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Organisational development

Julia Petty, Joy Jarvis, Rebecca Thomas
BACKGROUND: Educational research uses narrative enquiry to gain and interpret people's experiences. Narrative analysis is used to organise and make sense of acquired narrative. 'Core story creation' is a way of managing raw data obtained from narrative interviews to construct stories for learning. AIM: To explain how core story creation can be used to construct stories from raw narratives obtained by interviewing parents about their neonatal experiences and then use these stories to educate learners...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Anna Wickbom, Johan Bohr, Nils Nyhlin, Anders Eriksson, Annika Lapidus, Andreas Münch, Kjell-Arne Ung, Lina Vigren, Åke Öst, Curt Tysk
OBJECTIVES: Onset of microscopic colitis (MC) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD), or vice versa, has been reported occasionally but the subject is not well described. We therefore report a retrospective observational study of such patients and review the literature. METHODS: Forty-six Swedish gastroenterology clinics were contacted about patients with diagnoses of both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and MC. Publications were searched on PubMed...
March 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
C Bascoul-Mollevi, Marion Savina, Amélie Anota, Antoine Barbieri, David Azria, Franck Bonnetain, Sophie Gourgou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become one relevant and available alternative endpoint of clinical trials in cancer research to evaluate efficiency of care both for the patient and health system. HRQoL in oncology is mainly assessed using the 30-item European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life-Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). The EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire is usually assessed at different times along the clinical trials in order to analyze the kinetics of HRQoL evolution and to fully assess the impact of the treatment on the patient's HRQoL level...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Sarah Donnelly, Emer Begley, Marita O'Brien
In recent years, there have been national and international policy advances around capacity and decision-making and an apparent burgeoning rights-based approach to the issue, all of which have the potential to impact on the experience for people with dementia in Ireland. There is little evidence however on whether these policies and principles are being translated into practice and whether traditional paternalistic approaches to decision-making are being challenged. To gain insight into current practice, research was undertaken with social workers working with older people in Ireland; reporting on the involvement of people living with dementia in care-planning processes...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Tarisai Chiyaka, Phillis Mushati, Bernadette Hensen, Sungai Chabata, James R Hargreaves, Sian Floyd, Isolde J Birdthistle, Frances M Cowan, Joanna R Busza
Young women (aged 15-24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews...
2018: PloS One
Verity A Jackson, Dimphna H Meijer, Maria Carrasquero, Laura S van Bezouwen, Edward D Lowe, Colin Kleanthous, Bert J C Janssen, Elena Seiradake
Teneurins are ancient cell-cell adhesion receptors that are vital for brain development and synapse organisation. They originated in early metazoan evolution through a horizontal gene transfer event when a bacterial YD-repeat toxin fused to a eukaryotic receptor. We present X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM structures of two Teneurins, revealing a ~200 kDa extracellular super-fold in which eight sub-domains form an intricate structure centred on a spiralling YD-repeat shell. An alternatively spliced loop, which is implicated in homophilic Teneurin interaction and specificity, is exposed and thus poised for interaction...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Paulo P Amaral, Tommaso Leonardi, Namshik Han, Emmanuelle Viré, Dennis K Gascoigne, Raúl Arias-Carrasco, Magdalena Büscher, Luca Pandolfini, Anda Zhang, Stefano Pluchino, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho, Helder I Nakaya, Martin Hemberg, Ramin Shiekhattar, Anton J Enright, Tony Kouzarides
BACKGROUND: The mammalian genome is transcribed into large numbers of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), but the definition of functional lncRNA groups has proven difficult, partly due to their low sequence conservation and lack of identified shared properties. Here we consider promoter conservation and positional conservation as indicators of functional commonality. RESULTS: We identify 665 conserved lncRNA promoters in mouse and human that are preserved in genomic position relative to orthologous coding genes...
March 15, 2018: Genome Biology
Kristy L Smith, Patricia L Weir, Kevin Till, Michael Romann, Stephen Cobley
BACKGROUND: Subtle differences in chronological age within sport (bi-) annual-age groupings can contribute to immediate participation and long-term attainment discrepancies; known as the relative age effect. Voluminous studies have examined relative age effects in male sport; however, their prevalence and context-specific magnitude in female sport remain undetermined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and magnitude of relative age effects in female sport via examination of published data spanning 1984-2016...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Irene Papanicolas, Liana R Woskie, Ashish K Jha
Importance: Health care spending in the United States is a major concern and is higher than in other high-income countries, but there is little evidence that efforts to reform US health care delivery have had a meaningful influence on controlling health care spending and costs. Objective: To compare potential drivers of spending, such as structural capacity and utilization, in the United States with those of 10 of the highest-income countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, Japan, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Denmark) to gain insight into what the United States can learn from these nations...
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Takudzwa J Mtisi, Charles Maponga, Tsitsi G Monera-Penduka, Tinashe Mudzviti, Dexter Chagwena, Faithful Makita-Chingombe, Robin DiFranchesco, Gene D Morse
Background: A growing number of drug development studies that include pharmacokinetic evaluations are conducted in regions lacking a specialised pharmacology laboratory. This necessitated the development of an International Pharmacology Specialty Laboratory (IPSL) in Zimbabwe. Objectives: The aim of this article is to describe the development of an IPSL in Zimbabwe. Methods: The IPSL was developed collaboratively by the University of Zimbabwe and the University at Buffalo Center for Integrated Global Biomedical Sciences...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Alice Sherrard, Paul Bishop, Melanie Panagi, Maria Beatriz Villagomez, Dominic Alibhai, Abderrahmane Kaidi
Changes in chromatin structure are key determinants of genomic responses. Thus, methods that enable such measurements are instrumental for investigating genome regulation and function. Here, we report further developments and validation of a streamlined method of histone-based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) that robustly detects chromatin compaction states in fixed and live cells, in 2D and 3D. We present a quality-controlled and detailed method that is simpler and faster than previous methods, and uses FLIMfit open-source software...
March 13, 2018: Biology Open
Debbie L Croyden, Helen A Vidgen, Emma Esdaile, Emely Hernandez, Anthea Magarey, Carly J Moores, Lynne Daniels
BACKGROUND: PEACH™QLD translated the PEACH™ Program, designed to manage overweight/obesity in primary school-aged children, from efficacious RCT and small scale community trial to a larger state-wide program. This paper describes the lessons learnt when upscaling to universal health coverage. METHODS: The 6-month, family-focussed program was delivered in Queensland, Australia from 2013 to 2016. Its implementation was planned by researchers who developed the program and conducted the RCT, and experienced project managers and practitioners across the health continuum...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Masae Kato
Globally, genomics research is expected to enhance the health of patients with intractable diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). But how do patients perceive medical and scientific attempts at creating drugs and finding cure, and why? Since the 1990s, a number of clinical trials for patients of DMD have been organized. Among them are a gene therapy and exon skipping, and they indicate the possibility of finding therapies for DMD patients. Since 2011, Japanese medical institutions have been participating in Global Clinical Trials so that Japanese DMD patients can have access to them once developed...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Jannik B Bertelsen, Nasrin Tayyari Dehbarez, Jens Refsgaard, Helle Kanstrup, Søren P Johnsen, Ina Qvist, Bo Christensen, Rikke Søgaard, Kent L Christensen
Background: Changes in the organisation of chronic healthcare, an increased awareness of costs and challenges of low adherence in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) call for the exploration of more flexible CR programmes as alternatives to hospital-based CR (H-CR). A model of shared care cardiac rehabilitation (SC-CR) that included general practitioners and the municipality was developed. The aim of this study was to analyse the cost utility of SC-CR versus H-CR. Methods: The cost-utility analysis was based on a randomised controlled trial of 212 patients who were allocated to SC-CR or H-CR and followed up for 12 months...
2018: Open Heart
Susanne Blödt, Maleen Kaiser, Yvonne Adam, Sandra Adami, Martin Schultze, Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Christine Holmberg
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the role and meaning of health information in individuals' experiences with either breast, colorectal or prostate cancer in order to better understand unmet information needs of people with a cancer diagnosis. DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of data from a qualitative interview study including narrative interviews and maximum variation sampling. A thematic analysis was conducted, followed by an in-depth analysis based on the principles of grounded theory...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Caroline Christie, Simon Wynn-Thomas, Bianca McKinnon
INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, 41% of general practitioners (GPs) intend to retire by 2025. Increasing workforce shortages and other stressors are putting doctors at risk of burnout, which in turn can put patients at risk of harm. Offering a range of resources can signal an organisation's commitment to physician wellness while improving patient safety and organisational stability. AIM To replace the current reactive approach to impaired doctors with a proactive system of monitoring performance with the goal of identifying problems early...
September 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Susan Bidwell, Andrea Copeland
INTRODUCTION Pegasus Health Charitable Ltd, a Christchurch Primary Health Organisation, is contracted by the Canterbury District Health Board to provide continuing professional development for primary care practitioners in the region. Rurally located health practitioners have largely been unable to participate because of the travel time and distances involved. AIM The initiative reported in this paper aimed to fill this gap by developing an accessible and high-quality multidisciplinary model of professional development for general practitioners, nurse practitioners, practice nurses and community pharmacists in rural areas of North Canterbury, New Zealand...
December 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Laura Whybra, Georgina Warner, Gretchen Bjornstad, Tim Hobbs, Lucy Brook, Zoe Wrigley, Vashti Berry, Obioha C Ukoumunne, Justin Matthews, Rod Taylor, Tim Eames, Angeliki Kallitsoglou, Sarah Blower, Nick Axford
BACKGROUND: There is a need to build the evidence base of early interventions to promote children's health and development in the UK. Chance UK is a voluntary sector organisation based in London that delivers a 12-month mentoring programme for primary school children identified by teachers and parents as having behavioural and emotional difficulties. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the programme in terms of children's behaviour and emotional well-being; this is the primary outcome of the trial...
March 12, 2018: BMC Psychology
Deepika Ganju, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Rajatashuvra Adhikary, Sangram Kishor Patel, Niranjan Saggurti, Gina Dallabetta
BACKGROUND: The Knowledge Network project was launched in 2010 to build evidence on the HIV epidemic by using the data generated by HIV programme implementing organisations in India. This paper describes the implementation of the programme and the strategies adopted to enhance the capacity of individuals to document and publish HIV prevention programme learnings. Further, it discusses the outcomes of the initiative. METHODS: A multipronged approach was adopted, where a group of experts were brought together to collaborate with programme implementing organisations, review available data, develop research questions and guide peer-reviewed publications...
March 12, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Linda Rainey, Daniëlle van der Waal, Anna Jervaeus, Yvonne Wengström, D Gareth Evans, Louise S Donnelly, Mireille J M Broeders
BACKGROUND: Increased knowledge of breast cancer risk factors provides opportunities to shift from a one-size-fits-all screening programme to a personalised approach, where screening and prevention is based on a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. However, potential implementation of this new paradigm could present considerable challenges which the present review aims to explore. METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies evaluating potential implications of the implementation of personalised risk-based screening and primary prevention for breast cancer...
March 9, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
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