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Primordial germ cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531200/discovery-of-micrornas-during-early-spermatogenesis-in-chicken
#1
Lu Xu, Qixin Guo, Guobin Chang, Lingling Qiu, Xiangping Liu, Yulin Bi, Yu Zhang, Hongzhi Wang, Wei Lu, Lichen Ren, Ying Chen, Yang Zhang, Qi Xu, Guohong Chen
Spermatogenesis is a complex process that involves many elements. However, until now, little is known at the molecular level about spermatogenesis in poultry. Here we investigated microRNAs and their target genes that may be involved in germ cell development and spermatogonial in chicken. We used next-generation sequencing to analyze miRNA expression profiles in three types of germline cells: primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and spermatogonia (Sp) during early stage of spermatogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529453/the-role-of-germ-cell-loss-during-primordial-follicle-assembly-a-review-of-current-advances
#2
REVIEW
Yuan-Chao Sun, Xiao-Feng Sun, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
In most female mammals, early germline development begins with the appearance of primordial germ cells (PGCs), and develops to form mature oocytes following several vital processes. It remains well accepted that significant germ cell apoptosis and oocyte loss takes place around the time of birth. The transition of the ovarian environment from fetal to neonatal, coincides with the loss of germ cells and the timing of follicle formation. All told it is common to lose approximately two thirds of germ cells during this transition period...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526652/retinoic-acid-induces-differentiation-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-embryonic-stem-cells-into-germ-cells
#3
Syed Mohmad Shah, Suresh Kumar Singla, Prabhat Palta, Radhey Sham Manik, Manmohan Singh Chauhan
Development of precise and reproducible culture system for in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ cells counts as a major leap forward for understanding not only the remarkable process of gametogenesis, otherwise obscured by limited availability of precursor primordial germ cells (PGCs), but in finally treating the catastrophic infertility. Taking into account the significant role of retinoic acid (RA) during in vivo gametogenesis, we designed the present study to investigate the effects of its stimulation on directing the differentiation of ES cells into germ cells...
May 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504655/transcription-factors-sohlh1-and-sohlh2-coordinate-oocyte-differentiation-without-affecting-meiosis-i
#4
Yong-Hyun Shin, Yu Ren, Hitomi Suzuki, Kayla J Golnoski, Hyo Won Ahn, Vasil Mico, Aleksandar Rajkovic
Following migration of primordial germ cells to the genital ridge, oogonia undergo several rounds of mitotic division and enter meiosis at approximately E13.5. Most oocytes arrest in the dictyate (diplotene) stage of meiosis circa E18.5. The genes necessary to drive oocyte differentiation in parallel with meiosis are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether expression of spermatogenesis and oogenesis bHLH transcription factor 1 (Sohlh1) and Sohlh2 coordinates oocyte differentiation within the embryonic ovary...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502982/why-are-hematopoietic-stem-cells-so-sexy-on-a-search-for-developmental-explanation
#5
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Evidence has accumulated that normal human and murine hematopoietic stem cells express several functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormones and that, in fact, some sex hormones, such as androgens, have been employed for many years to stimulate hematopoiesis in patients with bone marrow aplasia. Interestingly, sex hormone receptors are also expressed by leukemic cell lines and blasts. In this review I will discuss the emerging question of why hematopoietic cells express these receptors. A tempting hypothetical explanation for this phenomenon is that hematopoietic stem cells are related to subpopulation of migrating primordial germ cells...
May 15, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502659/apc-c-cdh1-enables-removal-of-shugoshin-2-from-the-arms-of-bivalent-chromosomes-by-moderating-cyclin-dependent-kinase-activity
#6
Ahmed Rattani, Randy Ballesteros Mejia, Katherine Roberts, Maurici B Roig, Jonathan Godwin, Michael Hopkins, Manuel Eguren, Luis Sanchez-Pulido, Elwy Okaz, Sugako Ogushi, Magda Wolna, Jean Metson, Alberto M Pendás, Marcos Malumbres, Béla Novák, Mary Herbert, Kim Nasmyth
In mammalian females, germ cells remain arrested as primordial follicles. Resumption of meiosis is heralded by germinal vesicle breakdown, condensation of chromosomes, and their eventual alignment on metaphase plates. At the first meiotic division, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome associated with Cdc20 (APC/C(Cdc20)) activates separase and thereby destroys cohesion along chromosome arms. Because cohesion around centromeres is protected by shugoshin-2, sister chromatids remain attached through centromeric/pericentromeric cohesin...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486048/endometriosis-origin-from-primordial-germ-cells
#7
Zograb Makiyan
Endometriosis is defined by the presence of endometrial ectopia. Multiple hypotheses have been postulated to explain the aetiology of endometriosis to understand various clinical evidences. The aetiology of endometriosis is still unclear. The primary question to understanding the aetiology of endometrial ectopia (endometriosis) is determining the origin of eutopic (normally cited) endometrium. According to the new theory, primordial germ cells migrate from hypoblast (yolk sac close to the allantois) to the gonadal ridges...
May 9, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483779/heritable-l1-retrotransposition-in-the-mouse-primordial-germline-and-early-embryo
#8
Sandra R Richardson, Patricia Gerdes, Daniel J Gerhardt, Francisco J Sanchez-Luque, Gabriela-Oana Bodea, Martin Munoz-Lopez, J Samuel Jesuadian, Marie-Jeanne H C Kempen, Patricia E Carreira, Jeffrey A Jeddeloh, Jose L Garcia-Perez, Haig H Kazazian, Adam D Ewing, Geoffrey J Faulkner
LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are a noted source of genetic diversity and disease in mammals. To expand its genomic footprint, L1 must mobilize in cells that will contribute their genetic material to subsequent generations. Heritable L1 insertions may therefore arise in germ cells and in pluripotent embryonic cells, prior to germline specification, yet the frequency and predominant developmental timing of such events remain unclear. Here, we applied mouse retrotransposon capture sequencing (mRC-seq) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to pedigrees of C57BL/6J animals, and uncovered an L1 insertion rate of ≥1 event per 8 births...
May 8, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483511/collagen-alginate-microspheres-as-a-3d-culture-system-for-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-differentiation-to-primordial-germ-cells
#9
Vahid Mansouri, Mohammad Salehi, Mir Davood Omrani, Zahra Niknam, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Germ cells differentiation of stem cells will aid treatment of adults with infertility. Biopolymers utilization provided synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) and desired attributes in in vitro to improve conditions for stem cells attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Mixture of alginate as a biocompatible hydrogel, with collagen IV, could establish an in vitro 3 dimensional (3D) culture model. The objective of this study was investigation of the mouse ESCs differentiation capacity to putative primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the alginate and alginate-collagen IV microspheres (CAM)...
May 5, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483168/hedgehog-gli1-signaling-regelates-differentiation-of-chicken-gallus-gallus-embryonic-stem-cells-to-male-germ-cells
#10
Dong Li, Shaoze Cheng, Wenhui Zhang, Man Wang, Changhua Sun, Chen Zhang, Yilin Wang, Jing Jin, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
Gli1 is an important signaling molecular in Hedgehog signaling pathway. In our study, we explored the adjustment effect of Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling pathway on chicken male germ cells differentiation based on the transcriptome-wide analyses of chicken ESCs, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and spermatogonia stem cells (SSCs) that were associated with male germ cell differentiation. We screened out Hedgehog signaling pathway and identified 8 candidated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), Wnt3a, Wnt16, Wnt8a, HHIPL1, Gli1, BMP6, BMP7 and TTLL4...
February 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469531/cancer-metastasis-enactment-of-the-script-for-human-reproductive-drama
#11
Xichun Sun, Xiwu Liu
Based on compelling evidence from many biological disciplines, we put forth a hypothesis for cancer metastasis. In the hypothesis, the metastatic cascade is depicted as human reproduction in miniature. Illustrated in a reproductive light, the staggering resemblance of cancer metastasis to human reproduction becomes evident despite some ostensible dis-similarities. In parallel to the appearance of primordial germ cells during early embryogenesis, the cancer reproductive saga starts with the separation of metastasis initiating cells (MICs) from cancer initiating cells when the primary cancer is still in its infancy...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469243/reconstitution-of-ovarian-function-following-transplantation-of-primordial-germ-cells
#12
Ming Zeng, Xiaoyan Sheng, David L Keefe, Lin Liu
Ovarian aging occurs earlier than somatic aging. We tested the hypothesis that ovarian functions could be artificially reconstructed by transplantation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). We compared various methods for transplantation of PGCs aggregated with gonadal somatic cells and showed that reconstituted ovaries exhibited folliculogenesis after transplantation of PGCs-aggregates into either kidney capsule or ovarian bursa. Neo-oogenesis occurred early after transplantation, as evidenced by the presence of prophase I meiocytes displaying homologous pairing...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459107/a-genomic-atlas-of-human-adrenal-and-gonad-development
#13
Ignacio Del Valle, Federica Buonocore, Andrew J Duncan, Lin Lin, Martino Barenco, Rahul Parnaik, Sonia Shah, Mike Hubank, Dianne Gerrelli, John C Achermann
BACKGROUND: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc), such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development...
April 7, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456466/constitutive-wnt-ctnnb1-activation-triggers-spermatogonial-stem-cell-proliferation-and-germ-cell-depletion
#14
Anne-Amandine Chassot, Morgane Le Rolle, Maxime Jourden, Maketo M Taketo, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Marie-Christine Chaboissier
The differentiation of germ cells into oogonia or spermatogonia is the first step that eventually gives rise to fully mature gametes. In the female fetal gonad, the RSPO1/WNT/CTNNB1 signalling pathway is involved in primordial germ cell proliferation and differentiation into female germ cells, which are able to enter meiosis. In the postnatal testis, the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway also mediates proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells and progenitor cells. Here we show that forced activation of the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway in fetal gonocytes using transgenic mice leads to deregulated spermatogonial proliferation, and exhaustion of the spermatocytes by apoptosis, resulting in a hypoplastic testis...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453617/clonal-variation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-induction-into-the-germ-cell-fate
#15
Shihori Yokobayashi, Keisuke Okita, Masato Nakagawa, Tomonori Nakamura, Yukihiro Yabuta, Takuya Yamamoto, Mitinori Saitou
The mechanisms for human germ cell development have remained largely unknown, due to the difficulty in obtaining suitable experimental materials. The establishment of an in vitro system to reconstitute human germ cell development will thus provide a critical opportunity to understand its mechanisms at a molecular level. It has previously been shown that human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) [1] are first induced into incipient mesoderm-like cells (iMeLCs), which are in turn induced into primordial-germ cell like cells (PGCLCs) with gene expression properties similar to early migratory PGCs [2, 3]...
April 27, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450736/histone-lysine-demethylases-in-mammalian-embryonic-development
#16
REVIEW
Hongjie Shen, Wenqi Xu, Fei Lan
Post-translational modifications, such as methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation, of histone proteins play important roles in regulating dynamic chromatin structure. Histone demethylation has become one of the most active research areas of epigenetics in the past decade. To date, with the exception of histone H3 lysine 79 methylation, the demethylases for all major lysine methylation sites have been discovered. These enzymes have been shown to be involved in various biological processes, with embryonic development being an exciting emerging area...
April 28, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444134/characterization-of-foxo1-3-and-4-transcription-factors-in-ovaries-of-fetal-prepubertal-and-adult-rhesus-macaques
#17
Alison Y Ting, Mary B Zelinski
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway negatively regulates follicle activation via the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor in rodents. FOXO3 knockout mice exhibit global activation of primordial follicles leading to early depletion of ovarian follicles and subsequent infertility. Whether a similar mechanism for follicle activation exists in the primate ovary is unclear. In the current study, protein localization of FOXO1, 3 and 4 as well as their upstream regulator, AKT/p-AKT, were examined in rhesus macaque ovaries of 3 developmental stages: fetal, prepubertal and adult...
April 22, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434825/rna-binding-proteins-in-human-oogenesis-balancing-differentiation-and-self-renewal-in-the-female-fetal-germline
#18
Roseanne Rosario, Andrew J Childs, Richard A Anderson
Primordial germ cells undergo three significant processes on their path to becoming primary oocytes: the initiation of meiosis, the formation and breakdown of germ cell nests, and the assembly of single oocytes into primordial follicles. However at the onset of meiosis, the germ cell becomes transcriptionally silenced. Consequently translational control of pre-stored mRNAs plays a central role in coordinating gene expression throughout the remainder of oogenesis; RNA binding proteins are key to this regulation...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407859/establishment-of-intraperitoneal-germ-cell-transplantation-for-critically-endangered-chinese-sturgeon-acipenser-sinensis
#19
Huan Ye, Chuang-Ju Li, Hua-Mei Yue, Hao Du, Xiao-Ge Yang, Tasuku Yoshino, Takao Hayashida, Yutaka Takeuchi, Qi-Wei Wei
Recent progress in germ cell transplantation techniques in fish has paved the way for the conservation of endangered species. Here, we developed an intraperitoneal germ cell transplantation procedure using Chinese and Dabry's sturgeon as donor and recipient species, respectively. Histological analysis revealed that primordial germ cells migrated on the peritoneal wall at 16 days post-hatch (dph) in Dabry's sturgeon. The genital ridges of Dabry's sturgeon (recipient) first formed at 28 dph, suggesting that for successful colonization of donor germ cells in the recipient gonads, the transplantation should be performed earlier than this age...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400441/neuralized-regulates-crumbs-endocytosis-and-epithelium-morphogenesis-via-specific-stardust-isoforms
#20
Gantas Perez-Mockus, Vanessa Roca, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
Crumbs (Crb) is a conserved determinant of apical membrane identity that regulates epithelial morphogenesis in many developmental contexts. In this study, we identify the Crb complex protein Stardust (Sdt) as a target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) in Drosophila melanogaster Neur interacts with and down-regulates specific Sdt isoforms containing a Neur binding motif (NBM). Using a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-induced deletion of the NBM-encoding exon, we found that Sdt is a key Neur target and that Neur acts via Sdt to down-regulate Crb...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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