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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076762/a-leptin-analog-locally-produced-in-the-brain-acts-via-a-conserved-neural-circuit-to-modulate-obesity-linked-behaviors-in-drosophila
#1
Jennifer Beshel, Josh Dubnau, Yi Zhong
Leptin, a typically adipose-derived "satiety hormone," has a well-established role in weight regulation. Here we describe a functionally conserved model of genetically induced obesity in Drosophila by manipulating the fly leptin analog unpaired 1 (upd1). Unexpectedly, cell-type-specific knockdown reveals upd1 in the brain, not the adipose tissue, mediates obesity-related traits. Disrupting brain-derived upd1 in flies leads to all the hallmarks of mammalian obesity: increased attraction to food cues, increased food intake, and increased weight...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065412/quantitative-predictions-orchestrate-visual-signaling-in-drosophila
#2
Anmo J Kim, Lisa M Fenk, Cheng Lyu, Gaby Maimon
Vision influences behavior, but ongoing behavior also modulates vision in animals ranging from insects to primates. The function and biophysical mechanisms of most such modulations remain unresolved. Here, we combine behavioral genetics, electrophysiology, and high-speed videography to advance a function for behavioral modulations of visual processing in Drosophila. We argue that a set of motion-sensitive visual neurons regulate gaze-stabilizing head movements. We describe how, during flight turns, Drosophila perform a set of head movements that require silencing their gaze-stability reflexes along the primary rotation axis of the turn...
January 12, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052247/sema-1a-reverse-signaling-promotes-midline-crossing-in-response-to-secreted-semaphorins
#3
Melissa Hernandez-Fleming, Ethan W Rohrbach, Greg J Bashaw
Commissural axons must cross the midline to form functional midline circuits. In the invertebrate nerve cord and vertebrate spinal cord, midline crossing is mediated in part by Netrin-dependent chemoattraction. Loss of crossing, however, is incomplete in mutants for Netrin or its receptor Frazzled/DCC, suggesting the existence of additional pathways. We identified the transmembrane Semaphorin, Sema-1a, as an important regulator of midline crossing in the Drosophila CNS. We show that in response to the secreted Semaphorins Sema-2a and Sema-2b, Sema-1a functions as a receptor to promote crossing independently of Netrin...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005004/functional-evolution-of-a-morphogenetic-gradient
#4
Chun Wai Kwan, Jackie Gavin-Smyth, Edwin L Ferguson, Urs Schmidt-Ott
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) pattern the dorsal-ventral axis of bilaterian embryos; however, their roles in the evolution of body plan are largely unknown. We examined their functional evolution in fly embryos. BMP signaling specifies two extraembryonic tissues, the serosa and amnion, in basal-branching flies such as Megaselia abdita, but only one, the amnioserosa, in Drosophila melanogaster. The BMP signaling dynamics are similar in both species until the beginning of gastrulation, when BMP signaling broadens and intensifies at the edge of the germ rudiment in Megaselia, while remaining static in Drosophila...
December 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003472/a-decision-underlies-phototaxis-in-an-insect
#5
E Axel Gorostiza, Julien Colomb, Björn Brembs
Like a moth into the flame-phototaxis is an iconic example for innate preferences. Such preferences probably reflect evolutionary adaptations to predictable situations and have traditionally been conceptualized as hard-wired stimulus-response links. Perhaps for that reason, the century-old discovery of flexibility in Drosophila phototaxis has received little attention. Here, we report that across several different behavioural tests, light/dark preference tested in walking is dependent on various aspects of flight...
December 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998991/fife-organizes-synaptic-vesicles-and-calcium-channels-for-high-probability-neurotransmitter-release
#6
Joseph J Bruckner, Hong Zhan, Scott J Gratz, Monica Rao, Fiona Ukken, Gregory Zilberg, Kate M O'Connor-Giles
The strength of synaptic connections varies significantly and is a key determinant of communication within neural circuits. Mechanistic insight into presynaptic factors that establish and modulate neurotransmitter release properties is crucial to understanding synapse strength, circuit function, and neural plasticity. We previously identified Drosophila Piccolo-RIM-related Fife, which regulates neurotransmission and motor behavior through an unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that Fife localizes and interacts with RIM at the active zone cytomatrix to promote neurotransmitter release...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997541/suppression-of-dopamine-neurons-mediates-reward
#7
Nobuhiro Yamagata, Makoto Hiroi, Shu Kondo, Ayako Abe, Hiromu Tanimoto
Massive activation of dopamine neurons is critical for natural reward and drug abuse. In contrast, the significance of their spontaneous activity remains elusive. In Drosophila melanogaster, depolarization of the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster dopamine neurons en masse signals reward to the mushroom body (MB) and drives appetitive memory. Focusing on the functional heterogeneity of PAM cluster neurons, we identified that a single class of PAM neurons, PAM-γ3, mediates sugar reward by suppressing their own activity...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995563/feeling-hot-and-cold-thermal-sensation-in-drosophila
#8
REVIEW
Kun Li, Zhefeng Gong
Sensing environmental temperature is crucial for animal life. The model animal, Drosophila melanogaster, can be investigated with a large number of genetic tools, which have greatly facilitated studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of thermal sensing. At the molecular level, a group of proteins, including Transient Receptor Potential channels and ionotropic receptors, have been characterized as potential thermal sensors in both larval and adult Drosophila. At the cellular and circuit levels, peripheral and central thermosensory neurons have been identified...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979876/circadian-and-feeding-cues-integrate-to-drive-rhythms-of-physiology-in-drosophila-insulin-producing-cells
#9
Annika F Barber, Renske Erion, Todd C Holmes, Amita Sehgal
Circadian clocks regulate much of behavior and physiology, but the mechanisms by which they do so remain poorly understood. While cyclic gene expression is thought to underlie metabolic rhythms, little is known about cycles in cellular physiology. We found that Drosophila insulin-producing cells (IPCs), which are located in the pars intercerebralis and lack an autonomous circadian clock, are functionally connected to the central circadian clock circuit via DN1 neurons. Insulin mediates circadian output by regulating the rhythmic expression of a metabolic gene (sxe2) in the fat body...
December 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974164/a-mechanosensory-circuit-that-mixes-opponent-channels-to-produce-selectivity-for-complex-stimulus-features
#10
Allison E B Chang, Alex G Vaughan, Rachel I Wilson
Johnston's organ is the largest mechanosensory organ in Drosophila; it analyzes movements of the antenna due to sound, wind, gravity, and touch. Different Johnston's organ neurons (JONs) encode distinct stimulus features. Certain JONs respond in a sustained manner to steady displacements, and these JONs subdivide into opponent populations that prefer push or pull displacements. Here, we describe neurons in the brain (aPN3 neurons) that combine excitation and inhibition from push/pull JONs in different ratios...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958322/genetically-targeted-3d-visualisation-of-drosophila-neurons-under-electron-microscopy-and-x-ray-microscopy-using-minisog
#11
Julian Ng, Alyssa Browning, Lorenz Lechner, Masako Terada, Gillian Howard, Gregory S X E Jefferis
Large dimension, high-resolution imaging is important for neural circuit visualisation as neurons have both long- and short-range patterns: from axons and dendrites to the numerous synapses at terminal endings. Electron Microscopy (EM) is the favoured approach for synaptic resolution imaging but how such structures can be segmented from high-density images within large volume datasets remains challenging. Fluorescent probes are widely used to localise synapses, identify cell-types and in tracing studies. The equivalent EM approach would benefit visualising such labelled structures from within sub-cellular, cellular, tissue and neuroanatomical contexts...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936023/a-single-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons-counteracts-serotonergic-inhibition-of-ethanol-attraction-in-drosophila
#12
Li Xu, Jianzheng He, Andrea Kaiser, Nikolas Gräber, Laura Schläger, Yvonne Ritze, Henrike Scholz
Attraction to ethanol is common in both flies and humans, but the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this innate attraction are not well understood. Here, we dissect the function of the key regulator of serotonin signaling-the serotonin transporter-in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster. We generated a mutated version of the serotonin transporter that prolongs serotonin signaling in the synaptic cleft and is targeted via the Gal4 system to different sets of serotonergic neurons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928962/neural-circuits-underlying-fly-larval-locomotion
#13
Hiroshi Kohsaka, Pierre A Guertin, Akinao Nose
Locomotion is a complex motor behavior that may be expressed in different ways using a variety of strategies depending upon species and pathological or environmental conditions. Quadrupedal or bipedal walking, running, swimming, flying and gliding constitute some of the locomotor modes enabling the body, in all cases, to move from one place to another. Despite these apparent differences in modes of locomotion, both vertebrate and invertebrate species share, at least in part, comparable neural control mechanisms for locomotor rhythm and pattern generation and modulation...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916456/acute-fasting-regulates-retrograde-synaptic-enhancement-through-a-4e-bp-dependent-mechanism
#14
Grant Kauwe, Kazuya Tsurudome, Jay Penney, Megumi Mori, Lindsay Gray, Mario R Calderon, Fatima Elazouzzi, Nicole Chicoine, Nahum Sonenberg, A Pejmun Haghighi
While beneficial effects of fasting on organismal function and health are well appreciated, we know little about the molecular details of how fasting influences synaptic function and plasticity. Our genetic and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that acute fasting blocks retrograde synaptic enhancement that is normally triggered as a result of reduction in postsynaptic receptor function at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This negative regulation critically depends on transcriptional enhancement of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein (4E-BP) under the control of the transcription factor Forkhead box O (Foxo)...
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906168/immunofluorescent-antibody-staining-of-intact-drosophila-larvae
#15
Laurina Manning, Chris Q Doe
Antibody staining is a vital technique for studying the development of many model organisms, including Drosophila. Reliable protocols have long been available for antibody staining of Drosophila whole-mount embryos and dissected larvae. By contrast, methods for staining whole larvae have rarely been reported, are unreliable, and fail to work on large third-instar larvae. This has become a major limitation to understanding the role of multitissue interactions such as neural circuit formation and cell metastasis...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888110/tubby-domain-superfamily-protein-is-required-for-the-formation-of-the-7s-snare-complex-in-drosophila
#16
Eun Jang Yoon, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Eun Lee, Seok Jun Moon, Chul Hoon Kim
Tubby domain superfamily protein (TUSP) is a distant member of the Tubby-like protein (TULP) family. Although other TULPs play important roles in sensation, metabolism, and development, the molecular functions of TUSP are completely unknown. Here, we explore the function of TUSP in the Drosophila nervous system where it is expressed in all neurons. Tusp mutant flies exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis. This paralysis can be rescued by tissue-specific expression of Tusp in the giant fibers and peripherally synapsing interneurons of the giant fiber system, a well-characterized neuronal circuit that mediates rapid escape behavior in flies...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873574/postprandial-sleep-mechanics-in-drosophila
#17
Keith R Murphy, Sonali A Deshpande, Maria E Yurgel, James P Quinn, Jennifer L Weissbach, Alex C Keene, Ken Dawson-Scully, Robert Huber, Seth M Tomchik, William W Ja
Food consumption is thought to induce sleepiness. However, little is known about how postprandial sleep is regulated. Here, we simultaneously measured sleep and food intake of individual flies and found a transient rise in sleep following meals. Depending on the amount consumed, the effect ranged from slightly arousing to strongly sleep inducing. Postprandial sleep was positively correlated with ingested volume, protein, and salt-but not sucrose-revealing meal property-specific regulation. Silencing of leucokinin receptor (Lkr) neurons specifically reduced sleep induced by protein consumption...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872203/molecular-mechanisms-of-asymmetric-divisions-in-mammary-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Angela Santoro, Thalia Vlachou, Manuel Carminati, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Marina Mapelli
Stem cells have the remarkable ability to undergo proliferative symmetric divisions and self-renewing asymmetric divisions. Balancing of the two modes of division sustains tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. Asymmetric divisions of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) and sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells served as prototypes to learn what we consider now principles of asymmetric mitoses. They also provide initial evidence supporting the notion that aberrant symmetric divisions of stem cells could correlate with malignancy...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868467/k-channel-reorganization-and-homeostatic-plasticity-during-postembryonic-development-biophysical-and-genetic-analyses-in-acutely-dissociated-drosophila-central-neurons
#19
Taixiang Saur, I-Feng Peng, Peng Jiang, Neng Gong, Wei-Dong Yao, Tian-Le Xu, Chun-Fang Wu
Intrinsic electric activities of neurons play important roles in establishing and refining neural circuits during development. However, how the underlying ionic currents undergo postembryonic reorganizations remains largely unknown. Using acutely dissociated neurons from larval, pupal, and adult Drosophila brains, we show drastic re-assemblies and compensatory regulations of voltage-gated (IKv) and Ca(2+)-activated (IK(Ca)) K(+ )currents during postembryonic development. Larval and adult neurons displayed prominent fast-inactivating IKv, mediated by the Shaker (Sh) channel to a large extent, while in the same neurons IK(Ca) was far smaller in amplitude...
September 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855059/neural-circuitry-coordinating-male-copulation
#20
Hania J Pavlou, Andrew C Lin, Megan C Neville, Tetsuya Nojima, Fengqiu Diao, Brian E Chen, Benjamin H White, Stephen F Goodwin
Copulation is the goal of the courtship process, crucial to reproductive success and evolutionary fitness. Identifying the circuitry underlying copulation is a necessary step towards understanding universal principles of circuit operation, and how circuit elements are recruited into the production of ordered action sequences. Here, we identify key sex-specific neurons that mediate copulation in Drosophila, and define a sexually dimorphic motor circuit in the male abdominal ganglion that mediates the action sequence of initiating and terminating copulation...
November 15, 2016: ELife
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