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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029290/nmda-receptor-mediated-ca2-influx-in-the-absence-of-mg2-block-disrupts-rest-activity-rhythms-in-drosophila
#1
Qian Song, Ge Feng, Jiaxing Zhang, Xuechun Xia, Min Ji, Lei Lv, Yong Ping
Introduction: The correlated activation of pre- and postsynaptic neurons is essential for the NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx by removing Mg2+ from block site and NMDA receptors have been implicated in phase resetting of circadian clocks. So we assessed rest:activity rhythms in Mg2+ block defective animals. Methods: Using Drosophila locomotor monitoring system, we checked circadian rest:activity rhythms of different mutants under constant darkness (DD) and light:dark (LD) conditions...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016606/neural-coding-in-the-visual-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster-how-do-small-neural-populations-support-visually-guided-behaviours
#2
Alex D M Dewar, Antoine Wystrach, Andrew Philippides, Paul Graham
All organisms wishing to survive and reproduce must be able to respond adaptively to a complex, changing world. Yet the computational power available is constrained by biology and evolution, favouring mechanisms that are parsimonious yet robust. Here we investigate the information carried in small populations of visually responsive neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. These so-called 'ring neurons', projecting to the ellipsoid body of the central complex, are reported to be necessary for complex visual tasks such as pattern recognition and visual navigation...
October 10, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993465/camp-signaling-mediates-behavioral-flexibility-and-consolidation-of-social-status-in-drosophila-aggression
#3
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Krithika Mohan, Aurnab Ghose
Social rituals, like male-male aggression in Drosophila, are often stereotyped and the component behavioral patterns modular. The likelihood of transition from one behavioral pattern to another is malleable by experience and confers flexibility to the behavioral repertoire. Experience-dependent modification of innate aggressive behavior in flies alters fighting strategies during fights and establishes dominant-subordinate relationships. Dominance hierarchies resulting from agonistic encounters are consolidated to longer lasting social status-dependent behavioral modifications resulting in a robust loser effect...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972543/the-drosophila-trpa1-channel-and-neuronal-circuits-controlling-rhythmic-behaviours-and-sleep-in-response-to-environmental-temperature
#4
REVIEW
Sanne Roessingh, Ralf Stanewsky
trpA1 encodes a thermosensitive transient receptor potential channel (TRP channel) that functions in selection of preferred temperatures and noxious heat avoidance. In this review, we discuss the evidence for a role of TRPA1 in the control of rhythmic behaviours in Drosophila melanogaster. Activity levels during the afternoon and rhythmic temperature preference are both regulated by TRPA1. In contrast, TRPA1 is dispensable for temperature synchronisation of circadian clocks. We discuss the neuronal basis of TRPA1-mediated temperature effects on rhythmic behaviours, and conclude that they are mediated by partly overlapping but distinct neuronal circuits...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962619/a-drosophila-female-pheromone-elicits-species-specific-long-range-attraction-via-an-olfactory-channel-with-dual-specificity-for-sex-and-food
#5
Sebastien Lebreton, Felipe Borrero-Echeverry, Francisco Gonzalez, Marit Solum, Erika A Wallin, Erik Hedenström, Bill S Hansson, Anna-Lena Gustavsson, Marie Bengtsson, Göran Birgersson, William B Walker, Hany K M Dweck, Paul G Becher, Peter Witzgall
BACKGROUND: Mate finding and recognition in animals evolves during niche adaptation and involves social signals and habitat cues. Drosophila melanogaster and related species are known to be attracted to fermenting fruit for feeding and egg-laying, which poses the question of whether species-specific fly odours contribute to long-range premating communication. RESULTS: We have discovered an olfactory channel in D. melanogaster with a dual affinity to sex and food odorants...
September 29, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961025/generation-and-evolution-of-neural-cell-types-and-circuits-insights-from-the-drosophila-visual-system
#6
Michael Perry, Nikos Konstantinides, Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Claude Desplan
The Drosophila visual system has become a premier model for probing how neural diversity is generated during development. Recent work has provided deeper insight into the elaborate mechanisms that control the range of types and numbers of neurons produced, which neurons survive, and how they interact. These processes drive visual function and behavioral preferences. Other studies are beginning to provide insight into how neuronal diversity evolved in insects by adding new cell types and modifying neural circuits...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958816/inter-progenitor-pool-wiring-an-evolutionarily-conserved-strategy-that-expands-neural-circuit-diversity
#7
REVIEW
Takumi Suzuki, Makoto Sato
Diversification of neuronal types is key to establishing functional variations in neural circuits. The first critical step to generate neuronal diversity is to organize the compartmental domains of developing brains into spatially distinct neural progenitor pools. Neural progenitors in each pool then generate a unique set of diverse neurons through specific spatiotemporal specification processes. In this review article, we focus on an additional mechanism, 'inter-progenitor pool wiring', that further expands the diversity of neural circuits...
September 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925357/restraint-of-presynaptic-protein-levels-by-wnd-dlk-signaling-mediates-synaptic-defects-associated-with-the-kinesin-3-motor-unc-104
#8
Jiaxing Li, Yao V Zhang, Elham Asghari Adib, Doychin T Stanchev, Xin Xiong, Susan Klinedinst, Pushpanjali Soppina, Thomas Robert Jahn, Richard I Hume, Tobias M Rasse, Catherine A Collins
The kinesin-3 family member Unc-104/KIF1A is required for axonal transport of many presynaptic components to synapses, and mutation of this gene results in synaptic dysfunction in mice, flies and worms. Our studies at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction indicate that many synaptic defects in unc-104-null mutants are mediated independently of Unc-104's transport function, via the Wallenda (Wnd)/DLK MAP kinase axonal damage signaling pathway. Wnd signaling becomes activated when Unc-104's function is disrupted, and leads to impairment of synaptic structure and function by restraining the expression level of active zone (AZ) and synaptic vesicle (SV) components...
September 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902870/reduced%C3%A2-insulin-signaling-maintains-electrical-transmission-in-a-neural-circuit-in-aging-flies
#9
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Marcus J Allen, Sirisha Kudumala Madem, Jennifer Adcott, Fiona Kerr, Chi Tung Wong, Alec Vincent, Tanja Godenschwege, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
Lowered insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) can extend healthy lifespan in worms, flies, and mice, but it can also have adverse effects (the "insulin paradox"). Chronic, moderately lowered IIS rescues age-related decline in neurotransmission through the Drosophila giant fiber system (GFS), a simple escape response neuronal circuit, by increasing targeting of the gap junctional protein innexin shaking-B to gap junctions (GJs). Endosomal recycling of GJs was also stimulated in cultured human cells when IIS was reduced...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893998/engineering-a-light-activated-caspase-3-for-precise-ablation-of-neurons-in-vivo
#10
Ashley D Smart, Roland A Pache, Nathan D Thomsen, Tanja Kortemme, Graeme W Davis, James A Wells
The circuitry of the brain is characterized by cell heterogeneity, sprawling cellular anatomy, and astonishingly complex patterns of connectivity. Determining how complex neural circuits control behavior is a major challenge that is often approached using surgical, chemical, or transgenic approaches to ablate neurons. However, all these approaches suffer from a lack of precise spatial and temporal control. This drawback would be overcome if cellular ablation could be controlled with light. Cells are naturally and cleanly ablated through apoptosis due to the terminal activation of caspases...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887386/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-restricts-small-dye-iontophoresis-entry-into-central-neurons
#11
Tyler Kennedy, Kendal Broadie
Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) loss causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major disorder characterized by autism, intellectual disability, hyperactivity and seizures. FMRP is both an RNA- and channel-binding regulator, with critical roles in neural circuit formation and function. However, it remains unclear how these FMRP activities relate to each other and how dysfunction in their absence underlies FXS neurological symptoms. In testing circuit level defects in the Drosophila FXS model, we discovered a completely unexpected and highly robust neuronal dye iontophoresis phenotype in the well-mapped Giant Fiber (GF) circuit...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874527/dissection-of-the-drosophila-neuropeptide-f-circuit-using-a-high-throughput-two-choice-assay
#12
Lisha Shao, Mathias Saver, Phuong Chung, Qingzhong Ren, Tzumin Lee, Clement F Kent, Ulrike Heberlein
In their classic experiments, Olds and Milner showed that rats learn to lever press to receive an electric stimulus in specific brain regions. This led to the identification of mammalian reward centers. Our interest in defining the neuronal substrates of reward perception in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster prompted us to develop a simpler experimental approach wherein flies could implement behavior that induces self-stimulation of specific neurons in their brains. The high-throughput assay employs optogenetic activation of neurons when the fly occupies a specific area of a behavioral chamber, and the flies' preferential occupation of this area reflects their choosing to experience optogenetic stimulation...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869583/parallel-encoding-of-recent-visual-experience-and-self-motion-during-navigation-in-drosophila
#13
Hiroshi M Shiozaki, Hokto Kazama
Animal navigation requires multiple types of information for decisions on directional heading. We identified neural processing channels that encode multiple cues during navigational decision-making in Drosophila melanogaster. In a flight simulator, we found that flies made directional choices on the basis of the location of a recently presented landmark. This experience-guided navigation was impaired by silencing neurons in the bulb (BU), a region in the central brain. Two-photon calcium imaging during flight revealed that the dorsal part of the BU encodes the location of a recent landmark, whereas the ventral part of the BU tracks self-motion reflecting turns...
October 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860380/glia-relay-differentiation-cues-to-coordinate-neuronal-development-in-drosophila
#14
Vilaiwan M Fernandes, Zhenqing Chen, Anthony M Rossi, Jaqueline Zipfel, Claude Desplan
Neuronal birth and specification must be coordinated across the developing brain to generate the neurons that constitute neural circuits. We used the Drosophila visual system to investigate how development is coordinated to establish retinotopy, a feature of all visual systems. Photoreceptors achieve retinotopy by inducing their target field in the optic lobe, the lamina neurons, with a secreted differentiation cue, epidermal growth factor (EGF). We find that communication between photoreceptors and lamina cells requires a signaling relay through glia...
September 1, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858617/a-circuit-node-that-integrates-convergent-input-from-neuromodulatory-and-social-behavior-promoting-neurons-to-control-aggression-in-drosophila
#15
Kiichi Watanabe, Hui Chiu, Barret D Pfeiffer, Allan M Wong, Eric D Hoopfer, Gerald M Rubin, David J Anderson
Diffuse neuromodulatory systems such as norepinephrine (NE) control brain-wide states such as arousal, but whether they control complex social behaviors more specifically is not clear. Octopamine (OA), the insect homolog of NE, is known to promote both arousal and aggression. We have performed a systematic, unbiased screen to identify OA receptor-expressing neurons (OARNs) that control aggression in Drosophila. Our results uncover a tiny population of male-specific aSP2 neurons that mediate a specific influence of OA on aggression, independent of any effect on arousal...
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837622/lef1-dependent-hypothalamic-neurogenesis-inhibits-anxiety
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yuanyuan Xie, Dan Kaufmann, Matthew J Moulton, Samin Panahi, John A Gaynes, Harrison N Watters, Dingxi Zhou, Hai-Hui Xue, Camille M Fung, Edward M Levine, Anthea Letsou, K C Brennan, Richard I Dorsky
While innate behaviors are conserved throughout the animal kingdom, it is unknown whether common signaling pathways regulate the development of neuronal populations mediating these behaviors in diverse organisms. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt/ß-catenin effector Lef1 is required for the differentiation of anxiolytic hypothalamic neurons in zebrafish and mice, although the identity of Lef1-dependent genes and neurons differ between these 2 species. We further show that zebrafish and Drosophila have common Lef1-dependent gene expression in their respective neuroendocrine organs, consistent with a conserved pathway that has diverged in the mouse...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831545/how-the-humble-insect-brain-became-a-powerful-experimental-model-system
#17
REVIEW
Heinrich Reichert
In the 21st century, neurobiological studies focused on the insect brain are revealing unprecedented insight into the molecular, cellular, developmental, and circuit aspects of brain organization and function, notably in the genetic model system of Drosophila melanogaster. Underlying this accelerating progress in understanding the insect brain is a century-long history of ground breaking experimental investigation, methodological advance, and conceptual insight catalyzed by the integration of two emerging research fields, neuroscience and genetics...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829963/nociceptive-circuits-can-t-escape-detection
#18
Melanie R Chin, W Daniel Tracey
Organisms rely on nociceptive sensory neurons to detect and avoid potentially tissue-damaging stimuli in the environment. New research has unraveled previously unknown downstream neural circuit components for nociceptive (pain-like) behavior in Drosophila larvae.
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827667/lapsyn-controls-branch-extension-and-positioning-of-astrocyte-like-glia-in-the-drosophila-optic-lobe
#19
Benjamin Richier, Cristina de Miguel Vijandi, Stefanie Mackensen, Iris Salecker
Astrocytes have diverse, remarkably complex shapes in different brain regions. Their branches closely associate with neurons. Despite the importance of this heterogeneous glial cell type for brain development and function, the molecular cues controlling astrocyte branch morphogenesis and positioning during neural circuit assembly remain largely unknown. We found that in the Drosophila visual system, astrocyte-like medulla neuropil glia (mng) variants acquire stereotypic morphologies with columnar and layered branching patterns in a stepwise fashion from mid-metamorphosis onwards...
August 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821829/neuromodulatory-circuit-effects-on-drosophila-feeding-behaviour-and-metabolism
#20
Anders Eriksson, Marlena Raczkowska, Rapeechai Navawongse, Deepak Choudhury, James C Stewart, Yi Ling Tang, Zhiping Wang, Adam Claridge-Chang
Animals have evolved to maintain homeostasis in a changing external environment by adapting their internal metabolism and feeding behaviour. Metabolism and behaviour are coordinated by neuromodulation; a number of the implicated neuromodulatory systems are homologous between mammals and the vinegar fly, an important neurogenetic model. We investigated whether silencing fly neuromodulatory networks would elicit coordinated changes in feeding, behavioural activity and metabolism. We employed transgenic lines that allowed us to inhibit broad cellular sets of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, octopaminergic, tyraminergic and neuropeptide F systems...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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