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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318361/suicidal-ideation-and-associated-factors-among-students-aged-13-15-years-in-association-of-southeast-asian-nations-asean-member-states-2007-2013
#1
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess suicidal ideation and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. METHODS: The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the cross-sectional global school-based student health survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in the past 12 months across seven ASEAN countries was 12...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318234/light-absorbing-brown-carbon-aerosol-constituents-from-combustion-of-indonesian-peat-and-biomass
#2
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Matthieu Riva, Michael Williams, Jing Chen, Masayuki Itoh, Jason Douglas Surratt, Mikinori Kuwata
Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) constituents of organic aerosol (OA) have been shown to significantly absorb ultra-violet (UV) and visible light, and thus, impact radiative forcing. However, molecular identification of the BrC constituents is still limited. In this study, we characterize BrC constituents at the molecular level in: i) aerosols emitted by combustion of peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal from Indonesia and ii) ambient aerosols collected in Singapore during the 2015 haze episode. Aerosols were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to a diode array detector and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC/DAD-(-)ESI-HR-QTOFMS) operated in the negative ion mode...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317894/swim-a-computational-tool-to-unveiling-crucial-nodes-in-complex-biological-networks
#3
Paola Paci, Teresa Colombo, Giulia Fiscon, Aymone Gurtner, Giulio Pavesi, Lorenzo Farina
SWItchMiner (SWIM) is a wizard-like software implementation of a procedure, previously described, able to extract information contained in complex networks. Specifically, SWIM allows unearthing the existence of a new class of hubs, called "fight-club hubs", characterized by a marked negative correlation with their first nearest neighbors. Among them, a special subset of genes, called "switch genes", appears to be characterized by an unusual pattern of intra- and inter-module connections that confers them a crucial topological role, interestingly mirrored by the evidence of their clinic-biological relevance...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317781/stability-of-%C3%AE-carotene-during-baking-of-orange-fleshed-sweet-potato-wheat-composite-bread-and-estimated-contribution-to-vitamin-a-requirements
#4
Madjaliwa Nzamwita, Kwaku Gyebi Duodu, Amanda Minnaar
Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is known to be a rich source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and a potential tool for fighting vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. OFSP flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) substitution levels. The stability of β-carotene during baking and the contribution of OFSP-wheat composite breads to vitamin A requirements were evaluated. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene in breads containing 10, 20 and 30% OFSP flour was 62.7, 71...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317741/a-novel-method-for-the-quality-control-of-saffron-through-the-simultaneous-analysis-of-authenticity-and-adulteration-markers-by-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#5
Miguel Guijarro-Díez, María Castro-Puyana, Antonio Luis Crego, María Luisa Marina
A liquid chromatography-(quadrupole-time of flight)-mass spectrometry methodology was developed to assess the authenticity of saffron through the analysis of a group of kaempferol derivatives recently proposed as novel authenticity markers as a result of a metabolomic study of saffron (kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3,7-O-diglucoside, kaempferol 3,7,4'-O-triglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside). Geniposide was also studied as an adulteration marker of saffron with gardenia...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317706/impact-of-processing-on-odour-active-compounds-of-a-mixed-tomato-onion-puree
#6
Maria Koutidou, Tara Grauwet, Ann Van Loey, Parag Acharya
Gas chromatography-olfactometry revealed thirty-two odour-active compounds in a heat-processed tomato-onion puree, among which twenty-seven were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS). Based on the results of two olfactometric methods, i.e. detection frequency and aroma extract dilution analysis, the most potent aroma components include: dipropyl disulfide, S-propyl thioacetate, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, methional, dipropyl trisulfide, 4,5-dimethylthiazole, 2-phenylacetaldehyde and sotolone...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317271/baclofen-and-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-real-risk-of-severe-self-poisoning
#7
David Boels, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Ali Touré, Anais Garnier, Alain Turcant, Gaël Le Roux
Baclofen is often prescribed in high doses to fight cravings experienced by alcohol-dependent patients. Such an increase in the availability of baclofen is concerning. This study aimed to determine the change in number and profile of self-poisoning with baclofen over time, since baclofen has become increasingly popular, in order to describe the severity of self-poisoning with baclofen and to focus on co-existing alcohol use disorders and psychiatric illnesses determine predictors of severity. This was a retrospective study of self-poisoning with baclofen as reported by the western France Poison Control Center (PCC), which represents a population of more than 12 million people from January 2008 to March 2014...
March 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317248/influence-of-different-processing-times-on-the-quality-of-polygoni-multiflora-radix-by-metabolomics-based-on-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#8
Xie-An Yu, Ai-Hua Ge, Lu Zhang, Jin Li, Mingrui An, Jun Cao, Jun He, Xiu-Mei Gao, Yan-Xu Chang
A metabolomics method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to evaluate the influence of processing times on the quality of raw and processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to screen the potential maker metabolites that were contributed to the quality changes. Then these marker metabolites were selected as variables in Fisher's discriminant analysis to establish the models that were used to distinguish the raw and processed Polygoni Multiflora Radix in the markets...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317245/efficient-discovery-of-quality-control-markers-for-gastrodia-elata-tuber-by-fingerprint-efficacy-relationship-modelling
#9
Mingfang Li, Yuan Du, Long Wang, Lilong Jiang, Xiaodong Ma, Ping Zhou, Ping Li, Huijun Li
INTRODUCTION: Gastrodia elata tuber (GET) has been widely used in China as a famous herbal medicine. However, the quality control markers (QCMs) for GET still need further investigation. OBJECTIVE: To develop a rational strategy based on fingerprint-efficacy relationship modelling to discover the efficacy-related QCMs, using GET as a case study. METHODOLOGY: The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of 13 batches of GET extracts were established and 10 common peaks were structurally characterised by HPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS)...
March 20, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316884/three-dimensional-visualisation-of-the-internal-anatomy-of-the-sparrowhawk-accipiter-nisus-forelimb-using-contrast-enhanced-micro-computed-tomography
#10
Fernanda Bribiesca-Contreras, William I Sellers
BACKGROUND: Gross dissection is a widespread method for studying animal anatomy, despite being highly destructive and time-consuming. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a non-destructive alternative for studying anatomical structures. However, in the past it has been limited to only being able to visualise mineralised tissues. In recent years, morphologists have started to use traditional X-ray contrast agents to allow the visualisation of soft tissue elements in the CT context...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315805/comprehensive-composition-of-creosote-using-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-gcxgc-tofms
#11
Christopher Gallacher, Russell Thomas, Christopher Taylor, Richard Lord, Robert M Kalin
Creosote is a distillation product of coal tar and is widely used as wood preservative for railway sleepers, utility poles and for other applications. Creosote can have potentially negative effects on the environment and many of the components are toxic. This study presents the analysis of a Creosote sample from a former wood impregnation plant located in the UK. The sample was analysed using two dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) and a database of compounds that could be detected was produced...
March 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315651/what-goes-around-can-come-around-an-unexpected-deleterious-effect-of-using-mouse-running-wheels-for-environmental-enrichment
#12
Renee Y M Leduc, Gail Rauw, Glen B Baker, Heather E McDermid
Environmental enrichment items such as running wheels can promote the wellbeing of laboratory mice. Growing evidence suggests that wheel running simulates exercise effects in many mouse models of human conditions, but this activity also might change other aspects of mouse behavior. In this case study, we show that the presence of running wheels leads to pronounced and permanent circling behavior with route-tracing in a proportion of the male mice of a genetically distinct cohort. The genetic background of this cohort includes a mutation in Arhgap19, but genetic crosses showed that an unknown second-site mutation likely caused the induced circling behavior...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314748/flight-control-of-fruit-flies-dynamic-response-to-optic-flow-and-headwind
#13
Kiaran K K Lawson, Mandyam V Srinivasan
Insects are magnificent fliers that are capable of performing many complex tasks such as speed regulation, smooth landings, and collision avoidance, even though their computational abilities are limited by their small brain. To investigate how flying insects respond to changes in wind speed and surrounding optic flow, the open-loop sensorimotor response of female Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) was examined. 136 flies were exposed to stimuli comprising sinusoidally varying optic flow and air flow (simulating forward movement) under tethered conditions in a virtual reality arena...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314568/health-workers-and-the-weaponisation-of-health-care-in-syria-a-preliminary-inquiry-for-the-lancet-american-university-of-beirut-commission-on-syria
#14
Fouad M Fouad, Annie Sparrow, Ahmad Tarakji, Mohamad Alameddine, Fadi El-Jardali, Adam P Coutts, Nour El Arnaout, Lama Bou Karroum, Mohammed Jawad, Sophie Roborgh, Aula Abbara, Fadi Alhalabi, Ibrahim AlMasri, Samer Jabbour
The conflict in Syria presents new and unprecedented challenges that undermine the principles and practice of medical neutrality in armed conflict. With direct and repeated targeting of health workers, health facilities, and ambulances, Syria has become the most dangerous place on earth for health-care providers. The weaponisation of health care-a strategy of using people's need for health care as a weapon against them by violently depriving them of it-has translated into hundreds of health workers killed, hundreds more incarcerated or tortured, and hundreds of health facilities deliberately and systematically attacked...
March 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314479/new-insights-into-the-effects-and-mechanism-of-a-classic-traditional-chinese-medicinal-formula-on-influenza-prevention
#15
Huan Chen, Chong Jie, Lu-Ping Tang, He Meng, Xiao-Bo Li, Yan-Bing Li, Le-Xing Chen, Chang Yan, Hiroshi Kurihara, Yi-Fang Li, Rong-Rong He
BACKGROUND: KangBingDu (KBD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicinal formula widely used to treat influenza. However, little information is available from controlled studies regarding the anti-influenza pharmacological activities of KBD and its underlying mechanisms, at least partly due to the lack of appropriate study models. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that KBD might provide a protection against influenza infection by reducing the host's susceptibility to viruses...
April 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314116/secretory-proteome-analysis-of-streptomycin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates
#16
Divakar Sharma, Deepa Bisht
Tuberculosis still remains one of the most fatal infectious diseases. Streptomycin (SM) is the drug of choice, especially for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis or category II patients, because it targets the protein synthesis machinery by interacting with steps of translation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the resistance, but our knowledge is inadequate. Secretome often plays an important role in pathogenesis and is considered an attractive reservoir for the development of novel diagnostic markers and targets...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306363/genome-database-mining-for-the-discovery-of-novel-lantibiotics
#17
Stephanie K Sandiford
The effectiveness of lantibiotics against MDR pathogens and the progression of agents MU1140, NAI-107, NVB302 and duramycin into pre-clinical and clinical trials have highlighted their potential in the fight against bacterial resistance. The number of known lantibiotics and knowledge of their biosynthetic pathways has increased in recent years due to higher quality genomic data being delivered by next generation sequencing technologies combined with the development of specific genome mining tools, enabling the prediction of lantibiotic clusters...
March 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306316/first-measurements-of-deuterium-tritium-and-deuterium-deuterium-fusion-reaction-yields-in-ignition-scalable-direct-drive-implosions
#18
C J Forrest, P B Radha, J P Knauer, V Yu Glebov, V N Goncharov, S P Regan, M J Rosenberg, T C Sangster, W T Shmayda, C Stoeckl, M Gatu Johnson
The deuterium-tritium (D-T) and deuterium-deuterium neutron yield ratio in cryogenic inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments is used to examine multifluid effects, traditionally not included in ICF modeling. This ratio has been measured for ignition-scalable direct-drive cryogenic DT implosions at the Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)OPCOB80030-401810.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2] using a high-dynamic-range neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The experimentally inferred yield ratio is consistent with both the calculated values of the nuclear reaction rates and the measured preshot target-fuel composition...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306315/hard-two-photon-contribution-to-elastic-lepton-proton-scattering-determined-by-the-olympus-experiment
#19
B S Henderson, L D Ice, D Khaneft, C O'Connor, R Russell, A Schmidt, J C Bernauer, M Kohl, N Akopov, R Alarcon, O Ates, A Avetisyan, R Beck, S Belostotski, J Bessuille, F Brinker, J R Calarco, V Carassiti, E Cisbani, G Ciullo, M Contalbrigo, R De Leo, J Diefenbach, T W Donnelly, K Dow, G Elbakian, P D Eversheim, S Frullani, Ch Funke, G Gavrilov, B Gläser, N Görrissen, D K Hasell, J Hauschildt, Ph Hoffmeister, Y Holler, E Ihloff, A Izotov, R Kaiser, G Karyan, J Kelsey, A Kiselev, P Klassen, A Krivshich, I Lehmann, P Lenisa, D Lenz, S Lumsden, Y Ma, F Maas, H Marukyan, O Miklukho, R G Milner, A Movsisyan, M Murray, Y Naryshkin, R Perez Benito, R Perrino, R P Redwine, D Rodríguez Piñeiro, G Rosner, U Schneekloth, B Seitz, M Statera, A Thiel, H Vardanyan, D Veretennikov, C Vidal, A Winnebeck, V Yeganov
The OLYMPUS Collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R_{2γ}, a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ≈20° to 80°...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306140/dietary-and-nutritional-change-in-india-implications-for-strategies-policies-and-interventions
#20
Bhavani Shankar, Sutapa Agrawal, Amy R Beaudreault, Laxmaiah Avula, Reynaldo Martorell, Saskia Osendarp, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Mireille Seneclauze Mclean
Despite the global transition to overnutrition, stunting affected approximately 159 million children worldwide in 2014, while an estimated 50 million children were wasted. India is an important front in the fight against malnutrition and is grappling with the coexistence of undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. This report summarizes discussions on trends in malnutrition in India, its evolution in the context of economic growth, intrahousehold aspects, infant and young child feeding practices, women's status, maternal nutrition, and nutrition policymaking...
March 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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