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Dystonia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238959/cognition-in-childhood-dystonia-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Maraike A Coenen, Hendriekje Eggink, Marina A Tijssen, Jacoba M Spikman
AIM: Cognitive impairments have been established as part of the non-motor phenomenology of adult dystonia. In childhood dystonia, the extent of cognitive impairments is less clear. This systematic review aims to present an overview of the existing literature to elucidate the cognitive profile of primary and secondary childhood dystonia. METHOD: Studies focusing on cognition in childhood dystonia were searched in MEDLINE and PsychInfo up to October 2017. We included studies on idiopathic and genetic forms of dystonia as well as dystonia secondary to cerebral palsy and inborn errors of metabolism...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238711/long-term-dose-stability-of-onabotulinumtoxina-injection-for-adductor-spasmodic-dysphonia-a-19-year-single-institution-experience
#2
Paul Paddle, Inna Husain, Christine Moniz, Scott Turner, Ramon Arturo Franco
Objectives: Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) is a focal dystonia predominantly involving the laryngeal adductor muscles. AdSD is reported to be a largely non-progressive neurological disorder, though fluctuations in symptom severity do occur. Repeated laryngeal onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX-A) injections are the primary management for AdSD. A number of studies have demonstrated long-term dose stability as evidence of this long-term disease stability. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all patients undergoing BTX-A injections for AdSD from April 1994 to September 2013 by a single laryngologist at a tertiary referral laryngology center...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231958/medical-issues-in-playing-the-oboe-a-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Sofia Banzhoff, Maria Del Mar Ropero, Gabriele Menzel, Tatjana Salmen, Manfred Gross, Philipp P Caffier
Playing a musical instrument can affect physical and mental health. A literature review was conducted to determine the prevalence of health problems among oboists, which medical conditions can be caused or exacerbated by playing, whether oboe playing can be a protective factor, and whether recommendations are possible as to who should or should not play the oboe. Searches in 7 databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SocIndex, PsyIndex, Psychinfo) yielded a total of 950 studies; after exclusion of duplicates and those not meeting eligibility criteria, 37 articles were selected for final analysis...
December 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230798/botulinum-toxin-type-a-therapy-for-cervical-dystonia
#4
REVIEW
Mafalda Castelão, Raquel E Marques, Gonçalo S Duarte, Filipe B Rodrigues, Joaquim Ferreira, Cristina Sampaio, Austen P Moore, João Costa
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005. Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia and is a highly disabling movement disorder characterised by involuntary, usually painful, head posturing. Currently, botulinum toxin type A (BtA) is considered the first line therapy for this condition. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of botulinum toxin type A (BtA) versus placebo in people with cervical dystonia...
December 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227296/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-and-its-variants-examining-the-behavioral-and-neurocognitive-phenotype
#6
James C Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS) is a metabolic disorder involving mutations in the HGPRT1 gene that result in hyperuricemia, intellectual disability, a dystonic movement disorder, and compulsive self-injury with self-mutilation. The aim of this review is to summarize recent research that documents the extended behavioral, neurologic, and neurocognitive phenotype in classic LNS, to describe milder variants of HGprt deficiency that do not self-injure and have less severe neurological and cognitive deficits, and to provide an update on treatment for associated psychiatric and behavioral disorders...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219190/phenomenology-genetics-and-cns-network-abnormalities-in-laryngeal-dystonia-a-30-year-experience
#7
Andrew Blitzer, Mitchell F Brin, Kristina Simonyan, Laurie J Ozelius, Steven J Frucht
OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal dystonia (LD) is a functionally specific disorder of the afferent-efferent motor coordination system producing action-induced muscle contraction with a varied phenomenology. This report of long-term studies aims to review and better define the phenomenology and central nervous system abnormalities of this disorder and improve diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Our studies categorized over 1,400 patients diagnosed with LD over the past 33 years, including demographic and medical history records and their phenomenological presentations...
December 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209494/rnai-mechanisms-in-huntington-s-disease-therapy-sirna-versus-shrna
#8
REVIEW
Sebastian Aguiar, Bram van der Gaag, Francesco Albert Bosco Cortese
Huntington's Disease (HD) is a genetically dominant trinucleotide repeat disorder resulting from CAG repeats within the Huntingtin (HTT) gene exceeding a normal range (> 36 CAGs). Symptoms of the disease manifest in middle age and include chorea, dystonia, and cognitive decline. Typical latency from diagnosis to death is 20 years. There are currently no disease-modifying therapies available to HD patients. RNAi is a potentially curative therapy for HD. A popular line of research employs siRNA or antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) to knock down mutant Huntingtin mRNA (mHTT)...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193359/consensus-statement-on-the-classification-of-tremors-from-the-task-force-on-tremor-of-the-international-parkinson-and-movement-disorder-society
#9
Kailash P Bhatia, Peter Bain, Nin Bajaj, Rodger J Elble, Mark Hallett, Elan D Louis, Jan Raethjen, Maria Stamelou, Claudia M Testa, Guenther Deuschl
BACKGROUND: Consensus criteria for classifying tremor disorders were published by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society in 1998. Subsequent advances with regard to essential tremor, tremor associated with dystonia, and other monosymptomatic and indeterminate tremors make a significant revision necessary. OBJECTIVES: Convene an international panel of experienced investigators to review the definition and classification of tremor. METHODS: Computerized MEDLINE searches in January 2013 and 2015 were conducted using a combination of text words and MeSH terms: "tremor", "tremor disorders", "essential tremor", "dystonic tremor", and "classification" limited to human studies...
November 30, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191439/effects-of-cerebellar-neuromodulation-in-movement-disorders-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Carina França, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Ricardo Galhardoni, Valquiria Silva, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Rubens Gisbert Cury
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum is involved in the pathophysiology of many movement disorders and its importance in the field of neuromodulation is growing. OBJECTIVES: To review the current evidence for cerebellar modulation in movement disorders and its safety profile. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified after a systematic literature review of the effects of cerebellar modulation in cerebellar ataxia, Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), dystonia and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
November 23, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185545/movement-disorders-and-chronic-psychosis-five-new-things
#11
Davide Martino, Francesca Morgante
Purpose of review: To discuss selected peer-reviewed research articles published between 2014 and 2016 and highlight 5 clinically relevant messages related to hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders in patients with chronic psychosis. Recent findings: A recent population-based study complemented data from clinical trials in showing increased risk of developing extrapyramidal symptoms with antipsychotic use. A community service-based longitudinal study showed that dopamine transporter imaging could help identify subgroups of patients with parkinsonism associated with antipsychotics with a progressive course, potentially manageable with l-dopa...
April 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173657/sonographic-guide-for-botulinum-toxin-injections-of-the-neck-muscles-in-cervical-dystonia
#12
REVIEW
Bayram Kaymak, Murat Kara, Eda Gürçay, Levent Özçakar
Intramuscular botulinum toxin (BoTX) injection is the first-line treatment of cervical dystonia. Poor treatment outcomes and some side effects, however, have been reported after BoTX applications. One of the most important reasons is incorrect localization of the needle during toxin injections. Without imaging, it is impossible to verify precise needle positioning in the proper muscle. Ultrasound has been recommended because of its high capability in illustrating most of the neck muscles. This review article discusses how ultrasound imaging can be used to scan/access neck muscles, mainly from the perspective of BoTX injections...
February 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161622/on-denny-brown-s-spastic-dystonia-what-is-it-and-what-causes-it
#13
REVIEW
Jakob Lorentzen, Maud Pradines, Jean-Michel Gracies, Jens Bo Nielsen
In this review, we will work around two simple definitions of two different entities, which most often co-exist in patients with lesions to central motor pathways: Spasticity is "Enhanced excitability of velocity-dependent responses to phasic stretch at rest", which will not be the subject of this review, while Spastic dystonia is tonic, chronic, involuntary muscle contraction in the absence of any stretch or any voluntary command (Gracies, 2005). Spastic dystonia is a much less well understood entity that will be the subject this review...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144565/rethinking-status-dystonicus
#14
REVIEW
Marta Ruiz-Lopez, Alfonso Fasano
Status dystonicus is a movement disorder emergency that has been a source of controversy in terms of terminology, phenomenology, and management since it was first described in 1982. Here we argue that the current use of the term status dystonicus falls well short of the precision needed for either clinical or academic use. We performed a critical review on this topic, describing possible pathophysiological mechanisms and areas of uncertainties. This review also addresses the problems derived by the extreme clinical heterogeneity of this condition, as the lack of an objective criterion useful for the definition, or the fact that status dystonicus may present not only in the context of a known dystonic syndrome...
November 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135566/management-of-hypertonia-in-cerebral-palsy
#15
Nickolas J Nahm, H Kerr Graham, Mark E Gormley, Andrew G Georgiadis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review provides an update on the treatment of hypertonia in cerebral palsy, including physical management, pharmacotherapy, neurosurgical, and orthopedic procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Serial casting potentiates the effect of Botulinum neurotoxin A injections for spasticity. Deep brain stimulation, intraventricular baclofen, and ventral and dorsal rhizotomy are emerging tools for the treatment of dystonia and/or mixed tone. The long-term results of selective dorsal rhizotomy and the timing of orthopedic surgery represent recent advances in the surgical management of hypertonia...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133709/experience-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-india-an-initial-experience
#16
M Manjunath, Ravi Yadav, Srinivas Dwarakanath, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, A Jafar, Pratibha Surathi, Abhishek Lenka, Albert Stezin, S Sampath, Pramod K Pal
INTRODUCTION: Dystonia is one of the most prevalent forms of movement disorders and is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonia causes significant morbidity with an adverse impact on the quality of life. When dystonia is medically refractory, causing severe pain and impairment in activities of daily living, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is a potential option to reduce disability...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123945/the-anatomical-basis-for-dystonia-the-motor-network-model
#17
REVIEW
H A Jinnah, Vladimir Neychev, Ellen J Hess
Background: The dystonias include a clinically and etiologically very diverse group of disorders. There are both degenerative and non-degenerative subtypes resulting from genetic or acquired causes. Traditionally, all dystonias have been viewed as disorders of the basal ganglia. However, there has been increasing appreciation for involvement of other brain regions including the cerebellum, thalamus, midbrain, and cortex. Much of the early evidence for these other brain regions has come from studies of animals, but multiple recent studies have been done with humans, in an effort to confirm or refute involvement of these other regions...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120894/advances-in-pharmacotherapies-for-movement-disorders-in-children-current-limitations-and-future-progress
#18
Jean-Pierre Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In childhood, movement disorders are generated by a very large number of disorders of the nervous system, and the very different developmental ages at which these occur make studies of pharmacotherapy efficacy extremely difficult. In most clinical practices, medication used in management is by trial and error, and limited by lack of efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions leading to drug intolerance. Nevertheless, symptom reduction using polypharmacy must be balanced against any accompanying comorbidities such as poor attention and concentration, constipation, ileus, urinary retention, blurred vision sedation and respiratory depression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111119/direct-central-nervous-system-effects-of-botulinum-neurotoxin
#19
Matteo Caleo, Laura Restani
Local intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) are effective in the treatment of focal dystonias, muscle spasms, and spasticity. However, not all clinical effects of BoNT/A may be explained by its action at peripheral nerve terminals. For example, the therapeutic benefit may exceed the duration of the peripheral neuroparalysis induced by the neurotoxin. In cellular and animal models, evidence demonstrates retrograde transport of catalytically active BoNT/A in projection neurons. This process of long-range trafficking is followed by transcytosis and action at second-order synapses...
October 31, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089396/pathogenesis-of-dystonia-is-it-of-cerebellar-or-basal-ganglia-origin
#20
REVIEW
Ryuji Kaji, Kailash Bhatia, Ann M Graybiel
Dystonia is a disorder of motor programmes controlling semiautomatic movements or postures, with clinical features such as sensory trick, which suggests sensorimotor mismatch as the basis. Dystonia was originally classified as a basal ganglia disease. It is now regarded as a 'network' disorder including the cerebellum, but the exact pathogenesis being unknown. Rare autopsy studies have found pathology both in the striatum and the cerebellum, and functional disorganisation was reported in the somatosensory cortex in patients...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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