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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651109/separation-of-furostanol-saponins-by-supercritical-fluid-chromatography
#1
Jie Yang, Lingling Zhu, Yang Zhao, Yongwei Xu, Qinglong Sun, Shuchen Liu, Chao Liu, Baiping Ma
Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has good separation efficiency and is suitable for separating weakly polar compounds. Furostanol saponins, as an important kind of steroidal saponins, generally have two sugar chains, which are polar and hydrophilic. The hydroxyl group at the C-22 position of furostanol saponins is active and easily reacts with lower alcohols under appropriate conditions. The separation of hydrophilic furostanol saponins was tested by SFC in this study. The effects of chromatographic conditions on the separation of the mixed furostanol saponins and their hydroxyl derivatives at the C-22 position were studied...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651045/photoinduced-charge-transfer-versus-fragmentation-pathways-in-lanthanum-cyclopentadienyl-complexes
#2
Yulun Han, Qingguo Meng, Bakhtiyor Rasulev, P Stanley May, Mary T Berry, Dmitri S Kilin
This study compares two competing pathways of photoexcitations in gas-phase metal-organic complexes: first, a sequence of phonon-assisted electronic transitions leading to dissipation of the energy of photoexcitations and second, a sequence of light-driven electronic transitions leading to photolysis. Phonon-assisted charge carrier dynamics is investigated by combination of the density matrix formalism and on-the-fly nonadiabatic couplings. Light-driven fragmentation is modeled by a time-dependent excited-state molecular dynamics (TDESMD) algorithm based on Rabi theory and principles similar to the trajectory surface hopping approximation...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650085/immunogenicity-of-plant-produced-african-horse-sickness-virus-like-particles-implications-for-a-novel-vaccine
#3
Susan J Dennis, Ann E Meyers, Alan J Guthrie, Inga I Hitzeroth, Edward P Rybicki
African horse sickness (AHS) is a debilitating and often fatal viral disease affecting horses in much of Africa, caused by the dsRNA orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV). Vaccination remains the single most effective weapon in combatting AHS, as there is no treatment for the disease apart from good animal husbandry. However, the only commercially available vaccine is a live attenuated version of the virus (LAV). The threat of outbreaks of the disease outside its endemic region and the fact that the LAV is not licensed for use elsewhere in the world, have spurred attempts to develop an alternative safer, yet cost-effective recombinant vaccine...
June 26, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650054/long-pulse-laser-launch-and-ionization-of-tailored-large-neutral-silver-nanoparticles-with-atomic-mass-assignment
#4
A Gallego, U Sezer, M Arndt, M Mayor
We explore the synthesis, characterization, neutral launch and vacuum ultraviolet ionization of massive perfluorinated-alkyl-capped nanoparticles. The presence of the ligand coating in solution is corroborated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the particle size distribution is analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry identifies perfluoralkyl coated silver nanoparticles as the most stable species among the materials studied here...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649638/a-cubesat-centrifuge-for-long-duration-milligravity-research
#5
REVIEW
Erik Asphaug, Jekan Thangavelautham, Andrew Klesh, Aman Chandra, Ravi Nallapu, Laksh Raura, Mercedes Herreras-Martinez, Stephen Schwartz
We advocate a low-cost strategy for long-duration research into the 'milligravity' environment of asteroids, comets and small moons, where surface gravity is a vector field typically less than 1/1000 the gravity of Earth. Unlike the microgravity environment of space, there is a directionality that gives rise, over time, to strangely familiar geologic textures and landforms. In addition to advancing planetary science, and furthering technologies for hazardous asteroid mitigation and in situ resource utilization, simplified access to long-duration milligravity offers significant potential for advancing human spaceflight, biomedicine and manufacturing...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649633/latent-virus-reactivation-in-astronauts-on-the-international-space-station
#6
Satish K Mehta, Mark L Laudenslager, Raymond P Stowe, Brian E Crucian, Alan H Feiveson, Clarence F Sams, Duane L Pierson
Reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . Twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Saliva was analyzed for Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. Urine was analyzed for cytomegalovirus...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649628/a-hitchhiker-s-guide-to-an-iss-experiment-in-under-9-months
#7
Andrei James Nadir, Kevin Sato
The International Space Station National Laboratory gives students a platform to conduct space-flight science experiments. To successfully take advantage of this opportunity, students and their mentors must have an understanding of how to develop and then conduct a science project on international space station within a school year. Many factors influence the speed in which a project progresses. The first step is to develop a science plan, including defining a hypothesis, developing science objectives, and defining a concept of operation for conducting the flight experiment...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649626/investigation-of-simulated-microgravity-effects-on-streptococcus-mutans-physiology-and-global-gene-expression
#8
Silvia S Orsini, April M Lewis, Kelly C Rice
Astronauts have been previously shown to exhibit decreased salivary lysozyme and increased dental calculus and gingival inflammation in response to space flight, host factors that could contribute to oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis. However, the specific physiological response of caries-causing bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans to space flight and/or ground-based simulated microgravity has not been extensively investigated. In this study, high aspect ratio vessel S. mutans simulated microgravity and normal gravity cultures were assessed for changes in metabolite and transcriptome profiles, H2O2 resistance, and competence in sucrose-containing biofilm media...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649625/the-effect-of-long-term-exposure-to-microgravity-on-the-perception-of-upright
#9
Laurence R Harris, Michael Jenkin, Heather Jenkin, James E Zacher, Richard T Dyde
Going into space is a disorienting experience. Many studies have looked at sensory functioning in space but the multisensory basis of orientation has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assess how prolonged exposure to microgravity affects the relative weighting of visual, gravity, and idiotropic cues to perceived orientation. We separated visual, body, and gravity (when present) cues to perceived orientation before, during, and after long-term exposure to microgravity during the missions of seven astronauts on the International Space Station (mean duration 168 days) and measuring perceived vertical using the subjective visual vertical and the perceptual upright...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649623/segregation-and-pattern-formation-in-dilute-granular-media-under-microgravity-conditions
#10
Eric Opsomer, Martial Noirhomme, Nicolas Vandewalle, Eric Falcon, Simon Merminod
Space exploration and exploitation face a major challenge: the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environments. Indeed, grains behave quite differently in space than on Earth, and the dissipative nature of the collisions between solid particles leads to clustering. Within poly-disperse materials, the question of segregation is highly relevant but has not been addressed so far in microgravity. From parabolic flight experiments on dilute binary granular media, we show that clustering can trigger a segregation mechanism, and we observe, for the first time, the formation of layered structures in the bulk...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649497/spectral-analysis-assisted-photoacoustic-imaging-for-lipid-composition-differentiation
#11
Yingchun Cao, Ayeeshik Kole, Lu Lan, Pu Wang, Jie Hui, Michael Sturek, Ji-Xin Cheng
Recent advances in atherosclerotic plaque detection have shown that not only does lipid core size and depth play important roles in plaque rupture and thrombi formation, but lipid composition, especially cholesterol deposition, is equally important in determining lesion vulnerability. Here, we demonstrate a spectral analysis assisted photoacoustic imaging approach to differentiate and map lipid compositions within an artery wall. The approach is based on the classification of spectral curves obtained from the sliding windows along time-of-flight photoacoustic signals via a numerical k-means clustering method...
September 2017: Photoacoustics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649342/the-relative-contribution-of-drift-and-selection-to-phenotypic-divergence-a-test-case-using-the-horseshoe-bats-rhinolophus-simulator-and-rhinolophus-swinnyi
#12
Gregory L Mutumi, David S Jacobs, Henning Winker
Natural selection and drift can act on populations individually, simultaneously or in tandem and our understanding of phenotypic divergence depends on our ability to recognize the contribution of each. According to the quantitative theory of evolution, if an organism has diversified through neutral evolutionary processes (mutation and drift), variation of phenotypic characteristics between different geographic localities (B) should be directly proportional to the variation within localities (W), that is, B ∝ W...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649332/behavioral-evidence-of-hunting-and-foraging-techniques-by-a-top-predator-suggests-the-importance-of-scavenging-for-preadults
#13
Antoni Margalida, MªÀngels Colomer, Roberto Sánchez, Francisco Javier Sánchez, Javier Oria, Luis Mariano González
Scavenging may be a regular feeding behavior for some facultative raptor species occupying low quality habitats and/or with little experience in hunting techniques. However, its importance has been largely underestimated due to methodological limitations in identifying the real proportion in the diet. Here, through direct observations, we assessed the hunting and foraging success of the threatened Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti determining the influence of age, sex, breeding status, habitat quality, prey type, and landscape characteristics...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648866/cytokines-in-immunogenic-cell-death-applications-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Anne Showalter, Arati Limaye, Jeremiah L Oyer, Robert Igarashi, Christina Kittipatarin, Alicja J Copik, Annette R Khaled
Despite advances in treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy, metastatic cancer remains a leading cause of death for cancer patients. While many chemotherapeutic agents can efficiently eliminate cancer cells, long-term protection against cancer is not achieved and many patients experience cancer recurrence. Mobilizing and stimulating the immune system against tumor cells is one of the most effective ways to protect against cancers that recur and/or metastasize. Activated tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can seek out and destroy metastatic tumor cells and reduce tumor lesions...
June 22, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648841/fine-needle-aspiration-combined-with-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-to-characterize-lipid-biomarkers-for-diagnosing-accuracy-of-breast-cancer
#15
Yi-Tzu Cho, Hung Su, Yi-Yan Chiang, Jentaie Shiea, Shyng-Shiou F Yuan, Wen-Chun Hung, Yao-Tsung Yeh, Ming-Feng Hou
BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been widely used for pathologic assessment of breast lesions. However, the examination suffers a risk of false-negative results owing to insufficient sample volumes, inaccurate sampling positions, nondefinitive cytologic features, or suboptimal cell preservation. One approach to improve its accuracy is using modern mass spectrometry to detect disease biomarkers, of which the tissue samples are collected through FNA. METHODS: The biological compounds in the FNA tissue samples were extracted and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS)...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648241/is-a-peaceful-mind-a-winning-mind-comment-on
#16
Li-Wei Zhang
This commentary on Hardy and colleagues' discussion of psychosocial biographies of British super-elite athletes discusses cultural differences from a Chinese perspective. While British super-elite athletes might cope with high pressure by a counter-phobic attitude or total preparation, Chinese super-elite athletes achieve that by "Pingchangxin," a concept originated from Hongzhou Buddhism. This concept is difficult to translate but includes having no evaluation of good and evil, maintaining a peaceful mind in adversity and frustration, letting nature take its course, so as to reach the realm of freedom...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648191/-the-fight-against-addictive-behaviour-in-france
#17
Dominique Le Bœuf
The French inter-ministerial mission for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviour (MILDECA) is responsible for coordinating the campaign against drugs and addictive practices. Thanks to a medical concept of these phenomena which has evolved towards a very broad definition of 'addictive practices', public policies are increasingly orientated towards prevention and health education. Specific structures and tools are available to health professionals to help improve their knowledge and the provision of care in this field...
June 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648045/first-identification-of-pltx-like-molecules-in-the-atlantic-coral-species-palythoa-canariensis
#18
María Fraga, Natalia Vilariño, M Carmen Louzao, Lucía Molina, Yanira López, Mark Poli, Luis M Botana
Palytoxin (PLTX) is a complex marine toxin produced by Zoanthids (Palyhtoa), dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis) and cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Contact with PLTX-like compounds present in aerosols or marine organisms has been associated with adverse effects on humans. The worldwide distribution of producer species and seafood contaminated with PLTX-like molecules illustrates the global threat to human health. The identification of species capable of palytoxin production is critical for human safety. We studied the presence of PLTX analogues in Palythoa canariensis, a coral species collected in the Atlantic Ocean never described as a PLTX-producer before...
June 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646919/determinants-of-modern-contraceptive-practice-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#19
Philip Nana Njotang, Martin Ndinakie Yakum, Atem Bethel Ajong, Marie José Essi, Ebile Walter Akoh, Nzene Edmond Mesumbe, Simon Ako, Enow Robinson Mbu
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous efforts put in place to increase modern contraceptive use in Cameroon as a means to fight maternal and infant mortality, the prevalence of modern contraception has shown only a slow increase and maternal mortality is constantly rising. This paper attempts to identify barriers to contraceptive use in Biyem-Assi, Yaoundé-Cameroon so as to clearly define in which domain and how to intervene concerning contraceptive use in Cameroon. METHODS: It was a community-based cross sectional study involving a two-steps cluster sampling...
June 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646248/-psychiatric-care-of-refugees-in-africa-and-the-middle-east-challenges-and-solutions
#20
REVIEW
K Adorjan, S Mulugeta, M Odenwald, D M Ndetei, A H Osman, M Hautzinger, S Wolf, M Othman, J I Kizilhan, O Pogarell, T G Schulze
Violence, flight, famine, and natural disasters as well as the absence of a psychosocial healthcare system are major psychological burdens for refugees. The level of provision of mental healthcare is particularly low in developing countries. Internally displaced people and refugees place high demands on the healthcare system because they often suffer from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. We present first initiatives to improve psychiatric care in refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Sudan...
June 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
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