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Primordial germ cell

Ábel Vértesy, Wibowo Arindrarto, Matthias S Roost, Björn Reinius, Vanessa Torrens-Juaneda, Monika Bialecka, Ioannis Moustakas, Yavuz Ariyurek, Ewart Kuijk, Hailiang Mei, Rickard Sandberg, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
In contrast to mouse, human female germ cells develop asynchronously. Germ cells transition to meiosis, erase genomic imprints, and reactivate the X chromosome. It is unknown if these events all appear asynchronously, and how they relate to each other. Here we combine exome sequencing of human fetal and maternal tissues with single-cell RNA-sequencing of five donors. We reconstruct full parental haplotypes and quantify changes in parental allele-specific expression, genome-wide. First we distinguish primordial germ cells (PGC), pre-meiotic, and meiotic transcriptional stages...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Shaoze Cheng, Man Wang, Yingjie Wang, Chen Zhang, Yilin Wang, Jiuzhou Song, Qisheng Zuo, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
Primitive germ cells (PGCs) are the "ancestor" of sex germ cells. However, their regulation mechanism is not clear at present. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of PPAR signaling pathway on the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into PGCs, providing theoretical support for the further study of the mechanism of regulation of chicken PGCs. Based on the results of RNA-Seq analysis, the key signal pathway PPAR and the key signal molecule RXRG in the pathway were successfully screened...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Nicolás M Ortega, Nerges Winblad, Alvaro Plaza Reyes, Fredrik Lanner
Understanding the genetic underpinning of early human development is of great interest not only for basic developmental and stem cell biology but also for regenerative medicine, infertility treatments, and better understanding the causes of congenital disease. Our current knowledge has mainly been generated with the use of laboratory animals, especially the mouse. While human and mouse early development present morphological resemblance, we know that the timing of the events as well as the cellular and genetic mechanisms that control fundamental processes are distinct between the species...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Fang Fang, Benjamin Angulo, Ninuo Xia, Meena Sukhwani, Zhengyuan Wang, Charles C Carey, Aurélien Mazurie, Jun Cui, Royce Wilkinson, Blake Wiedenheft, Naoko Irie, M Azim Surani, Kyle E Orwig, Renee A Reijo Pera
Dysregulation of genetic pathways during human germ cell development leads to infertility. Here, we analysed bona fide human primordial germ cells (hPGCs) to probe the developmental genetics of human germ cell specification and differentiation. We examined the distribution of OCT4 occupancy in hPGCs relative to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We demonstrated that development, from pluripotent stem cells to germ cells, is driven by switching partners with OCT4 from SOX2 to PAX5 and PRDM1. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that PAX5 encodes a critical regulator of hPGC development...
April 30, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Linglin Kong, Lingling Qiu, Qixin Guo, Ying Chen, Xin Zhang, Bowen Chen, Yang Zhang, Guobin Chang
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of functional gametes and can be used as efficient transgenic tools and carriers in bioreactors. Few methods for long-term culture of PGCs are available. In this study, we tested various culture conditions for PGCs, and used the optimum culture system to culture chicken gonad PGCs for about three hundred days. Long-term-cultured PGCs were detected and characterized by karyotype analysis, immunocytochemical staining of SSEA-1, c-kit, Sox2, cDAZL, and quantitative RT-PCR for specific genes like Tert, DAZL, POUV, and NANOG...
2018: PloS One
Qisheng Zuo, Kai Jin, Jiuzhou Song, Yani Zhang, Guohong Chen, Bichun Li
Although many marker genes for germ cell differentiation have been identified, genes that specifically regulate primordial germ cell (PGC) generation are more difficult to determine. In the current study, we confirmed that C2EIP is a PGC marker gene that regulates differentiation by influencing the expression of pluripotency-associated genes such as Oct4 and Sox2. Knockout of C2EIP during embryonic development reduced PGC generation efficiency 1.5-fold, whereas C2EIP overexpression nearly doubled the generation efficiency both in vitro and in vivo...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Masafumi Hayashi, Takamasa Kawaguchi, Gabriela Durcova-Hills, Hiroshi Imai
Background: The germ cell lineage transmits genetic and epigenetic information to the next generation. Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the early embryonic precursors of sperm or eggs, have been studied extensively. Recently, in vitro models of PGC induction have been established in the mouse. Many attempts are reported to enhance our understanding of PGC development in other mammals, including human. Methods: Here, original and review articles that have been published on PubMed are reviewed in order to give an overview of the literature that is focused on PGC development, including the specification of in vivo and in vitro in mice, human, porcine, and bovine...
April 2018: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
Kseniia Pocherniaieva, Monika Sidova, Milos Havelka, Taiju Saito, Martin Psenicka, Radek Sindelka, Vojtech Kaspar
In oocytes, RNA localization has critical implications, as assembly of proteins in particular subcellular domains is crucial to embryo development. The distribution of mRNA molecules can identify and characterize localized transcripts. The goal of this study was to clarify the origin of primordial germ cells in the oocyte body plan and to reveal the generation of cell lineages by localized RNAs. The distribution of 12 selected mRNAs in sterlet Acipenser ruthenus oocytes was investigated by qPCR tomography and compared with known patterns of mRNA localization in Xenopus laevis...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Hanbo Li, Baofeng Su, Guyu Qin, Zhi Ye, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Alsaqufi, Dayan A Perera, Zhenkui Qin, Ramji Odin, Khoi Vo, David Drescher, Dalton Robinson, Sheng Dong, Dan Zhang, Mei Shang, Nermeen Abass, Sanjay K Das, Max Bangs, Rex A Dunham
Repressible knockdown approaches were investigated to manipulate for transgenic sterilization in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Two primordial germ cell (PGC) marker genes, nanos and dead end, were targeted for knockdown and an off-target gene, vasa, was monitored. Two potentially copper-sensitive repressible promoters, yeast ctr3 (M) and ctr3-reduced (Mctr), were coupled with four knockdown strategies separately including: ds-sh RNA targeting the 5' end (N1) or 3' end (N2) of channel catfish nanos, full-length cDNA sequence of channel catfish nanos for overexpression (cDNA), and ds-sh RNA-targeting channel catfish dead end (DND)...
April 20, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Rui Xu, Qi Li, Hong Yu, Lingfeng Kong
Nanos gene plays an important role in germline development in animals. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in germline development in Mollusca, the second largest animal phylum, are still poorly understood. Here we identified the Nanos orthologue from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Cg-Nanos-like), and investigated the expression patterns of Nanos during gametogenesis and embryogenesis in C. gigas. Tissue expression analysis showed that Cg-Nanos-like was specifically expressed in female gonads...
April 13, 2018: Gene
Goro Yoshizaki, Seungki Lee
The conservation of endangered fish is an urgent issue. Although cryo-banking of fish gametes might ultimately help conserve endangered fish, cryopreservation of fish eggs or embryos is still not possible due to their large size and high yolk content. Therefore, as an alternative, we focused on undifferentiated germ cells, such as primordial germ cells, spermatogonia, and oogonia, as materials for cryopreservation. Transplantation of cryopreserved germ cells into the body cavity of allogeneic or xenogeneic recipients sterilized by triploidization or endogenous germ cell ablation resulted in migration of the transplanted germ cells toward the recipient genital ridges, where they were eventually incorporated...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Meng Ji, Shuang Tang, Wenhua Pei, Mingming Ning, Yuehui Ma, Xiangchen Li, Weijun Guan
In vitro production of functional spermatids has special significance in the research of spermatogenesis and the treatment of male infertility. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of oocyte and sperm, which generate the totipotent cells. Studies have shown that PGCs have the potential ability to develop meiotic spermatids in vitro. Here we have shown that retinoic acid (RA) leads to PGC differentiation, and SCF can improve the efficiency of induction. We indicate an efficient approach to produce haploid spermatids from chicken PGCs in the presence of RA and stem cell factor (SCF)...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Young Min Kim, Jae Yong Han
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the founder cells for mature gametes, the vehicles by which individuals transmit genetic and epigenetic information to later generations. Since the 19th century, avian species (chickens in particular) have been widely used for germ cell research. Previous studies have used chicken PGCs for a variety of research applications, including as a model for studies focusing on germline development. Other applications of chicken PGCs, including conservation efforts for avian species and methods of producing transgenic birds, have further reinforced the importance of these cells...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Lingyun Yu, Dongdong Xu, Huan Ye, Huamei Yue, Shioh Ooka, Hidehiro Kondo, Ryosuke Yazawa, Yutaka Takeuchi
Little is known about the molecular mechanisms governing gonadal developmental processes in abalones. Here, we conducted transcriptome analysis of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus discus for gene discovery in the brain, ovary, testis, and unfertilized eggs. Among the annotated unigenes, 48.6% of unigenes were identified by Venn diagram analysis as having universal or tissue-specific expression. Twenty-three genes with gonad-biased gene ontology (GO) terms were first obtained. Secondly, 36 genes were found by screening known gene names related to germ cell development...
April 3, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Yu-Feng Wang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Ze-Li Han, Lan Li, Wei Ge, Yong Zhao, Massimo De Felici, Wei Shen, Shun-Feng Cheng
In this paper, we show that neonatal mice injected for five consecutive days with nicotine display impaired germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly resulting in decreased ovarian reserve lasting until sex maturation age. The effects of nicotine on the pups ovaries were associated with decreased expression of oocyte specific genes such as Nobox , Lhx8 , Figlα and Sohlh2 . Moreover, the ovaries of pups injected with nicotine showed increased level of cell oxidative stress and autophagic markers (upregulation of AMPKα-1, increased ratio LC3-II/LC3-I, downregulation of AKT and mTOR)...
March 28, 2018: Aging
Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, Dongdong Xu, Yasuko Ino, Tasuku Yoshino, Takao Hayashida, Junije Wang, Ryosuke Yazawa, Goro Yoshizaki, Yutaka Takeuchi
Sterility in hybrid animals is widely known to be due to a cytological mechanism of aberrant homologous chromosome pairing during meiosis in hybrid germ cells. In this study, the gametes of four marine fish species belonging to Sciaenid were artificially fertilized, and germ cell development was examined at the cellular and molecular levels. One of the intergeneric hybrids had gonads that were testis-like in structure, small in size, and lacked germ cells. Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and their migration towards genital ridges were normally occurred in hybrid embryos, but these PGCs did not proliferate in the hybrid gonads...
April 2, 2018: Genetics
Geert Hamer, Dirk G de Rooij
This review focusses on those mouse mutations that cause an effect on the morphology, viability and/or behavior of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and gonocytes at specific steps of their fetal development up to the start of spermatogenesis, a few days after birth. To restrict the area covered, mice with mutations that cause abnormal hormone levels or mutations of genes not expressed in germ cells that secondarily cause spermatogenic problems, are not discussed. To make our literature search as comprehensive as possible, Pubmed was searched for "(primordial germ cells OR prospermatogonia OR prespermatogonia OR gonocytes OR spermatogonia or meiosis or spermiogenesis or spermatogenesis) AND mouse AND (knockout or mutant or transgenic)...
March 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
X L Wu, Z K Tang, W Li, Z J Chu, X Y Hong, X P Zhu, H Y Xu
American shad Alosa sapidissima, an anadromous clupeid, exhibits variation in reproductive strategies, including semelparity and iteroparity. It provides an excellent model for studying the behaviour of germ cells in anadromous fish during their migration from sea to river. The vasa gene was characterized in A. sapidissima as a germ-cell marker to elaborate the process of germ-cell development and differentiation in anadromous species. A complementary (c)DNA fragment of 819 bp, partial open reading frame (ORF), was cloned by degenerate PCR and named as ASvas...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Hong-Zhuan Shi, Hong Liu, Qiao-Sheng Guo, Jia Wang, Fei Liu
The reproductive system and gonad development and germ cell occurrence of Whitmania pigra have been studied by using tissue section electron microscope techniques. W. pigra has completely independent male and female reproduction system, which lasts 11 months. The development of spermary started before the development of ovary. When egg cell is only a primordial germ cell, sperm has an initially complete form. Meanwhile, sperm cells and egg cells orderly development and synchronously mature. According to the development of sperm cells and egg cells, the development of cycle of the spermary could be divided into 6 stages: proliferating stage (1-3 months of age), growing stage (4-5 months of age), resting stage (6-8 months of age), maturing stage (9 months of age), spawning stage (10 months of age) and degradation stage (11 months of age)...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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