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Drosophila circuits

Ameya Sanjay Kasture, Thomas Hummel, Sonja Sucic, Michael Freissmuth
The brain of Drosophila melanogaster is comprised of some 100,000 neurons, 127 and 80 of which are dopaminergic and serotonergic, respectively. Their activity regulates behavioral functions equivalent to those in mammals, e.g., motor activity, reward and aversion, memory formation, feeding, sexual appetite, etc. Mammalian dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons are known to be heterogeneous. They differ in their projections and in their gene expression profile. A sophisticated genetic tool box is available, which allows for targeting virtually any gene with amazing precision in Drosophila melanogaster ...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Abhishek Chatterjee, Angélique Lamaze, Joydeep De, Wilson Mena, Elisabeth Chélot, Béatrice Martin, Paul Hardin, Sebastian Kadener, Patrick Emery, François Rouyer
The brain clock that drives circadian rhythms of locomotor activity relies on a multi-oscillator neuronal network. In addition to synchronizing the clock with day-night cycles, light also reformats the clock-driven daily activity pattern. How changes in lighting conditions modify the contribution of the different oscillators to remodel the daily activity pattern remains largely unknown. Our data in Drosophila indicate that light readjusts the interactions between oscillators through two different modes. We show that a morning s-LNv > DN1p circuit works in series, whereas two parallel evening circuits are contributed by LNds and other DN1ps...
June 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Zohreh Fattahi, Taimoor I Sheikh, Luciana Musante, Memoona Rasheed, Ibrahim Ihsan Taskiran, Ricardo Harripaul, Hao Hu, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Muhammad Rizwan Alam, Masoumeh Hosseini, Farzaneh Larti, Zhila Ghaderi, Arzu Celik, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Ansar, Mohammad Haddadi, Thomas F Wienker, Hans Hilger Ropers, Kimia Kahrizi, John B Vincent, H Najmabadi
Exploring genes and pathways underlying Intellectual Disability (ID) provides insight into brain development and function, clarifying the complex puzzle of how cognition develops. As part of ongoing systematic studies to identify candidate ID genes, linkage analysis and next generation sequencing revealed ZBTB11, as a novel candidate ID gene. ZBTB11 encodes a less-studied transcription regulator and the two identified missense variants in this study may disrupt canonical Zn2+-binding residues of its C2H2 zinc finger domain, leading to possible altered DNA binding...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Xueting Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Wenjun Wu, Ke Dong, Zhaonong Hu
Pyrethroid insecticides modify the gating of voltage-gated sodium channels, thus disrupting the function of the nervous system. In Drosophila melanogaster, para encodes a functional sodium channel. Drosophila Sodium Channel 1 (DSC1), although considered as a putative sodium channel gene for decades due to its high sequence similarity with sodium channels, encodes a voltage-gated cation channel with high permeability to Ca2+ . Previous study showed that knockout of the DSC1 gene (DSC1-/- ) caused Drosophila adults to be more susceptible to pyrethroids and the adult giant fiber (GF) neural circuit were more susceptible to pyrethroids...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Nan-Fu Liou, Shih-Han Lin, Ying-Jun Chen, Kuo-Ting Tsai, Chi-Jen Yang, Tzi-Yang Lin, Ting-Han Wu, Hsin-Ju Lin, Yuh-Tarng Chen, Daryl M Gohl, Marion Silies, Ya-Hui Chou
Drosophila olfactory local interneurons (LNs) in the antennal lobe are highly diverse and variable. How and when distinct types of LNs emerge, differentiate, and integrate into the olfactory circuit is unknown. Through systematic developmental analyses, we found that LNs are recruited to the adult olfactory circuit in three groups. Group 1 LNs are residual larval LNs. Group 2 are adult-specific LNs that emerge before cognate sensory and projection neurons establish synaptic specificity, and Group 3 LNs emerge after synaptic specificity is established...
June 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Matthias Fischer, Thomas Raabe
Loss of function mutations in the rsk2 gene cause Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS), which is associated with multiple symptoms including severe mental disabilities. Despite the characterization of ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) as a protein kinase acting as a downstream effector of the well characterized ERK MAP-kinase signaling pathway, it turns out to be a challenging task to link RSK2 to specific neuronal processes dysregulated in case of mutation. Animal models such as mouse and Drosophila combine advanced genetic manipulation tools with in vivo imaging techniques, high-resolution connectome analysis and a variety of behavioral assays, thereby allowing for an in-depth analysis for gene functions in the nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
S Sean Millard, Matthew Y Pecot
A striking feature of neural circuit structure is the arrangement of neurons into regularly spaced ensembles (i.e. columns) and neural connections into parallel layers. These patterns of organization are thought to underlie precise synaptic connectivity and provide a basis for the parallel processing of information. In this article we discuss in detail specific findings that contribute to a framework for understanding how columns and layers are assembled in the Drosophila visual system, and discuss their broader implications...
June 7, 2018: Neural Development
Max Diesner, Susanne Neupert
Cell-cell communication plays a crucial role in orchestrating and modulating neural circuits. To understand such interactions, it is vital to determine and quantify the involved messenger molecules such as neuropeptides and biogenic amines on the level of single cells. In this study, we used single-cell mass spectrometry (SCMS) to qualify and quantify octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) from isolated single cells from intact brains of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Our workflow involved targeted GFP-guided single-cell microdissection, on-plate chemical derivatization with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (CA) or 2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-3,4-dicarbaldehyde (DPD) for increasing ion stability and ion signal intensity, and isotopically marked internal standards for quantification by MALDI-TOF MS...
June 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Wei Song, Lirong Zhao, Yiting Tao, Xia Guo, Jia Jia, Lei He, Yang Huang, Yan Zhu, Peng Chen, Hongtao Qin
Nociceptive stimulus involuntarily interrupts concurrent activities. This interruptive effect is related to the protective function of nociception that is believed to be under stringent evolutionary pressure. To determine whether such interruptive effect is conserved in invertebrate and potentially uncover underlying neural circuits, we examined Drosophila melanogaster. Electric shock (ES) is a commonly used nociceptive stimulus for nociception related research in Drosophila. Here we showed that background noxious ES dramatically interrupted odor response behaviors in a T-maze, which is termed blocking odor-response by electric-shock (BOBE)...
May 28, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Kuo-Ting Tsai, Chin-Kun Hu, Kuan-Wei Li, Wen-Liang Hwang, Ya-Hui Chou
Local interneurons (LNs) in the Drosophila olfactory system exhibit neuronal diversity and variability, yet it is still unknown how these features impact information encoding capacity and reliability in a complex LN network. We employed two strategies to construct a diverse excitatory-inhibitory neural network beginning with a ring network structure and then introduced distinct types of inhibitory interneurons and circuit variability to the simulated network. The continuity of activity within the node ensemble (oscillation pattern) was used as a readout to describe the temporal dynamics of network activity...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Harold K Shearin, Casey D Quinn, Robert D Mackin, Ian S Macdonald, R Steven Stowers
BACKGROUND: Understanding how behaviors are generated by neural circuits requires knowledge of the synaptic connections between the composite neurons. Methods for mapping synaptic connections, such as electron microscopy and paired recordings, are labor intensive and alternative methods are thus desirable. NEW METHOD: Development of a targeted GFP Reconstitution Across Synaptic Partners(GRASP) method, t-GRASP, for assessing neural connectivity is described. RESULTS: Numerous different pre-synaptic and post-synaptic/dendritic proteins were tested for enhancing the specificity of GRASP signal to synaptic regions...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Gang Jun Lee, Gangsik Han, Hyun Myoung Yun, Jin Ju Lim, Sujin Noh, Jaegeun Lee, Seogang Hyun
Nutritional condition during the juvenile growth period considerably affects final adult size. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS)/target of rapamycin (TOR) nutrient-sensing pathway is known to regulate growth and metabolism in response to nutritional conditions. However, there is limited information on how endocrine pathways communicate nutritional information to different metabolic organs to regulate organismal growth. Here, we show that Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), a Drosophila homolog of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), plays a key role in the nutritional control of organismal growth...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ian A Meinertzhagen
The brain is a network of neurons and its biological output is behaviour. This is an exciting age, with a growing acknowledgement that the comprehensive compilation of synaptic circuits densely reconstructed in the brains of model species is now both technologically feasible and a scientifically enabling possibility in neurobiology, much as 30 years ago genomics was in molecular biology and genetics. Implemented by huge advances in electron microscope technology, especially focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) milling (see Glossary), image capture and alignment, and computer-aided reconstruction of neuron morphologies, enormous progress has been made in the last decade in the detailed knowledge of the actual synaptic circuits formed by real neurons, in various brain regions of the fly Drosophila It is useful to distinguish synaptic pathways that are major, with 100 or more presynaptic contacts, from those that are minor, with fewer than about 10; most neurites are both presynaptic and postsynaptic, and all synaptic sites have multiple postsynaptic dendrites...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Kavin M Nunez, Reza Azanchi, Karla R Kaun
Alcohol use disorder generates devastating social, medical and economic burdens, making it a major global health issue. The persistent nature of memories associated with intoxication experiences often induces cravings and triggers relapse in recovering individuals. Despite recent advances, the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying these memories are complex and not well understood. This makes finding effective pharmacological targets challenging. The investigation of persistent alcohol-associated memories in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , presents a unique opportunity to gain a comprehensive understanding of the memories for ethanol reward at the level of genes, molecules, neurons and circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rachel E Shaw, Benjamin Kottler, Zoe N Ludlow, Edgar Buhl, Dongwook Kim, Sara Morais da Silva, Alina Miedzik, Antoine Coum, James Jl Hodge, Frank Hirth, Rita Sousa-Nunes
A central hypothesis for brain evolution is that it might occur via expansion of progenitor cells and subsequent lineage-dependent formation of neural circuits. Here, we report in vivo amplification and functional integration of lineage-specific circuitry in Drosophila Levels of the cell fate determinant Prospero were attenuated in specific brain lineages within a range that expanded not only progenitors but also neuronal progeny, without tumor formation. Resulting supernumerary neural stem cells underwent normal functional transitions, progressed through the temporal patterning cascade, and generated progeny with molecular signatures matching source lineages...
May 4, 2018: EMBO Journal
Eve G Lowenstein, Norma A Velazquez-Ulloa
Animals encounter multiple stimuli each day. Some of these stimuli are innately appetitive or aversive, while others are assigned valence based on experience. Drugs like ethanol can elicit aversion in the short term and attraction in the long term. The reward system encodes the predictive value for different stimuli, mediating anticipation for attractive or punishing stimuli and driving animal behavior to approach or avoid conditioned stimuli. The neurochemistry and neurocircuitry of the reward system is partly evolutionarily conserved...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Andreas Fulterer, Till F M Andlauer, Anatoli Ender, Marta Maglione, Katherine Eyring, Jennifer Woitkuhn, Martin Lehmann, Tanja Matkovic-Rachid, Joerg R P Geiger, Alexander M Walter, Katherine I Nagel, Stephan J Sigrist
High-throughput electron microscopy has started to reveal synaptic connectivity maps of single circuits and whole brain regions, for example, in the Drosophila olfactory system. However, efficacy, timing, and frequency tuning of synaptic vesicle release are also highly diversified across brain synapses. These features critically depend on the nanometer-scale coupling distance between voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) and the synaptic vesicle release machinery. Combining light super resolution microscopy with in vivo electrophysiology, we show here that two orthogonal scaffold proteins (ELKS family Bruchpilot, BRP, and Syd-1) cluster-specific (M)Unc13 release factor isoforms either close (BRP/Unc13A) or further away (Syd-1/Unc13B) from VGCCs across synapses of the Drosophila olfactory system, resulting in different synapse-characteristic forms of short-term plasticity...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
David P Goodman, Abby Eldredge, Catherine R von Reyn
BACKGROUND: How experience and individuality shape action selection remains a major question in neuroscience. Visually-evoked escape behavior within Drosophila melanogaster provides a robust model to study these mechanisms within neural circuits but requires novel assays to circumvent limitations of current behavior assays. METHOD: Here we describe and characterize a simple, low to moderate cost, and flexible assay for studying visually-evoked escape responses in tethered flies...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Saurabh Sarkar, Arnab Roy, Sumedha Roy
Flubendiamide is widely used in agricultural fields to exterminate a broad spectrum of pests (lepidopteran insects) by disrupting their muscle function. The main objective of this study was to find the effects of flubendiamide on a non-target organism, Drosophila melanogaster (dipteran insect). In the present study, different sub-lethal concentrations of Flubendiamide caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity and increase in cytochrome P450 activity in adult D. melanogaster...
April 26, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
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