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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088045/uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantitation-of-penicillin-g-and-metabolites-in-citrus-fruit-using-internal-standards
#1
Daniele Canzani, Kevin Hsieh, Matthew Standland, Walter Hammack, Fadi Aldeek
Penicillin G has been applied to citrus trees as a potential treatment in the fight against Huanglongbing (HLB). Here, we have developed and validated a method to identify and quantitate penicillin G and two of its metabolites, penillic acid and penilloic acid, in citrus fruit using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). This method improves upon a previous method by incorporating isotopically labeled internal standards, namely, penillic acid-D5, and penilloic acid-D5...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087984/challenges-in-detecting-substances-for-equine-anti-doping
#2
REVIEW
A G Fragkaki, N Kioukia-Fougia, P Kiousi, M Kioussi, M Tsivou
The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well-known in racing and in other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries do make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. The primary objective in the case of doping control is the detection of any trace of drug exposure, either parent drug or any of its metabolites, using the most powerful analytical methods which generally are based on chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087665/nkg2d-promotes-b1a-cell-development-and-protection-against-bacterial-infection
#4
Maja Lenartić, Vedrana Jelenčić, Biljana Zafirova, Mateja Ožanič, Valentina Marečić, Slaven Jurković, Veronika Sexl, Marina Šantić, Felix M Wensveen, Bojan Polić
NKG2D is a potent activating receptor that is expressed on cytotoxic immune cells such as CD8 T and NK cells, where it promotes cytotoxicity after binding stress ligands on infected or transformed cells. On NK cell precursors NKG2D modulates proliferation and maturation. Previously, we observed that NKG2D deficiency affects peripheral B cell numbers. In this study, we show that NKG2D regulates B1a cell development and function. We find that mice deficient for NKG2D have a strong reduction of B1a cell numbers...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087649/identification-of-unique-essential-proteins-from-a-m-tuberculosis-f15-lam4-kzn-phage-secretome-library
#5
Thamsanqa Emmanuel Chiliza, Manormoney Pillay, Balakrishna Pillay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis disease (TB), the leading cause of death from bacterial infection worldwide. Although treatable, the resurgence of multi- and extensively-drug resistance TB is a major setback for the fight against TB globally. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new Mtb derived biomarkers for use in the design of new drugs and rapid point-of-care diagnostic or prognostic tools for management of TB transmission. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify unique Mtb secreted proteins from the extensively drug resistant Mtb F15/LAM4/KZN phage secretome library...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087447/structures-biological-activities-and-industrial-applications-of-the-polysaccharides-from-hericium-erinaceus-lion-s-mane-mushroom-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Xirui He, Xiaoxiao Wang, Jiacheng Fang, Yu Chang, Ning Ning, Hao Guo, Linhong Huang, Xiaoqiang Huang, Zefeng Zhao
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers., also known as Yamabushitake, Houtou and Lion's Mane, is capable of fortifying the spleen and nourishing the stomach, tranquilizing the mind, and fighting cancer. Over the past decade, it has been demonstrated that H. erinaceus polysaccharides possess various promising bioactivities, including antitumor and immunomodulation, anti-gastric ulcer, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, anti-oxidation and hepatoprotection, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-fatigue and anti-aging...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087424/clinical-applications-of-maldi-imaging-technologies-in-cancer-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Yasemin Ucal, Zeynep Aslıhan Durer, Hakan Atak, Elif Kadioglu, Betul Sahin, Abdurrahman Coskun, Ahmet Tarık Baykal, Aysel Ozpinar
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) enables localization of analytes of interest along with histology. More specifically, MALDI-IMS identifies the distributions of proteins, peptides, small molecules, lipids, and drugs and their metabolites in tissues, with high spatial resolution. This unique capacity to directly analyze tissue samples without the need for lengthy sample preparation reduces technical variability and renders MALDI-IMS ideal for the identification of potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and disease gradation...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081225/fighting-ebola-a-window-for-vaccine-re-evaluation
#8
Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081199/mesons-from-laser-induced-processes-in-ultra-dense-hydrogen-h-0
#9
Leif Holmlid
Large signals of charged light mesons are observed in the laser-induced particle flux from ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) layers. The mesons are formed in such layers on metal surfaces using < 200 mJ laser pulse-energy. The time variation of the signal to metal foil collectors and the magnetic deflection to a movable pin collector are now studied. Relativistic charged particles with velocity up to 500 MeV u-1 thus 0.75 c are observed. Characteristic decay time constants for meson decay are observed, for charged and neutral kaons and also for charged pions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081164/economic-evaluation-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-in-reducing-cardiovascular-risk-from-health-system-and-private-payer-perspectives
#10
Alejandro Arrieta, Timothy F Page, Emir Veledar, Khurram Nasir
The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081144/digital-health-tracking-physiomes-and-activity-using-wearable-biosensors-reveals-useful-health-related-information
#11
Xiao Li, Jessilyn Dunn, Denis Salins, Gao Zhou, Wenyu Zhou, Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Dalia Perelman, Elizabeth Colbert, Ryan Runge, Shannon Rego, Ria Sonecha, Somalee Datta, Tracey McLaughlin, Michael P Snyder
A new wave of portable biosensors allows frequent measurement of health-related physiology. We investigated the use of these devices to monitor human physiological changes during various activities and their role in managing health and diagnosing and analyzing disease. By recording over 250,000 daily measurements for up to 43 individuals, we found personalized circadian differences in physiological parameters, replicating previous physiological findings. Interestingly, we found striking changes in particular environments, such as airline flights (decreased peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2] and increased radiation exposure)...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080210/pathogen-control-at-the-intestinal-mucosa-h2o2-to-the-rescue
#12
Ulla G Knaus, Rosanne Hertzberger, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, S Parsa M Yousefi, Filipe Branco Dos Santos
Intestinal infections are a global challenge, connected to malnutrition and inadequate hygiene in developing countries, and to expanding antibiotic resistance in developed countries. In general, a healthy host is capable of fighting off gut pathogens or at least to recover from infections quickly. The underlying protective mechanism, termed colonization resistance, is provided by indigenous commensal communities (microbiota) that are shaped and aided by the host's epithelial and innate immune system. (1) Commensal-pathogen interactions are governed by competition for a suitable niche for replication and stable colonization, nutrient availability, species-specific alterations of the metabolic environment, changes in oxygen tension and release of chemicals and proteinaceous toxins (bacteriocins)...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079286/design-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-3d-qsar-analysis-of-podophyllotoxin-dioxazole-combination-as-tubulin-targeting-anticancer-agents
#13
Zi-Zhen Wang, Wen-Xue Sun, Xue Wang, Ya-Han Zhang, Han-Yue Qiu, Jin-Liang Qi, Yan-Jun Pang, Gui-Hua Lu, Xiao-Ming Wang, Fu-Gen Yu, Yong-Hua Yang
The advancement of cancer fighting drugs has never been a simple linear process. Those drugs design professionals begin to find inspiration from the nature after failing to find the ideal products by creative drugs design and high-throughput screening. To obtain new molecules for inhibiting tubulin, podophyllotoxin was adopted as the leading compound and 1,3,4-oxadiazole was brought in to the C-4 site of podophyllotoxin in this research. A series of seventeen podophyllotoxin derived esters have been achieved and then evaluated their antitumor activities against four different cancer cell lines: A549, MCF-7, HepG2 and HeLa...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079026/a-review-of-compliant-transmission-mechanisms-for-bio-inspired-flapping-wing-micro-air-vehicles
#14
Chao Zhang, Claudio Rossi
Flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs) are a class of unmanned aircraft that imitate flight characteristics of natural organisms such as birds, bats, and insects, in order to achieve maximum flight efficiency and manoeuvrability. Designing proper mechanisms for flapping transmission is an extremely important aspect for FWMAVs. Compliant transmission mechanisms have been considered as an alternative to rigid transmission systems due to their lower the number of parts, thereby reducing the total weight, lower energy loss thanks to little or practically no friction among parts, and at the same time, being able to store and release mechanical power during the flapping cycle...
January 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079008/walking-a-tightrope-a-perspective-of-resveratrol-effects-on-breast-cancer
#15
Caterina Bartolacci, Cristina Andreani, Augusto Amici, Cristina Marchini
It is an acknowledged fact that health benefits are derived from fruit- and vegetables-enriched diets. In particular, polyphenols, compounds bearing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, are ascribed for most of such beneficial effects. Among them, resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in numerous plant species, and more notably in grapes, has widely piqued the interest of the scientific community by virtue of its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Moreover, evidence claiming resveratrol ability to hinder processes underlying all the three steps of carcinogenesis (tumor initiation, progression and metastasization) has propelled an incredibly massive number of studies aimed at enquiring its eventual clinical potential in the fight against cancer...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078884/construction-of-three-dimensional-hemin-functionalized-graphene-hydrogel-with-high-mechanical-stability-and-adsorption-capacity-for-enhancing-photodegradation-of-methylene-blue
#16
Yuewu Zhao, Yuanjian Zhang, Anran Liu, Zhenzhen Wei, Songqin Liu
A three-dimensional hemin-functionalized graphene hydrogel (Hem/GH) was prepared by a facile self-assembly approach. The as-prepared Hem/GH showed good mechanical strength with a storage modulus of 609-642 kPa and a high adsorption capacity to organic dye contaminants (341 mg g-1 for rhodamine B). Moreover, Hem/GH could be used as photosensitizer for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes, and showed superior photodegradation activity of methylene blue (MB) with respect to the counterparts such as graphene hydrogel (GH) and commercial catalyst P25...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078623/identification-of-host-fruit-volatiles-from-snowberry-symphoricarpos-albus-attractive-to-rhagoletis-zephyria-flies-from-the-western-united-states
#17
Dong H Cha, Shannon B Olsson, Wee L Yee, Robert B Goughnour, Glen R Hood, Monte Mattsson, Dietmar Schwarz, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn
A mixture of behaviorally active volatiles was identified from the fruit of snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), dimethyl trisulfide (1%), 1-octen-3-ol (40%), myrcene (8%), nonanal (9%), linalool (13%), (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, 6%), decanal (15%), and β-caryophyllene (5%) was identified that gave consistent electroantennogram activity and was behaviorally active in flight tunnel tests...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077880/interleukin-2-receptor-%C3%AE-proximal-promoter-hypomethylation-is-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis
#18
J Field, A Fox, M A Jordan, A G Baxter, T Spelman, M Gresle, H Butzkueven, T J Kilpatrick, J P Rubio
Genetic studies have demonstrated association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the IL2RA (interleukin-2 receptor α-subunit) gene and risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS); however, these variants do not have obvious functional consequences. DNA methylation is a source of genetic variation that could impact on autoimmune disease risk. We investigated DNA methylation of the IL2RA promoter in genomic DNA obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural tissue using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry...
January 12, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077761/on-the-autorotation-of-animal-wings
#19
Victor Manuel Ortega-Jimenez, Antonio Martín-Alcántara, Ramon Fernandez-Feria, Robert Dudley
Botanical samaras spin about their centre of mass and create vertical aerodynamic forces which slow their rate of descent. Descending autorotation of animal wings, however, has never been documented. We report here that isolated wings from Anna's hummingbirds, and also from 10 species of insects, can stably autorotate and achieve descent speeds and aerodynamic performance comparable to those of samaras. A hummingbird wing loaded at its base with the equivalent of 50% of the bird's body mass descended only twice as fast as an unloaded wing, and rotated at frequencies similar to those of the wings in flapping flight...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077621/functional-redundancy-and-non-redundancy-between-two-troponin-c-isoforms-in-drosophila-adult-muscles
#20
Maria B Chechenova, Sara Maes, Sandy T Oas, Cloyce Nelson, Kaveh G Kiani, Anton L Bryantsev, Richard M Cripps
We investigated the functional overlap of two muscle Troponin C (TpnC) genes that are expressed in the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster: TpnC4 is predominantly expressed in the indirect flight muscles (IFM), whereas TpnC41C is the main isoform in the tergal depressor of the trochanter muscle (TDT or jump muscle). Using CRISPR/Cas9, we created a transgenic line with a homozygous deletion of TpnC41C, and compared its phenotype to a line lacking functional TpnC4 We found that the removal of either of these genes leads to expression of the other isoform in both muscle types...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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