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Dystonia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818530/recent-developments-in-clinical-trials-of-botulinum-neurotoxins
#1
Antoniangela Cocco, Alberto Albanese
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are increasingly used in clinical practice for several indications. Following the pioneering years of discoveries, the recent years have witnessed an increase of new indications and new toxin brands. We review here the clinical trials on BoNTs performed since 2014 and put them into perspective. We also review the ongoing trials listed by the National Institutes of Health registry (Clinicaltrials.gov). The following indications are reviewed here: blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, spasticity, cerebral palsy, urinary incontinence, headache, topical formulations, postoperative cardiac arrhythmia, keloids and scars...
August 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805576/nonmotor-symptoms-in-essential-tremor-and-other-tremor-disorders
#2
Alessandro F Fois, Hugo M Briceño, Victor S C Fung
Tremor, like dystonia, is a term used at the phenomenological, syndromic, and aetiopathological level. Parkinsonian, essential, and dystonic tremor are the three most common tremor diagnoses encountered in clinical practice. Investigation of nonmotor symptoms in essential tremor and dystonic tremor syndromes is significantly hampered by the lack of clear clinical diagnostic criteria for these groups at a syndromic level, and the absence of biomarkers which allow definitive diagnosis at an aetiopathological level...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805567/nutrition-and-nonmotor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Laurie K Mischley
To date, no guidelines exist for the screening, evaluation, and management of nutritional status in PD. Dozens of studies demonstrate an association between diet in adulthood with subsequent risk of developing PD. Individuals with PD are at increased risk of malnutrition due to the increased metabolic demands and disease pathophysiology. Risk of malnutrition is further complicated by anosmia, swallowing difficulties, constipation, and drug-nutrient interactions. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the intestinal tract is affected early in the disease, creating therapeutic opportunities for early intervention...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782903/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-dystonia-therapeutic-implications
#4
REVIEW
R Erro, M Tinazzi, F Morgante, K P Bhatia
Dystonia is characterized by excessive muscle contractions giving rise to abnormal posture and involuntary twisting movements. Although dystonia syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disorders, certain pathophysiological mechanisms have been consistently identified across different forms. These pathophysiological mechanisms have subsequently been exploited for the development of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques able to modulate neural activity in one or more nodes of the putative network that is altered in dystonia, and the therapeutic role of NIBS has hence been suggested...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775195/movement-side-effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-in-adults-with-and-without-intellectual-disability-uk-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Rory Sheehan, Laura Horsfall, André Strydom, David Osborn, Kate Walters, Angela Hassiotis
OBJECTIVES: To measure the incidence of movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs in adults with intellectual disability and compare rates with adults without intellectual disability. DESIGN: Cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs matched to a control group of adults without intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772097/what-have-we-learned-about-movement-disorders-from-functional-neurosurgery
#6
Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison, Suneil K Kalia
Modern functional neurosurgery for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, tremor, and dystonia involves the placement of focal lesions or the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) within circuits that modulate motor function. Precise targeting of these motor structures can be further refined by the use of electrophysiological approaches. In particular, microelectrode recordings enable the delineation of neuroanatomic structures. In the course of these operations, there is an opportunity not only to map basal ganglia structures but also to gain insights into how disturbances in neural activity produce movement disorders...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758203/haloperidol-for-psychosis-induced-aggression-or-agitation-rapid-tranquillisation
#7
REVIEW
Edoardo G Ostinelli, Melanie J Brooke-Powney, Xue Li, Clive E Adams
BACKGROUND: Haloperidol used alone is recommended to help calm situations of aggression or agitation for people with psychosis. It is widely accessible and may be the only antipsychotic medication available in limited-resource areas. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether haloperidol alone is an effective treatment for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation, wherein clinicians are required to intervene to prevent harm to self and others. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (26th May 2016)...
July 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752857/insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#8
REVIEW
Keyoumars Ashkan, Priya Rogers, Hagai Bergman, Ismail Ughratdar
Despite long-term and widespread use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a variety of neurological conditions, the underlying mechanisms of action have been elusive. Growing evidence suggests that DBS acts through multimodal mechanisms that are not limited to inhibition and excitation of basal ganglia circuits. DBS also seems to act over variable time spans - for example, the effects on tremor are immediate, whereas the effects on dystonia emerge over several weeks - suggesting that large networks are targeted...
July 28, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739219/systematic-review-of-hardware-related-complications-of-deep-brain-stimulation-do-new-indications-pose-an-increased-risk
#9
Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, Alfonso Fasano
INTRODUCTION: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment extended broadly to many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, complications may arise during DBS procedures or following implantation due to implanted hardware. This may result in both minor and major adverse events that may necessitate hardware removal and/or compromise maximal therapeutic benefit for the patient. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To identify relevant literature on hardware-related complications from DBS procedures by performing a systematic review, and propose how to identify at-risk group and possible preventive approaches...
July 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736206/bpag1-in-muscles-structure-and-function-in-skeletal-cardiac-and-smooth-muscle
#10
REVIEW
Masao Horie, Nozomu Yoshioka, Hirohide Takebayashi
BPAG1, also known as Dystonin or BP230, belongs to the plakin family of proteins, which has multiple cytoskeleton-binding domains. Several BPAG1 isoforms are produced by a single BPAG1 genomic locus using different promoters and exons. For example, BPAG1a, BPAG1b, and BPAG1e are predominantly expressed in the nervous system, muscle, and skin, respectively. Among BPAG1 isoforms, BPAG1e is well studied because it was first identified as an autoantigen in patients with bullous pemphigoid, an autoimmune skin disease...
July 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716238/posttraumatic-dystonia
#11
REVIEW
Karen Frei
In most cases the cause for dystonia is unknown. In a small number of patients, trauma precedes the onset of the dystonia. Significant head trauma is a well-recognized precipitating factor in dystonia. However, it has become increasingly recognized that peripheral trauma can also result in dystonia. Secondary dystonia resulting from both central and peripheral trauma, its possible pathogenesis and treatment is discussed in this review.
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697164/the-use-safety-and-efficacy-of-olanzapine-in-a-level-i-pediatric-trauma-center-emergency-department-over-a-10-year-period
#12
Jon B Cole, Lauren R Klein, Ashley M Strobel, Stephane R Blanchard, Rebecca Nahum, Marc L Martel
OBJECTIVES: Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic increasingly used in emergency medicine for many indications. Literature on its use in children is sparse. Our objectives were to describe the use, safety, and efficacy of olanzapine in pediatric emergency patients. METHODS: A structured chart review was performed of patients 18 years old or younger receiving olanzapine from 2007 to 2016 in the emergency department of a pediatric level I trauma center. RESULTS: A total of 285 children received olanzapine...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690015/causes-of-failure-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-cases-with-pre-operative-diagnosis-of-isolated-dystonia
#13
K Amande M Pauls, Joachim K Krauss, Constanze E Kämpfer, Andrea A Kühn, Christoph Schrader, Martin Südmeyer, Niels Allert, Rainer Benecke, Christian Blahak, Jana K Boller, Gereon R Fink, Wolfgang Fogel, Thomas Liebig, Faycal El Majdoub, Philipp Mahlknecht, Josef Kessler, Joerg Mueller, Juergen Voges, Matthias Wittstock, Alexander Wolters, Mohammad Maarouf, Elena Moro, Jens Volkmann, Kailash P Bhatia, Lars Timmermann
INTRODUCTION: Pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) is an effective therapy for isolated dystonia, but 10-20% of patients show improvement below 25-30%. We here investigated causes of insufficient response to GPi-DBS in isolated dystonia in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Patients with isolated dystonia at time of surgery, and <30% improvement on the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia-rating-scale (BFMDRS) after ≥6 months of continuous GPi-DBS were videotaped ON and OFF stimulation, and history, preoperative videos, brain MRI, medical records, stimulation settings, stimulation system integrity, lead location, and genetic information were obtained and reviewed by an expert panel...
June 28, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676144/ixcellence-network%C3%A2-an-international-educational-network-to-improve-current-practice-in-the-management-of-cervical-dystonia-or-spastic-paresis-by-botulinum-toxin-injection
#14
Klemens Fheodoroff, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Luis Jorge Jacinto, Tae Mo Chung, Kailash Bhatia, Therese Landreau, Carlo Colosimo
Botulinum toxin is a well-established treatment for a number of conditions involving muscle hyperactivity, such as focal dystonia and spastic paresis. However, current injection practice is not standardized and there is a clear need for structured training. An international group of experts in the management of patients with cervical dystonia (CD) and spastic paresis created a steering committee (SC). For each therapeutic area, the SC developed a core slide set on best practice, based on the literature. International sites of expertise were identified for training and courses were designed to include lectures and casebased learning...
April 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669294/unilateral-thalamic-and-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-idiopathic-hemidystonia-results-of-individual-and-combined-stimulations-case-report
#15
Victor Goulenko, Paulo Luiz da Costa Cruz, Paulo Niemeyer Filho
Pallidal stimulation has been the usual surgical treatment for dystonia in the last decades. The continuous investigation of the physiopathology and the motor pathways involved leads to the search for complementary targets to improve results. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old woman who had suffered from idiopathic hemidystonia with hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movements for 11 years, and who was treated with deep brain stimulation. A brief literature review is also provided. The globus pallidus internus and the ventral intermediate/ventral oral posterior complex of the thalamus were stimulated separately and simultaneously for 3 months and compared using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and the Global Dystonia Severity Rating Scale, with a 3...
July 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662915/a-new-patient-with-intermediate-severe-salla-disease%C3%A2-with-hypomyelination-a-literature-review-for-salla-disease
#16
Rebecca Barmherzig, Garrett Bullivant, Dawn Cordeiro, David S Sinasac, Susan Blaser, Saadet Mercimek-Mahmutoglu
BACKGROUND: Likely pathogenic variants in SLC17A5 results in allelic disorders of free sialic acid metabolism including (1) infantile free sialic acid storage disease with severe global developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; (2) intermediate severe Salla disease with moderate to severe global developmental delay, hypotonia, and hypomyelination with or without coarse facial features, and (3) Salla disease with normal appearance, mild cognitive dysfunction, and spasticity...
September 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655027/zolpidem-for-the-treatment-of-neurologic-disorders-a-systematic-review
#17
Martin N Bomalaski, Edward S Claflin, Whitney Townsend, Mark D Peterson
Importance: Given its selective action on the ω1 subtype of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor, zolpidem tartrate presents a potential treatment mechanism for other neurologic disorders. Objective: To synthesize studies that used zolpidem to treat neurologic disorders. Evidence Review: Eligibility criteria included any published English-language article that examined the use of zolpidem for noninsomnia neurologic disorders in humans for all dates up to March 20, 2015...
June 26, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651822/pharyngeal-dystonia-mimicking-spasmodic-dysphonia
#18
Lucy L Shi, C Blake Simpson, Edie R Hapner, Hyder A Jinnah, Michael M Johns
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the presentation of pharyngeal dystonia (PD), which can occur as a focal or segmental dystonia with a primarily pharyngeal involvement for the discussion of treatment methods for controlling consequent symptoms. PD is specific to speech-related tasks. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of four patients with PD was performed. RESULTS: All patients were initially misdiagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia and failed standard treatment with botulinum toxin type A (BTX)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629633/atypical-pantothenate-kinase-associated-neurodegeneration-clinical-description-of-two-brothers-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
S Mahoui, A Benhaddadi, W Ameur El Khedoud, M Abada Bendib, M Chaouch
Two clinical forms of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) have been described: typical PKAN and atypical PKAN. Atypical PKAN has later onset and a slower course of disease. This report describes two siblings with the atypical form of PKAN, combining dystonia, irritability and a dysmorphia syndrome. In addition, a review of the literature was carried out for all published cases of atypical PKAN to gather descriptions of its various clinical presentations, age of onset and MRI findings, and to highlight the different treatments used for PKAN patients...
June 16, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627117/the-cognitive-features-of-idiopathic-and-dyt1-dystonia
#20
REVIEW
Marjan Jahanshahi, Mariam Torkamani
Dystonia is a common movement disorder. In this paper, we review the literature on cognitive function in idiopathic and DYT1 dystonia. In idiopathic or DYT1 dystonia, cognition is largely intact with only isolated executive dysfunction. Dystonia patients also have increased temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds, considered endophenotypes of the disorder because deficits are also shown by unaffected relatives and nonmanifesting carriers of the DYT1 mutation. Anticholinergic medication in high doses can be associated with memory impairment in dystonia...
June 19, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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