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Fight or flight

Katarína Vdoviaková, Katarína Vdoviaková, Eva Petrovová, Lenka Krešáková, Marcela Maloveská, Jana Teleky, Janka Jenčová, Jozef Živčák, Andrej Jenča
BACKGROUND The laboratory rat is one of the most popular experimental models for the experimental surgery of the liver. The objective of this study was to investigate the morphometric parameters, physiological data, differences in configuration of liver lobes, biliary system, and vasculature (arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels) of the liver in laboratory rats. In addition, this study supports the anatomic literature and identified similarities and differences with human and other mammals. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty laboratory rats were dissected to prepare corrosion casts of vascular system specimens (n=20), determine the lymph vessels and lymph nodes (n=10), and for macroscopic anatomical dissection (n=10) of the rat liver...
December 2, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ying-Yuan Lu, Hai-Xu Cheng, Xin Wang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Jun-Yi Liu, Pu Li, Ya-Qing Lou, Jun Li, Chuang Lu, Guo-Liang Zhang
1. The aim of this study was to identify the hepatic metabolic enzymes, which involved in the biotransformation of 6-benzyl-1-benzyloxymethyl-5-iodouracil (W-1), a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) in rat and human in vitro. 2. The parent drug of W-1 was incubated with RLMs or recombinant CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, respectively) in the presence or absence of NADPH regenerating system. The metabolites of W-1 were analyzed with liquid chromatography-ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS)...
December 2, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
L C Jarrott, L R Benedetti, H Chen, N Izumi, S F Khan, T Ma, S R Nagel, O L Landen, A Pak, P K Patel, M Schneider, H A Scott
We report on measurements of the electron temperature in the hotspot of inertially confined, layered, spherical implosions on the National Ignition Facility using a differential filtering diagnostic. Measurements of the DT and DD ion temperatures using neutron time-of-flight detectors are complicated by the contribution of hot spot motion to the peak width, which produce an apparent temperature higher than the thermal temperature. The electron temperature is not sensitive to this non-thermal velocity and is thus a valuable input to interpreting the stagnated hot spot conditions...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
C B Yeamans, N Gharibyan
At the National Ignition Facility, the diagnostic instrument manipulator-based neutron activation spectrometer is used as a diagnostic of implosion performance for inertial confinement fusion experiments. Additionally, it serves as a platform for independent neutronic experiments and may be connected to fast recording systems for neutron effect tests on active electronics. As an implosion diagnostic, the neutron activation spectrometers are used to quantify fluence of primary DT neutrons, downscattered neutrons, and neutrons above the primary DT neutron energy created by reactions of upscattered D and T in flight...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
G Q Zhong, L Q Hu, N Pu, R J Zhou, M Xiao, H R Cao, Y B Zhu, K Li, T S Fan, X Y Peng, T F Du, L J Ge, J Huang, G S Xu, B N Wan
Neutron diagnostics have become a significant means to study energetic particles in high power auxiliary heating plasmas on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Several kinds of neutron diagnostic systems have been implemented for time-resolved measurements of D-D neutron flux, fluctuation, emission profile, and spectrum. All detectors have been calibrated in laboratory, and in situ calibration using (252)Cf neutron source in EAST is in preparation. A new technology of digitized pulse signal processing is adopted in a wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor, compact recoil proton spectrometer, and time of flight spectrometer...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Oguzhan Balki, Hani E Elsayed-Ali
Carbon ions generated by ablation of a carbon target using an Nd:YAG laser pulse (wavelength λ = 1064 nm, pulse width τ = 7 ns, and laser fluence of 10-110 J cm(-2)) are characterized. Time-of-flight analyzer, a three-mesh retarding field analyzer, and an electrostatic ion energy analyzer are used to study the charge and energy of carbon ions generated by laser ablation. The dependencies of the ion signal on the laser fluence, laser focal point position relative to target surface, and the acceleration voltage are described...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
D B Sayre, F Barbosa, J A Caggiano, V N DiPuccio, M J Eckart, G P Grim, E P Hartouni, R Hatarik, F A Weber
Sixty-four neutral density filters constructed of metal plates with 88 apertures of varying diameter have been radiographed with a soft x-ray source and CCD camera at National Security Technologies, Livermore. An analysis of the radiographs fits the radial dependence of the apertures' image intensities to sigmoid functions, which can describe the rapidly decreasing intensity towards the apertures' edges. The fitted image intensities determine the relative attenuation value of each filter. Absolute attenuation values of several imaged filters, measured in situ during calibration experiments, normalize the relative quantities which are now used in analyses of neutron spectrometer data at the National Ignition Facility...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
N V Kabadi, H Sio, V Glebov, M Gatu Johnson, A MacPhee, J A Frenje, C K Li, F Seguin, R Petrasso, C Forrest, J Knauer, H G Rinderknecht
The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF's absolute sensitivity to neutrons...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
E P Hartouni, B Beeman, J A Caggiano, C Cerjan, M J Eckart, G P Grim, R Hatarik, A S Moore, D H Munro, T Phillips, D B Sayre
A common analysis procedure minimizes the ln-likelihood that a set of experimental observables matches a parameterized model of the observation. The model includes a description of the underlying physical process as well as the instrument response function (IRF). In the case investigated here, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers, the IRF is constructed from measurements and models. IRF measurements have a finite precision that can make significant contributions to determine the uncertainty estimate of the physical model's parameters...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
C J Forrest, V Yu Glebov, V N Goncharov, J P Knauer, P B Radha, S P Regan, M H Romanofsky, T C Sangster, M J Shoup, C Stoeckl
Upgraded microchannel-plate-based photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMT's) with increased stability to signal-shape linearity have been implemented on the 13.4-m neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector at the Omega Laser Facility. This diagnostic uses oxygenated xylene doped with diphenyloxazole C15H11NO + p-bis-(o-methylstyryl)-benzene (PPO + bis-MSB) wavelength shifting dyes and is coupled through four viewing ports to fast-gating MCP-PMT's, each with a different gain to allow one to measure the light output over a dynamic range of 1 × 10(6)...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
X Y Peng, Z J Chen, X Zhang, T F Du, Z M Hu, L J Ge, Y M Zhang, J Q Sun, G Gorini, M Nocente, M Tardocchi, L Q Hu, G Q Zhong, N Pu, S Y Lin, B N Wan, X Q Li, G H Zhang, J X Chen, T S Fan
The 2.5 MeV TOFED (Time-Of-Flight Enhanced Diagnostics) neutron spectrometer with a double-ring structure has been installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to perform advanced neutron emission spectroscopy diagnosis of deuterium plasmas. This work describes the response function of the TOFED spectrometer, which is evaluated for the fully assembled instrument in its final layout. Results from Monte Carlo simulations and dedicated experiments with pulsed light sources are presented and used to determine properties of light transport from the scintillator...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
A C L Jones, A M Piñeiro, E E Roeder, H J Rutbeck-Goldman, H W K Tom, A P Mills
We describe here the development and characterization of a micro-channel plate (MCP) based detector designed for the efficient collection and detection of Rydberg positronium (Ps) atoms for use in a time-of-flight apparatus. The designed detector collects Rydberg atoms over a large area (∼4 times greater than the active area of the MCP), ionizing incident atoms and then collecting and focusing the freed positrons onto the MCP. Here we discuss the function, design, and optimization of the device. The detector has an efficiency for Rydberg Ps that is two times larger than that of the γ-ray scintillation detector based scheme it has been designed to replace, with half the background signal...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
P S Datte, M Eckart, A S Moore, W Thompson, G Vergel de Dios
Neutron-induced visible scintillation in neutron time of flight (NToF) diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is measured with 40 mm single stage micro-channel plate photomultipliers and a 40 mm vacuum photodiode, outside the neutron line of sight. In NIF experiments with 14 MeV neutron yields above Y > 10 × 10(15) these tubes are configured to deliver of order 1 nC of charge in the nominally 5 ns NToF into a 50 Ω load. We have examined a number of 40 mm tubes manufactured by Photek Ltd. of St...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
D J Schlossberg, G M Bodner, M W Bongard, R J Fonck, J A Reusch, C Rodriguez Sanchez
A novel, cost-effective, multi-point Thomson scattering system has been designed, implemented, and operated on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment. Leveraging advances in Nd:YAG lasers, high-efficiency volume phase holographic transmission gratings, and increased quantum-efficiency Generation 3 image-intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras, the system provides Thomson spectra at eight spatial locations for a single grating/camera pair. The on-board digitization of the ICCD camera enables easy modular expansion, evidenced by recent extension from 4 to 12 plasma/background spatial location pairs...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Laura Flight, Steven A Julious
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Pharmaceutical Statistics
D P Silva, D S Nogueira, P De Marco
Landscape structure is an important determinant of biological fluxes and species composition, but species do not respond equally to landscape features or spatial extents. Evaluating "multi-scale" responses of species to landscape structure is an important framework to be considered, allowing insights about habitat requirements for different groups. We evaluated the response of Brazilian Cerrado's bees (eusocial vs. solitary ones) to both the amount and isolation of remnant vegetation in eight nested multiple-local scales...
December 1, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
S Adam Stratz, Steven A Jones, Colton J Oldham, Austin D Mullen, Ashlyn V Jones, John D Auxier, Howard L Hall
This study presents the first known detection of fission products commonly found in post-detonation nuclear debris samples using solid sample introduction and a uniquely coupled gas chromatography inductively-coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Rare earth oxides were chemically altered to incorporate a ligand that enhances the volatility of the samples. These samples were injected (as solids) into the aforementioned instrument and detected for the first time. Repeatable results indicate the validity of the methodology, and this capability, when refined, will prove to be a valuable asset for rapid post-detonation nuclear forensic analysis...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
J Zou, C Wu, W D Robertson, L V Zhigilei, R J D Miller
Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to characterize the ablation process induced by a picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) operating in the regime of desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) of a model peptide (lysozyme)/counter-ion system in aqueous solution. The simulations were performed for ablation under typical experimental conditions found within a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), that is in vacuum with an applied electric field (E = ± 10(7) V/m), for up to 2 ns post-ablation and compared to the standard PIRL-DIVE ablation condition (E = 0 V/m)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sebastian Niko Kunz, Jiri Adamec, Christina Grove
During a bloodstain pattern analysis, one of the essential tasks is to distinguish between different kinds of applied forces as well as to estimate their level of intensity. In this study, high-speed digital imaging has been used to analyze the formation of cast-off patterns generated by a simulated backswing with a blood-bearing object. For this purpose, 0.5 mL blood was applied evenly over the last 5 cm of a blade simulant. Bloodstains were created through the controlled acceleration of a backswing at different speed levels between 1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Hamza Hanieh, Omar Mohafez, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul-Islam, Abdullah Alzahrani, Mohammad Bani Ismail, Krishnaraj Thirugnanasambantham
BACKGROUND: Despite the remarkable progress to fight against breast cancer, metastasis remains the dominant cause of treatment failure and recurrence. Therefore, control of invasiveness potential of breast cancer cells is crucial. Accumulating evidences suggest Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a helix-loop-helix transcription factor, as a promising target to control migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. Thus, an Ahr-based exploration was performed to identify a new Ahr agonist with inhibitory potentials on cancer cell motility...
2016: PloS One
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