroplasmy ≥1.5%. In total, we detected 38 de novo base substitutions, but no insertions or deletions...
October 21, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768780/over-expression-of-nanos3-and-dazl-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Sarita Panula, Ahmed Reda, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Cyril Ramathal, Meena Sukhwani, Halima Albalushi, Daniel Edsgärd, Michiko Nakamura, Olle Söder, Kyle E Orwig, Shinya Yamanaka, Renee A Reijo Pera, Outi Hovatta
The mechanisms underlying human germ cell development are largely unknown, partly due to the scarcity of primordial germ cells and the inaccessibility of the human germline to genetic analysis. Human embryonic stem cells can differentiate to germ cells in vitro and can be genetically modified to study the genetic requirements for germ cell development. Here, we studied NANOS3 and DAZL, which have critical roles in germ cell development in several species, via their over expression in human embryonic stem cells using global transcriptional analysis, in vitro germ cell differentiation, and in vivo germ cell formation assay by xenotransplantation...
2016: PloS One
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