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Primordial germ cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160922/igf1r-signalling-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumour-cells-impacts-on-cell-survival-and-acquired-cisplatin-resistance
#1
Joanna Selfe, Neil C Goddard, Alan McIntyre, Kathryn R Taylor, Jane Renshaw, Sergey D Popov, Khin Thway, Brenda Summersgill, Robert A Huddart, Duncan C Gilbert, Janet M Shipley
Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most frequent malignancy and cause of death from solid tumours in the 20-40 year age group. Although most cases show sensitivity to cis-platinum-based chemotherapy, this is associated with long-term toxicities and chemo-resistance. Roles for receptor tyrosine kinases other than KIT are largely unknown in TGCT. We therefore conducted a phosphoproteomic screen and identified the insulin growth factor receptor-1 (IGF1R) as both highly expressed and activated in TGCT cell lines representing the non-seminomatous subtype...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158442/the-xenopus-primordial-germ-cell-transcriptome-identifies-sox7-a-novel-role-in-early-pgc-development
#2
Amanda M Butler, Dawn A Owens, Lingyu Wang, Mary Lou King
Xenopus primordial germ cells (PGCs) are determined by the presence of maternally derived germ plasm. Germ plasm components both protect PGCs from somatic differentiation and begin a unique gene expression program. Segregation of the germline from the endodermal lineage occurs during gastrulation, and PGCs subsequently initiate zygotic transcription. However, the gene-network(s) that operate to both preserve and promote germline differentiation are poorly understood. Here, we utilized RNA-sequencing analysis to comprehensively interrogate PGC and neighboring endoderm cell mRNAs after lineage segregation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157935/a-quiet-space-during-rush-hour-quiescence-in-primordial-germ-cells
#3
Nathalie Oulhen, Gary Wessel
Quiescence is a common character in stem cells. Low cellular activity in these cells may function to minimize the potential damaging effects of oxidative stress, reduce the number of cells needed for tissue replenishment, and as a consequence, perhaps occupy unique niches. Quiescent stem cells are found in many adult human tissues, the hematopoietic stem cells are paradigmatic, and more recently it appears that stem cell of the germ line in many animals display quiescence characters. Here we explore the diversity of quiescence phenotypes in primordial germ cells, leveraging the diverse mechanisms of germ cell formation to extract evolutionary significance to common processes...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145898/making-gametes-from-alternate-sources-of-stem-cells-past-present-and-future
#4
REVIEW
Deepa Bhartiya, Sandhya Anand, Hiren Patel, Seema Parte
Infertile couples including cancer survivors stand to benefit from gametes differentiated from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem (ES/iPS) cells. It remains challenging to convert human ES/iPS cells into primordial germ-like cells (PGCLCs) en route to obtaining gametes. Considerable success was achieved in 2016 to obtain fertile offspring starting with mouse ES/iPS cells, however the specification of human ES/iPS cells into PGCLCs in vitro is still not achieved. Human ES cells will not yield patient-specific gametes unless and until hES cells are derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (therapeutic cloning) whereas iPS cells retain the residual epigenetic memory of the somatic cells from which they are derived and also harbor genomic and mitochondrial DNA mutations...
November 16, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143989/nanos2-promotes-differentiation-of-chicken-gallus-gallus-embryonic-stem-cells-to-male-germ-cells
#5
Zhang Wenhui, Bi Yulin, Wang Yingjie, Li Dong, He Nana, Wang Man, Jin Jing, Zuo Qisheng, Zhang Yani, Li Bichun
Nanos2 is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein containing 2 CCHC-type zinc finger motives. Here, we report that Nanos2 is strongly expressed in the testis compared to other tissues in chicken (Gallus gallus). Overexpression and knockout plasmid vectors were constructed, and in-vitro Cas9/gRNA digestion and T7 endonuclease I (T7E1) assay indicated that Nanos2-g1 possessed the highest knockout activity. In vitro and in vivo, Nanos2 overexpression accelerated the production of embryoid bodies (EBs) and SSC-like cells and promoted cvh, c-kit and integrin α6 expression...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127398/overexpression-of-dyrk1a-a-down-syndrome-candidate-gene-impairs-primordial-germ-cells-maintenance-and-migration-in-zebrafish
#6
Yanyan Liu, Ziyuan Lin, Mingfeng Liu, He Wang, Huaqin Sun
DYRK1A, located on chromosome 21, is a major candidate gene of Down syndrome (DS, trisomy21), and its overexpression is associated with abnormal phenotype of Down syndrome patients. The defects of gonads and germ cells in Down Syndrome suggest that overexpression of DYRK1A has potential effect on primordial germ cells (PGCs) development. Human and zebrafish DYRK1A protein sequence possess 75.6% similarity and same function domains, suggesting the evolutional conservation. Here, we used zebrafish model to detect the definite role of excessive expression of DYRK1A in PGCs development during embryogenesis...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124738/transcripts-immunoprecipitated-with-sxl-protein-in-primordial-germ-cells-of-drosophila-embryos
#7
Ryoma Ota, Shumpei Morita, Masanao Sato, Shuji Shigenobu, Makoto Hayashi, Satoru Kobayashi
In Drosophila, Sex lethal (Sxl), an RNA binding protein, is required for induction of female sexual identity in both somatic and germline cells. Although the Sxl-dependent feminizing pathway in the soma was previously elucidated, the downstream targets for Sxl in the germline remained elusive. To identify these target genes, we selected transcripts associated with Sxl in primordial germ cells (PGCs) of embryos using RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (RIP-seq) analysis. A total of 308 transcripts encoded by 282 genes were obtained...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113915/bisphenol-a-accelerates-meiotic-progression-in-embryonic-chickens-via-the-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#8
Minli Yu, Yali Xu, Ming Li, Dongfeng Li, Yinglin Lu, Debing Yu, Wenxing Du
Bisphenol A (BPA) as an endocrine-disrupting chemical with weak estrogenic activity affects formation of primordial follicles. This study aimed to identify the potential effects and molecular mechanisms of BPA on meiosis and primordial follicle formation in chickens. The results suggest that the cortical layer was thickened and the number of germ cells that entered into meiosis was increased in BPA-treated ovaries. The percentage of γH2AX-positive cells increased significantly. In addition, up-regulated mRNA expression of meiotic genes, including stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), disrupted meiotic cDNA 1 homologue (Dmc1) and synaptonemal complex protein 3 (Scp3) were observed in BPA-treated ovaries...
November 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111977/nanos-promotes-epigenetic-reprograming-of-the-germline-by-down-regulation-of-the-thap-transcription-factor-lin-15b
#9
Chih-Yung Sean Lee, Tu Lu, Geraldine Seydoux
Nanos RNA-binding proteins are required for germline development in metazoans, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have profiled the transcriptome of primordial germ cells (PGCs) lacking the nanos homologs nos-1 and nos-2 in C. elegans. nos-1nos-2 PGCs fail to silence hundreds of transcripts normally expressed in oocytes. We find that this misregulation is due to both delayed turnover of maternal transcripts and inappropriate transcriptional activation. The latter appears to be an indirect consequence of delayed turnover of the maternally-inherited transcription factor LIN-15B, a synMuvB class transcription factor known to antagonize PRC2 activity...
November 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100015/an-endosirna-based-repression-mechanism-counteracts-transposon-activation-during-global-dna-demethylation-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Rebecca V Berrens, Simon Andrews, Dominik Spensberger, Fátima Santos, Wendy Dean, Poppy Gould, Jafar Sharif, Nelly Olova, Tamir Chandra, Haruhiko Koseki, Ferdinand von Meyenn, Wolf Reik
Erasure of DNA methylation and repressive chromatin marks in the mammalian germline leads to risk of transcriptional activation of transposable elements (TEs). Here, we used mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to identify an endosiRNA-based mechanism involved in suppression of TE transcription. In ESCs with DNA demethylation induced by acute deletion of Dnmt1, we saw an increase in sense transcription at TEs, resulting in an abundance of sense/antisense transcripts leading to high levels of ARGONAUTE2 (AGO2)-bound small RNAs...
November 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097685/utf1-contributes-to-intergenerational-epigenetic-inheritance-of-pluripotency
#11
Qiuye Bao, Amir Morshedi, Fulu Wang, Sharma Bhargy, Konstantin Pervushin, Wei-Ping Yu, Peter Dröge
Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (Utf1) is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). Utf1 expression is directly controlled by pluripotency factors Oct4 and Sox2, which form a ternary complex with the Utf1 enhancer. The Utf1 protein plays a role in chromatin organization and epigenetic control of bivalent gene expression in ESCs in vitro, where it promotes effective cell differentiation during exit from pluripotency. The function of Utf1 in PGCs in vivo, however, is not known...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091993/germline-competency-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-depends-on-eomesodermin
#12
Di Chen, Wanlu Liu, Anastasia Lukianchikov, Grace Hancock, Jill Zimmerman, Matthew Lowe, Rachel Kim, Zoran Galic, Naoko Irie, M Azim Surani, Steven E Jacobsen, Amander T Clark
In humans, germline competency and the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) are thought to occur in a restricted developmental window during early embryogenesis. Despite the importance of specifying the appropriate number of PGCs for human reproduction, the molecular mechanisms governing PGC formation remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared PGC-like cell (PGCLC) differentiation from eighteen independently derived human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, and discovered that the expression of primitive streak genes were positively associated with hESC germline competency...
October 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090496/primordial-odontogenic-tumor-a-case-report-with-histopathological-analyses
#13
Toshinari Mikami, Yu Ohashi, Ronell Bologna-Molina, Adalberto Mosqueda-Taylor, Naoki Fujiwara, Naoko Tsunoda, Hiroyuki Yamada, Yasunori Takeda
Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) is a benign mixed epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tumor included into the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of Head and Neck tumours in 2017. As far as the authors have confirmed, only eight cases of this tumor have been reported so far. This paper reports a case of POT that occurred in the right mandible of a 5-year-old patient. Panoramic radiograph showed a well-defined homogeneous radiolucency displacing the unerupted second deciduous molar to the deep part of the mandible...
November 1, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079843/male-fertility-restored-by-transplanting-primordial-germ-cells-into-testes-a-new-way-towards-efficient-transgenesis-in-chicken
#14
Pavel Trefil, Dorothea Aumann, Anna Koslová, Jitka Mucksová, Barbora Benešová, Jiří Kalina, Christine Wurmser, Ruedi Fries, Daniel Elleder, Benjamin Schusser, Jiří Hejnar
The ongoing progress in primordial germ cell derivation and cultivation is opening new ways in reproductive biotechnology. This study tested whether functional sperm cells can be matured from genetically manipulated primordial germ cells after transplantation in adult testes and used to restore fertility. We show that spermatogenesis can be restored after mCherry-expressing or GFP-expressing primordial germ cells are transplantated into the testes of sterilized G0 roosters and that mCherry-positive or GFP-positive non-chimeric transgenic G1 offspring can be efficiently produced...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079195/extragonadal-primordial-germ-cells-or-placental-progenitor-cells
#15
Karen M Downs
Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of the gametes, are now claimed to segregate within the extra-embryonic tissues of three species of placental mammals. In this brief Commentary, I raise the question of whether the so-called PGCs are not PGCs at all, but rather, progenitor cells that build the fetal-placental interface in Placentalia.
October 14, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074566/actomyosin-contractility-regulators-stabilize-the-cytoplasmic-bridge-between-the-two-primordial-germ-cells-during-c-elegans-embryogenesis
#16
Eugénie Goupil, Rana Amini, David H Hall, Jean-Claude Labbé
Stable cytoplasmic bridges arise from failed cytokinesis, the last step of cell division, and are a key feature of syncytial architectures in the germ line of most metazoans. Whereas the C. elegans germ line is syncytial, its formation remains poorly understood. We found that the germline precursor blastomere, P4, fails cytokinesis, leaving a stable cytoplasmic bridge between the two daughter cells, Z2 and Z3 Depletion of several regulators of actomyosin contractility resulted in a regression of the membrane partition between Z2 and Z3, indicating that they are required to stabilize the cytoplasmic bridge...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072628/genome-modification-technologies-and-their-applications-in-avian-species
#17
REVIEW
Hong Jo Lee, Young Min Kim, Tamao Ono, Jae Yong Han
The rapid development of genome modification technology has provided many great benefits in diverse areas of research and industry. Genome modification technologies have also been actively used in a variety of research areas and fields of industry in avian species. Transgenic technologies such as lentiviral systems and piggyBac transposition have been used to produce transgenic birds for diverse purposes. In recent years, newly developed programmable genome editing tools such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) have also been successfully adopted in avian systems with primordial germ cell (PGC)-mediated genome modification...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055950/ovarian-stem-cell-nests-in-reproduction-and-ovarian-aging
#18
Haifeng Ye, Tuochen Zheng, Wei Li, Xiaoyan Li, Xinxin Fu, Yaoqi Huang, Chuan Hu, Jia Li, Jian Huang, Zhengyv Liu, Liping Zheng, Yuehui Zheng
The fixed primordial follicles pool theory, which monopolized reproductive medicine for more than one hundred years, has been broken by the discovery, successful isolation and establishment of ovarian stem cells. It has brought more hope than ever of increasing the size of primordial follicle pool, improving ovarian function and delaying ovarian consenescence. Traditional view holds that stem cell aging contributes to the senility of body and organs. However, in the process of ovarian aging, the main factor leading to the decline of the reproductive function is the aging and degradation of ovarian stem cell nests, rather than the senescence of ovarian germ cells themselves...
October 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044473/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-ovarian-tissue
#19
Sophia Salas, Nicholas Ng, Behzad Gerami-Naini, Raymond M Anchan
Yamanaka and colleagues revolutionized stem cell biology and regenerative medicine by observing that somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells. Evidence indicates that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells retain epigenetic memories that bias their spontaneous differentiation into the originating somatic cell type, therefore epigenetic memory may be exploited to improve tissue specific regeneration. We recently showed that iPS cells reprogrammed from ovarian granulosa cells using mouse and human tissue overwhelmingly differentiate homotypically into ovarian steroidogenic and primordial germ cells...
October 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037933/role-of-maternal-xenopus-syntabulin-in-germ-plasm-aggregation-and-primordial-germ-cell-specification
#20
Denise Oh, Douglas W Houston
The localization and organization of mitochondria- and ribonucleoprotein granule-rich germ plasm is essential for many aspects of germ cell development. In Xenopus, germ plasm is maternally inherited and is required for the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Germ plasm is aggregated into larger patches during egg activation and cleavage and is ultimately translocated perinuclearly during gastrulation. Although microtubule dynamics and a kinesin (Kif4a) have been implicated in Xenopus germ plasm localization, little is known about how germ plasm distribution is regulated...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
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