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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632130/the-laminar-organization-of-the-drosophila-ellipsoid-body-is-semaphorin-dependent-and-prevents-the-formation-of-ectopic-synaptic-connections
#1
Xiaojun Xie, Masashi Tabuchi, Matthew P Brown, Sarah P Mitchell, Mark N Wu, Alex L Kolodkin
The ellipsoid body (EB) in the Drosophila brain is a central complex (CX) substructure that harbors circumferentially laminated ring (R) neuron axons and mediates multifaceted sensory integration and motor coordination functions. However, what regulates R axon lamination and how lamination affects R neuron function remain unknown. We show here that the EB is sequentially innervated by small-field and large-field neurons, and that early-developing EB neurons play an important regulatory role in EB laminae formation...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628804/neuronal-substrates-of-sleep-homeostasis-lessons-from-flies-rats-and-mice
#2
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea, Md Noor Alam, Ronald Szymusiak
Sleep homeostasis is a fundamental property of vigilance state regulation that is highly conserved across species. Neuronal systems and circuits that underlie sleep homeostasis are not well understood. In Drosophila, a neuronal circuit involving neurons in the ellipsoid body and in the dorsal Fan-shaped body is a candidate for both tracing sleep need during waking and translating it to increased sleep drive and expression. Sleep homeostasis in rats and mice involves multiple neuromodulators acting on multiple wake- and sleep-promoting neuronal systems...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617826/cf2-transcription-factor-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-mef2-rna-levels-nuclei-number-and-muscle-fiber-size
#3
Juan J Arredondo, Jorge Vivar, Sara Laine-Menéndez, Leticia Martínez-Morentin, Margarita Cervera
CF2 and Mef2 influence a variety of developmental muscle processes at distinct stages of development. Nevertheless, the exact nature of the CF2-Mef2 relationship and its effects on muscle building remain yet to be resolved. Here, we explored the regulatory role of CF2 in the Drosophila embryo muscle formation. To address this question and not having proper null CF2 mutants we exploited loss or gain of function strategies to study the contribution of CF2 to Mef2 transcription regulation and to muscle formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606304/presynaptic-lrp4-promotes-synapse-number-and-function-of-excitatory-cns-neurons
#4
Timothy J Mosca, David J Luginbuhl, Irving E Wang, Liqun Luo
Precise coordination of synaptic connections ensures proper information flow within circuits. The activity of presynaptic organizing molecules signaling to downstream pathways is essential for such coordination, though such entities remain incompletely known. We show that LRP4, a conserved transmembrane protein known for its postsynaptic roles, functions presynaptically as an organizing molecule. In the Drosophila brain, LRP4 localizes to the nerve terminals at or near active zones. Loss of presynaptic LRP4 reduces excitatory (not inhibitory) synapse number, impairs active zone architecture, and abolishes olfactory attraction - the latter of which can be suppressed by reducing presynaptic GABAB receptors...
June 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604684/sensory-integration-and-neuromodulatory-feedback-facilitate-drosophila-mechanonociceptive-behavior
#5
Chun Hu, Meike Petersen, Nina Hoyer, Bettina Spitzweck, Federico Tenedini, Denan Wang, Alisa Gruschka, Lara S Burchardt, Emanuela Szpotowicz, Michaela Schweizer, Ananya R Guntur, Chung-Hui Yang, Peter Soba
Nociception is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to encode and process harmful environmental stimuli. Like most animals, Drosophila melanogaster larvae respond to a variety of nociceptive stimuli, including noxious touch and temperature, with stereotyped escape responses through activation of multimodal nociceptors. How behavioral responses to these different modalities are processed and integrated by the downstream network remains poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic labeling, ultrastructural analysis, calcium imaging, optogenetics and behavioral analyses, we uncovered a circuit specific for mechanonociception but not thermonociception...
June 12, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592698/a-screening-of-unf-targets-identifies-rnb-a-novel-regulator-of-drosophila-circadian-rhythms
#6
Anatoly Kozlov, Edouard Jaumouillé, Pedro Machado Almeida, Rafael Koch, Joseph Rodriguez, Katherine C Abruzzi, Emi Nagoshi
Behavioral circadian rhythms are controlled by multi-oscillator networks comprising functionally different subgroups of clock neurons. Studies have demonstrated that molecular clocks in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are regulated differently in clock neuron subclasses to support their specific functions (Lee et al., 2016; Top et al., 2016). The nuclear receptor unfulfilled (unf) represents a regulatory node that provides the small ventral Lateral Neurons (s-LNvs) unique characteristics as the master pacemaker (Beuchle et al...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586663/neural-coding-bumps-on-the-move
#7
Stanley Heinze
By meticulously deconstructing the Drosophila head-direction neural circuit, two recent studies have revealed the mechanism of how the fly's body rotations are translated into a continuously updated internal compass representation.
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552314/a-series-of-suppressive-signals-within-the-drosophila-circadian-neural-circuit-generates-sequential-daily-outputs
#8
Xitong Liang, Timothy E Holy, Paul H Taghert
We studied the Drosophila circadian neural circuit using whole-brain imaging in vivo. Five major groups of pacemaker neurons display synchronized molecular clocks, yet each exhibits a distinct phase of daily Ca(2+) activation. Light and neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) from morning cells (s-LNv) together delay the phase of the evening (LNd) group by ∼12 hr; PDF alone delays the phase of the DN3 group by ∼17 hr. Neuropeptide sNPF, released from s-LNv and LNd pacemakers, produces Ca(2+) activation in the DN1 group late in the night...
May 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539392/sodium-pump-regulation-of-locomotor-control-circuits
#9
Laurence David Picton, HongYan Zhang, Keith Thomas Sillar
Sodium pumps are ubiquitously expressed membrane proteins that extrude three N(a+) ions in exchange for two K(+) ions using ATP as an energy source. Recent studies have illuminated additional, dynamic roles for sodium pumps in regulating the excitability of neuronal networks in an activity-dependent fashion. Here we review their role in a novel form of short-term memory within rhythmic locomotor networks. The data we review derives mainly from recent studies on Xenopus tadpoles and neonatal mice. The role and underlying mechanisms of pump action broadly match previously published data from an invertebrate, the Drosophila larva...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538731/a-neural-circuit-architecture-for-angular-integration-in-drosophila
#10
Jonathan Green, Atsuko Adachi, Kunal K Shah, Jonathan D Hirokawa, Pablo S Magani, Gaby Maimon
Many animals keep track of their angular heading over time while navigating through their environment. However, a neural-circuit architecture for computing heading has not been experimentally defined in any species. Here we describe a set of clockwise- and anticlockwise-shifting neurons in the Drosophila central complex whose wiring and physiology provide a means to rotate an angular heading estimate based on the fly's angular velocity. We show that each class of shifting neurons exists in two subtypes, with spatiotemporal activity profiles that suggest different roles for each subtype at the start and end of tethered-walking turns...
May 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533206/myostatin-like-proteins-regulate-synaptic-function-and-neuronal-morphology
#11
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Joern R Steinert, Helena M Cochemé, Jennifer Adcott, Melissa Cabecinha, Alec Vincent, Els F Halff, Josef T Kittler, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
Growth factors of the TGF-β superfamily play key roles in regulating neuronal and muscle function. Myostatin (or GDF8) and GDF11 are potent negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass. However, expression of both Myostatin and its cognate receptors in other tissues, including brain and peripheral nerves, suggests a potential wider biological role. Here, we show that Myoglianin (MYO), the Drosophila homolog of Myostatin and GDF11, regulates not only body weight and muscle size, but also inhibits neuromuscular synapse strength and composition in a Smad2-dependent manner...
May 22, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533086/spatio-temporal-pattern-of-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-visual-system-a-user-s-guide-to-the-dynamic-morphology-of-the-developing-optic-lobe
#12
Kathy T Ngo, Ingrid Andrade, Volker Hartenstein
Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530551/angular-velocity-integration-in-a-fly-heading-circuit
#13
Daniel Turner-Evans, Stephanie Wegener, Hervé Rouault, Romain Franconville, Tanya Wolff, Johannes D Seelig, Shaul Druckmann, Vivek Jayaraman
Many animals maintain an internal representation of their heading as they move through their surroundings. Such a compass representation was recently discovered in a neural population in the Drosophila melanogaster central complex, a brain region implicated in spatial navigation. Here, we use two-photon calcium imaging and electrophysiology in head-fixed walking flies to identify a different neural population that conjunctively encodes heading and angular velocity, and is excited selectively by turns in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504254/neural-circuits-for-long-term-water-reward-memory-processing-in-thirsty-drosophila
#14
Wei-Huan Shyu, Tai-Hsiang Chiu, Meng-Hsuan Chiang, Yu-Chin Cheng, Ya-Lun Tsai, Tsai-Feng Fu, Tony Wu, Chia-Lin Wu
The intake of water is important for the survival of all animals and drinking water can be used as a reward in thirsty animals. Here we found that thirsty Drosophila melanogaster can associate drinking water with an odour to form a protein-synthesis-dependent water-reward long-term memory (LTM). Furthermore, we found that the reinforcement of LTM requires water-responsive dopaminergic neurons projecting to the restricted region of mushroom body (MB) β' lobe, which are different from the neurons required for the reinforcement of learning and short-term memory (STM)...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503133/behavioral-senescence-and-aging-related-changes-in-motor-neurons-and-brain-neuromodulator-levels-are-ameliorated-by-lifespan-extending-reproductive-dormancy-in-drosophila
#15
Sifang Liao, Susan Broughton, Dick R Nässel
The lifespan of Drosophilamelanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause) by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502656/temporal-cohorts-of-lineage-related-neurons-perform-analogous-functions-in-distinct-sensorimotor-circuits
#16
Christopher C Wreden, Julia L Meng, Weidong Feng, Wanhao Chi, Zarion D Marshall, Ellie S Heckscher
Neuronal stem cell lineages are the fundamental developmental units of the brain, and neuronal circuits are the fundamental functional units of the brain. Determining lineage-circuitry relationships is essential for deciphering the developmental logic of circuit assembly. While the spatial distribution of lineage-related neurons has been investigated in a few brain regions [1-9], an important, but unaddressed question is whether temporal information that diversifies neuronal progeny within a single lineage also impacts circuit assembly...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484377/activity-dependent-synaptic-refinement-new-insights-from-drosophila
#17
REVIEW
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
During development, neurons establish inappropriate connections as they seek out their synaptic partners, resulting in supernumerary synapses that must be pruned away. The removal of miswired synapses usually involves electrical activity, often through a Hebbian spike-timing mechanism. A novel form of activity-dependent refinement is used by Drosophila that may be non-Hebbian, and is critical for generating the precise connectivity observed in that system. In Drosophila, motoneurons use both glutamate and the biogenic amine octopamine for neurotransmission, and the muscle fibers receive multiple synaptic inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483586/what-can-tiny-mushrooms-in-fruit-flies-tell-us-about-learning-and-memory
#18
REVIEW
Toshihide Hige
Nervous systems have evolved to translate external stimuli into appropriate behavioral responses. In an ever-changing environment, flexible adjustment of behavioral choice by experience-dependent learning is essential for the animal's survival. Associative learning is a simple form of learning that is widely observed from worms to humans. To understand the whole process of learning, we need to know how sensory information is represented and transformed in the brain, how it is changed by experience, and how the changes are reflected on motor output...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473752/spontaneous-ca-2-influx-in-drosophila-pupal-neurons-is-modulated-by-ip3-receptor-function-and-influences-maturation-of-the-flight-circuit
#19
Sumita Chakraborty, Gaiti Hasan
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) are Ca(2+) channels on the neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. They are gated by IP3, produced upon external stimulation and activation of G protein-coupled receptors on the plasma membrane (PM). IP3-mediated Ca(2+) release, and the resulting depletion of the ER store, triggers entry of extracellular Ca(2+) by store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Mutations in IP3R attenuate SOCE. Compromised IP3R function and SOCE during pupal development of Drosophila leads to flight deficits and mimics suppression of neuronal activity during pupal or adult development...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473639/ring-attractor-dynamics-in-the-drosophila-central-brain
#20
Sung Soo Kim, Hervé Rouault, Shaul Druckmann, Vivek Jayaraman
Ring attractors are a class of recurrent networks hypothesized to underlie the representation of heading direction. Such network structures, schematized as a ring of neurons whose connectivity depends on their heading preferences, can sustain a bump-like activity pattern whose location can be updated by continuous shifts along either turn direction. We recently reported that a population of fly neurons represents the animal's heading via bump-like activity dynamics. We combined two-photon calcium imaging in head-fixed flying flies with optogenetics to overwrite the existing population representation with an artificial one, which was then maintained by the circuit with naturalistic dynamics...
May 4, 2017: Science
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