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Yuka Miyata, Tsutomu Wada, Tomohiko Hayasaka, Yukio Hayashi
Purpose: The placement of a pulmonary artery catheter sometimes needs long time by observing the pressure wave, and several factors have been reported to hinder the placement. In the present study, we examined whether enlargement of the aortic root is associated with longer time for the placement. Method: We examined the time required for the catheter placement. The catheter placement time was defined as the duration of time required for the catheter to float from the CVP position to the pulmonary artery...
2018: JA Clin Rep
Osnat Bashkin, Ron Horne, Isabelle Peytremann Bridevaux
Objective: The association between diabetes and depression, a common health comorbidity in people with diabetes, has been recognized but not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between diabetes and depression in a large international sample of adults, adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, behavioral risks, and current health status. Methods: The association between diabetes and depression was assessed in a sample of 57,004 Europeans ≥50 years of age from 15 European countries using data from the fifth wave of SHARE (the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe)...
February 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Morio Shintate, Takumi Inadomi, Shinya Yamamoto, Yusuke Kuboyama, Yutaka Ohsedo, Takashi Arimura, Tomoka Nakazumi, Yusuke Hara, Nobuyoshi Miyamoto
Anisotropic chemical wave propagation of self-oscillating Belouzov-Zhabozinsky (BZ) reaction was demonstrated in anisotropic the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide gel films embedded with macroscopically alignedof liquid crystalline inorganic nanosheet liquid crystals/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) composites. While the average propagation rate of chemical wave v ̅ was 3.56 mm min-1 in the gels without nanosheets, the propagation was retarded in the gels with 1 wt% of nanosheets: (v_∥ ) ̅ = 1.89 mm min-1 and (v_⊥ ) ̅ = 1...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Victoria R Green, Marushka L Silveira, Heather L Kimmel, Kevin P Conway
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco and obesity are leading contributors to mortality in the United States. Due to emerging changes in youth tobacco use, further examination of co-occurrence of these issues is warranted. METHODS: This study examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and tobacco-product use and whether these varied by gender in a nationally representative sample of 12,416 Wave 1 (2013-2014) U.S. youth (12-17 years) from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study...
February 5, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Timothy H Bertram, Richard E Cochran, Vicki H Grassian, Elizabeth A Stone
Sea spray aerosol particles (SSA), formed through wave breaking at the ocean surface, contribute to natural aerosol particle concentrations in remote regions of Earth's atmosphere, and alter the direct and indirect effects of aerosol particles on Earth's radiation budget. In addition, sea spray aerosol serves as suspended surface area that can catalyze trace gas reactions. It has been shown repeatedly that sea spray aerosol is heavily enriched in organic material compared to the surface ocean. The selective enrichment of organic material complicates the selection of representative molecular mimics of SSA for laboratory or computational studies...
February 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Michael C Robertson, Jaejoon Song, Wendell C Taylor, Casey P Durand, Karen M Basen-Engquist
PURPOSE: Compared to their urban counterparts, US residents in rural settings face an increased risk of premature mortality and health problems that have been linked to insufficient physical activity (PA) levels. There is limited literature regarding urban-rural differences in adherence to national guidelines for all 3 PA-related behaviors. METHODS: We investigated urban-rural differences in aerobic PA, leisure-time muscle strengthening PA, and leisure screen-time sedentary behavior in a combined data set of the 2011-2014 waves (N = 14,188) of the nationally representative National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Michael A Klatt, Salvatore Torquato
In the first two papers of this series, we characterized the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings across length scales by computing a variety of different correlation functions, spectral functions, hole probabilities, and local density fluctuations. From the remarkable structural features of the MRJ packings, especially its disordered hyperuniformity, exceptional physical properties can be expected. Here we employ these structural descriptors to estimate effective transport and electromagnetic properties via rigorous bounds, exact expansions, and accurate analytical approximation formulas...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Linda S B Johnson, Anders P Persson, Per Wollmer, Steen Juul-Möller, Tord Juhlin, Gunnar Engström
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is defined as an irregular supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) without p-waves, with a duration >30s. It is not known whether AF characteristics in shorter SVT episodes predict AF and stroke. OBJECTIVES: To determine if irregularity and lack of p-waves, alone or in combination, at short SVT episodes increased the risk of incident AF and ischemic stroke. METHODS: The population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study includes 24hECG screening of 377 AF-free individuals (mean age 64...
February 12, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Giovanni Scandale, Gabriel Dimitrov, Martino Recchia, Gianni Carzaniga, Marzio Minola, Edoardo Perilli, Maria Carotta, Mariella Catalano
Arterial stiffening is a hallmark of the aging process and atherosclerosis, including peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We investigated the associations between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-fPWV), augmentation index corrected for heart rate (Aix@HR75), ankle brachial index (ABI), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), an indicator of cardiac perfusion. The c-fPWV, Aix@HR75, and SEVR was estimated using applanation tonometry. The ankle systolic pressure measurements for the calculation of the ABI were obtained using an 8-mHz Doppler probe...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Enfu Chen, Maggie H Wang, Fan He, Riyang Sun, Wei Cheng, Benny C Y Zee, Steven Y F Lau, Xiaoxiao Wang, Ka Chun Chong
BACKGROUND: Although investigations have shown that closing live poultry markets (LPMs) is highly effective in controlling human influenza A (H7N9) infections, many of the urban LPMs were shut down, but rural LPMs remained open. This study aimed to compare the proportional changes between urban and rural infections in the Zhejiang province from 2013 to 2017 by analyzing the exposure histories of human cases. METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 from 2013 (the first wave) to 2017 (the fifth wave) in the Zhejiang province of China were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Ari J Elliot, Christopher J Mooney, Frank J Infurna, Benjamin P Chapman
Mechanisms underlying prospective associations of perceived control with frailty and other health outcomes are not well understood. In the present study we used 3 waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,127) to test potential psychological and biological pathways linking perceived control with frailty over an 8-year period, and whether 4-year change in control predicts frailty independent of initial control. Lower odds of increasing frailty were associated with higher initial levels of perceived control (odds ratio [OR] = ...
February 15, 2018: Psychology and Aging
Youfei Zhang, Haogang Wang, Dashuang Liao, Weijie Fu
Metasurface antennas (MAs) have been proposed as innovative alternatives to conventional bulky configurations for satellite applications because of their low profile, low cost, and high gain. The general method of surface impedance modulation for designing MAs is complicated, and achieving broad operation bandwidth remains a challenge because of its high dispersion response. We propose a novel and easy technique to control cylindrical surface waves radiated by a phase-tuning metasurface. Simultaneously, this technique exhibits a considerably wide working bandwidth...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric Andrew Lauer, Andrew J Houtenville
OBJECTIVE: A national priority for disability research in the USA is the standardised identification of people with disabilities in surveillance efforts. Mandated by federal statute, six dichotomous difficulty-focused questions were implemented in national surveys to identify people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, demographic characteristics and social factors among people with disabilities based on these six questions using multiple national surveys in the USA...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Qianru Yang, Linling Qin, Guoyang Cao, Cheng Zhang, Xiaofeng Li
We propose a graphene-coated photonic system with the excitation of Bloch surface waves (BSWs) for refractive index sensing. Through manipulation of the BSW resonance in the truncated photonic crystal under a Kretschmann configuration, the absorption in a graphene monolayer is significantly enhanced, assisted by the strong electromagnetic confinement of BSWs. The sharp and low reflectivity dip and the strong wave-environment interaction enable highly sensitive optical sensing. First-order perturbation theory and transfer-matrix calculation indicate that the system sensitivity is strongly related to the ratio of the electric field energy in the detection area, operation wavelength, and incident angle...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Hailong Xu, Xiaowei Yin, Zhaochen Li, Chenglong Liu, Zeyu Wang, Minghang Li, Litong Zhang, Laifei Cheng
In this study, mesoporous carbon hollow spheres (PCHMs) with tunable textural properties have been prepared through a facile hard template etching method. The PCHMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption system. The uniform PCHMs with shell thickness ranges from 23 nm to 55 nm is realized. PCHMs with different textural properties can regulate dielectric and electromagnetic wave absorption effectively...
February 14, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ross K Maddox, Adrian K C Lee
Speech is an ecologically essential signal, whose processing crucially involves the subcortical nuclei of the auditory brainstem, but there are few experimental options for studying these early responses in human listeners under natural conditions. While encoding of continuous natural speech has been successfully probed in the cortex with neurophysiological tools such as electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography, the rapidity of subcortical response components combined with unfavorable signal-to-noise ratios signal-to-noise ratio has prevented application of those methods to the brainstem...
January 2018: ENeuro
Gang Li, Hui-Kun Wu, Xiao-Wei Wu, Zhe Cao, Yuan-Chao Tu, Yi Ma, Wei-Qing Wang, Jian Cheng, Zi-Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C), cholesterol ratios and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) impart risk for all-cause morbidity and mortality independently of conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study was designed to identify feasible indicators for predicting arterial stiffness progression. METHODS: We followed up 816 normotensive participants without diabetes or CVD for nearly 5.0 years. Cholesterol parameters, ratios and other clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline...
February 12, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Janusz Sledz, Michal Labus, Mariusz Mazij, Monika Klank-Szafran, Dariusz Karbarz, Bartosz Ludwik, Jacek Kusa, Karol Deutsch, Leslaw Szydlowski, Adrian Mscisz, Jerzy Spikowski, Aleksandra Morka, Tomasz Kameczura, Aleksandra Swietoniowska, Sebastian Stec
PURPOSE: During incremental atrial pacing in patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, the PR interval often exceeds the RR interval (PR > RR) during stable 1:1 AV conduction. However, the PR/RR ratio has never been evaluated in a large group of patients with pacing from the proximal coronary sinus and after isoproterenol challenge. Our study validates new site of pacing and easier method of identification of PR > RR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective protocol of incremental atrial pacing from the proximal coronary sinus was carried out in 398 patients (AVNRT-228 and control-170)...
February 9, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
I-Min Su, Du-An Wu, Chung-Jen Lee, Jia-Sian Hou, Bang-Gee Hsu, Ji-Hung Wang
BACKGROUND: Higher cystatin C levels are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. We evaluated the association between serum cystatin C and aortic arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Fasting blood samples were collected from 170 patients with type 2 DM. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) values > 10 m/s were used to define the high aortic arterial stiffness group. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients with DM (39...
February 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Chongyun Shao, Jinjun Ren, Fan Wang, Nadege Ollier, Fenghou Xie, Xuyang Zhang, Lei Zhang, Chunlei Yu, Lili Hu
Yb3+/Al3+/P5+ co-doped silica glasses with different P/Al ratios were prepared using the sol-gel method combined with high-temperature sintering. The evolution of composition-dependent color centers caused by X-ray irradiation in these glasses were correlated with their structural changes, which is controlled by the P/Al ratio. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectra have been used to characterize the glass network structure, and advanced pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been employed to study the local coordination atom structures of Yb3+ ions in pristine glasses as a function of P/Al radio...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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