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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211791/motor-control-of-drosophila-feeding-behavior
#1
Olivia Schwarz, Ali Asgar Bohra, Xinyu Liu, Heinrich Reichert, Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, Jan Pielage
The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. While progress has been made towards the identification of central mechanisms coordinating limb movement, only limited knowledge exists regarding the generation and execution of sequential motor action patterns at the level of individual motoneurons. Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. We first provide a neuroanatomical description of the motoneurons and muscles contributing to proboscis motion...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211790/flpstop-a-tool-for-conditional-gene-control-in-drosophila
#2
Yvette Erica Fisher, Helen H Yang, Jesse Isaacman-Beck, Marjorie Xie, Daryl M Gohl, Thomas R Clandinin
Manipulating gene function cell type-specifically is a common experimental goal in Drosophila research and has been central to studies of neural development, circuit computation, and behavior. However, current cell type-specific gene disruption techniques in flies often reduce gene activity incompletely or rely on cell division. Here we describe FlpStop, a generalizable tool for conditional gene disruption and rescue in post-mitotic cells. In proof-of-principle experiments, we manipulated apterous, a regulator of wing development...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209589/second-generation-drosophila-chemical-tags-sensitivity-versatility-and-speed
#3
Ben Sutcliffe, Julian Ng, Thomas O Auer, Mathias Pasche, Richard Benton, Gregory S X E Jefferis, Sebastian Cachero
Labeling and visualizing cells and subcellular structures within thick tissues, whole organs and even intact animals is key to studying biological processes. This is particularly true for studies of neural circuits where neurons form submicron synapses but have arbors that may span millimeters in length. Traditionally, labeling is achieved by immunofluorescence; however diffusion of antibody molecules (>100 kDa) is slow and often results in uneven labeling with very poor penetration into the centre of thick specimens; these limitations can be partially addressed by extending staining protocols to over a week (Drosophila brain) and months (mice)...
February 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199838/islet-coordinately-regulates-motor-axon-guidance-and-dendrite-targeting-through-the-frazzled-dcc-receptor
#4
Celine Santiago, Greg J Bashaw
Motor neuron axon targeting in the periphery is correlated with the positions of motor neuron inputs in the CNS, but how these processes are coordinated to form a myotopic map remains poorly understood. We show that the LIM homeodomain factor Islet (Isl) controls targeting of both axons and dendrites in Drosophila motor neurons through regulation of the Frazzled (Fra)/DCC receptor. Isl is required for fra expression in ventrally projecting motor neurons, and isl and fra mutants have similar axon guidance defects...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196412/mapk3-at-the-autism-linked-human-16p11-2-locus-influences-precise-synaptic-target-selection-at-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junctions
#5
Sang Mee Park, Hae Ryoun Park, Ji Hye Lee
Proper synaptic function in neural circuits requires precise pairings between correct pre- and post-synaptic partners. Errors in this process may underlie development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Development of ASD can be influenced by genetic factors, including copy number variations (CNVs). In this study, we focused on a CNV occurring at the 16p11.2 locus in the human genome and investigated potential defects in synaptic connectivity caused by reduced activities of genes located in this region at Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions, a well-established model synapse with stereotypic synaptic structures...
February 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195208/a-pupal-transcriptomic-screen-identifies-ral-as-a-target-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-in-drosophila-neurons
#6
Shlesha Richhariya, Siddharth Jayakumar, Katharine Abruzzi, Michael Rosbash, Gaiti Hasan
Transcriptional regulation by Store-operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) is well studied in non-excitable cells. However, the role of SOCE has been poorly documented in neuronal cells with more complicated calcium dynamics. Previous reports demonstrated a requirement for SOCE in neurons that regulate Drosophila flight bouts. We refine this requirement temporally to the early pupal stage and use RNA-sequencing to identify SOCE mediated gene expression changes in the developing Drosophila pupal nervous system. Down regulation of dStim, the endoplasmic reticular calcium sensor and a principal component of SOCE in the nervous system, altered the expression of 131 genes including Ral, a small GTPase...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167805/transgenic-line-for-the-identification-of-cholinergic-release-sites-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Katarina Pankova, Alexander Borst
The identification of neurotransmitter type used by a neuron is important for the functional dissection of neuronal circuits. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, several methods for discerning the neurotransmitter systems are available. Here, we expanded the toolbox for the identification of cholinergic neurons by generating a new line FRT-STOP-FRT-VAChT::HA that is a conditional tagged knock-in of the VAChT gene in its endogenous locus. Importantly, in comparison to already available tools for the detection of cholinergic neurons, the FRT-STOP-FRT-VAChT::HA allele also allows for identification of the subcellular localization of the cholinergic presynaptic release sites in a cell-specific manner...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164781/long-range-projection-neurons-in-the-taste-circuit-of-drosophila
#8
Heesoo Kim, Colleen Kirkhart, Kristin Scott
Taste compounds elicit innate feeding behaviors and act as rewards or punishments to entrain other cues. The neural pathways by which taste compounds influence innate and learned behaviors have not been resolved. Here, we identify three classes of taste projection neurons (TPNs) in Drosophila melanogaster distinguished by their morphology and taste selectivity. TPNs receive input from gustatory receptor neurons and respond selectively to sweet or bitter stimuli, demonstrating segregated processing of different taste modalities...
February 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158178/dynamic-maternal-gradients-control-timing-and-shift-rates-for-drosophila-gap-gene-expression
#9
Berta Verd, Anton Crombach, Johannes Jaeger
Pattern formation during development is a highly dynamic process. In spite of this, few experimental and modelling approaches take into account the explicit time-dependence of the rules governing regulatory systems. We address this problem by studying dynamic morphogen interpretation by the gap gene network in Drosophila melanogaster. Gap genes are involved in segment determination during early embryogenesis. They are activated by maternal morphogen gradients encoded by bicoid (bcd) and caudal (cad). These gradients decay at the same time-scale as the establishment of the antero-posterior gap gene pattern...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139767/drosophila-cg3303-is-an-essential-endoribonuclease-linked-to-tdp-43-mediated-neurodegeneration
#10
Pietro Laneve, Lucia Piacentini, Assunta Maria Casale, Davide Capauto, Ubaldo Gioia, Ugo Cappucci, Valerio Di Carlo, Irene Bozzoni, Patrizio Di Micco, Veronica Morea, Carmela Antonia Di Franco, Elisa Caffarelli
Endoribonucleases participate in almost every step of eukaryotic RNA metabolism, acting either as degradative or biosynthetic enzymes. We previously identified the founding member of the Eukaryotic EndoU ribonuclease family, whose components display unique biochemical features and are flexibly involved in important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis, tumorigenesis and viral replication. Here we report the discovery of the CG3303 gene product, which we named DendoU, as a novel family member in Drosophila...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134281/fluorescence-circadian-imaging-reveals-a-pdf-dependent-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-drosophila-molecular-clock
#11
Virginie Sabado, Ludovic Vienne, José Manuel Nunes, Michael Rosbash, Emi Nagoshi
Circadian locomotor behaviour is controlled by a pacemaker circuit composed of clock-containing neurons. To interrogate the mechanistic relationship between the molecular clockwork and network communication critical to the operation of the Drosophila circadian pacemaker circuit, we established new fluorescent circadian reporters that permit single-cell recording of transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms in brain explants and cultured neurons. Live-imaging experiments combined with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrate that the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) amplifies the molecular rhythms via time-of-day- and activity-dependent upregulation of transcription from E-box-containing clock gene promoters within key pacemaker neurons...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115690/hearing-regulates-drosophila-aggression
#12
Marijke Versteven, Lies Vanden Broeck, Bart Geurten, Liesbeth Zwarts, Lisse Decraecker, Melissa Beelen, Martin C Göpfert, Ralf Heinrich, Patrick Callaerts
Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression...
January 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115483/gap-junction-mediated-signaling-from-motor-neurons-regulates-motor-generation-in-the-central-circuits-of-larval-drosophila
#13
Teruyuki Matsunaga, Hiroshi Kohsaka, Akinao Nose
: In this study, we used the peristaltic crawling of Drosophila larvae as a model to study how motor patterns are regulated by central circuits. We built an experimental system that allows simultaneous application of optogenetics and calcium imaging to the isolated ventral nerve cord (VNC). We then investigated the effects of manipulating local activity of motor neurons (MNs) on fictive locomotion observed as waves of MN activity propagating along neuromeres. Optical inhibition of MNs with halorhodopsin3 (NpHR3) in a middle segment (A4, A5 or A6), but not other segments, dramatically decreased the frequency of the motor waves...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114289/optogenetic-inhibition-of-behavior-with-anion-channelrhodopsins
#14
Farhan Mohammad, James C Stewart, Stanislav Ott, Katarina Chlebikova, Jia Yi Chua, Tong-Wey Koh, Joses Ho, Adam Claridge-Chang
Optogenetics uses light exposure to manipulate physiology in genetically modified organisms. Abundant tools for optogenetic excitation are available, but the limitations of current optogenetic inhibitors present an obstacle to demonstrating the necessity of neuronal circuits. Here we show that anion channelrhodopsins can be used to specifically and rapidly inhibit neural systems involved in Drosophila locomotion, wing expansion, memory retrieval and gustation, thus demonstrating their broad utility in the circuit analysis of behavior...
January 23, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111079/evolution-of-acid-sensing-olfactory-circuits-in-drosophilids
#15
Lucia L Prieto-Godino, Raphael Rytz, Steeve Cruchet, Benoîte Bargeton, Liliane Abuin, Ana F Silbering, Vanessa Ruta, Matteo Dal Peraro, Richard Benton
Animals adapt their behaviors to specific ecological niches, but the genetic and cellular basis of nervous system evolution is poorly understood. We have compared the olfactory circuits of the specialist Drosophila sechellia-which feeds exclusively on Morinda citrifolia fruit-with its generalist cousins D. melanogaster and D. simulans. We show that D. sechellia exhibits derived odor-evoked attraction and physiological sensitivity to the abundant Morinda volatile hexanoic acid and characterize how the responsible sensory receptor (the variant ionotropic glutamate receptor IR75b) and attraction-mediating circuit have evolved...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076762/a-leptin-analog-locally-produced-in-the-brain-acts-via-a-conserved-neural-circuit-to-modulate-obesity-linked-behaviors-in-drosophila
#16
Jennifer Beshel, Josh Dubnau, Yi Zhong
Leptin, a typically adipose-derived "satiety hormone," has a well-established role in weight regulation. Here we describe a functionally conserved model of genetically induced obesity in Drosophila by manipulating the fly leptin analog unpaired 1 (upd1). Unexpectedly, cell-type-specific knockdown reveals upd1 in the brain, not the adipose tissue, mediates obesity-related traits. Disrupting brain-derived upd1 in flies leads to all the hallmarks of mammalian obesity: increased attraction to food cues, increased food intake, and increased weight...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065412/quantitative-predictions-orchestrate-visual-signaling-in-drosophila
#17
Anmo J Kim, Lisa M Fenk, Cheng Lyu, Gaby Maimon
Vision influences behavior, but ongoing behavior also modulates vision in animals ranging from insects to primates. The function and biophysical mechanisms of most such modulations remain unresolved. Here, we combine behavioral genetics, electrophysiology, and high-speed videography to advance a function for behavioral modulations of visual processing in Drosophila. We argue that a set of motion-sensitive visual neurons regulate gaze-stabilizing head movements. We describe how, during flight turns, Drosophila perform a set of head movements that require silencing their gaze-stability reflexes along the primary rotation axis of the turn...
January 12, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052247/sema-1a-reverse-signaling-promotes-midline-crossing-in-response-to-secreted-semaphorins
#18
Melissa Hernandez-Fleming, Ethan W Rohrbach, Greg J Bashaw
Commissural axons must cross the midline to form functional midline circuits. In the invertebrate nerve cord and vertebrate spinal cord, midline crossing is mediated in part by Netrin-dependent chemoattraction. Loss of crossing, however, is incomplete in mutants for Netrin or its receptor Frazzled/DCC, suggesting the existence of additional pathways. We identified the transmembrane Semaphorin, Sema-1a, as an important regulator of midline crossing in the Drosophila CNS. We show that in response to the secreted Semaphorins Sema-2a and Sema-2b, Sema-1a functions as a receptor to promote crossing independently of Netrin...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005004/functional-evolution-of-a-morphogenetic-gradient
#19
Chun Wai Kwan, Jackie Gavin-Smyth, Edwin L Ferguson, Urs Schmidt-Ott
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) pattern the dorsal-ventral axis of bilaterian embryos; however, their roles in the evolution of body plan are largely unknown. We examined their functional evolution in fly embryos. BMP signaling specifies two extraembryonic tissues, the serosa and amnion, in basal-branching flies such as Megaselia abdita, but only one, the amnioserosa, in Drosophila melanogaster. The BMP signaling dynamics are similar in both species until the beginning of gastrulation, when BMP signaling broadens and intensifies at the edge of the germ rudiment in Megaselia, while remaining static in Drosophila...
December 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003472/a-decision-underlies-phototaxis-in-an-insect
#20
E Axel Gorostiza, Julien Colomb, Björn Brembs
Like a moth into the flame-phototaxis is an iconic example for innate preferences. Such preferences probably reflect evolutionary adaptations to predictable situations and have traditionally been conceptualized as hard-wired stimulus-response links. Perhaps for that reason, the century-old discovery of flexibility in Drosophila phototaxis has received little attention. Here, we report that across several different behavioural tests, light/dark preference tested in walking is dependent on various aspects of flight...
December 2016: Open Biology
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