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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444420/perineurial-barrier-glia-physically-respond-to-alcohol-in-an-akap200-dependent-manner-to-promote-tolerance
#1
Sarah J Parkhurst, Pratik Adhikari, Jovana S Navarrete, Arièle Legendre, Miguel Manansala, Fred W Wolf
Ethanol is the most common drug of abuse. It exerts its behavioral effects by acting on widespread neural circuits; however, its impact on glial cells is less understood. We show that Drosophila perineurial glia are critical for ethanol tolerance, a simple form of behavioral plasticity. The perineurial glia form the continuous outer cellular layer of the blood-brain barrier and are the interface between the brain and the circulation. Ethanol tolerance development requires the A kinase anchoring protein Akap200 specifically in perineurial glia...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443100/single-cell-resolution-fluorescence-live-imaging-of-drosophila-circadian-clocks-in-larval-brain-culture
#2
Virginie Sabado, Emi Nagoshi
The circadian pacemaker circuit orchestrates rhythmic behavioral and physiological outputs coordinated with environmental cues, such as day/night cycles. The molecular clock within each pacemaker neuron generates circadian rhythms in gene expression, which underlie the rhythmic neuronal functions essential to the operation of the circuit. Investigation of the properties of the individual molecular oscillators in different subclasses of pacemaker neurons and their interaction with neuronal signaling yields a better understanding of the circadian pacemaker circuit...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428618/robustness-of-expression-pattern-formation-due-to-dynamic-equilibrium-in-gap-gene-system-of-an-early-drosophila-embryo
#3
Ekaterina Myasnikova, Alexander Spirov
The first manifestation of a segmentation pattern in the early Drosophila development is the formation of expression domains of genes belonging to the gap class. In our previous research the phenomenon of the gap system's robustness, exhibited as the ability to reduce highly variable gene expression in the course of development, was explained as a result of gene cross-regulation. In this paper we formulate the rigorous robustness conditions using the inherent properties of gap gene family. We propose an approach based on the observation that for the formation of a pattern with well-established domain borders it is necessary that there exist a stationary nucleus in which the gene expression level is almost constant in time...
February 8, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414938/teneurin-3-controls-topographic-circuit-assembly-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Dominic S Berns, Laura A DeNardo, Daniel T Pederick, Liqun Luo
Brain functions rely on specific patterns of connectivity. Teneurins are evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that instruct synaptic partner matching in Drosophila and are required for vertebrate visual system development. The roles of vertebrate teneurins in connectivity beyond the visual system remain largely unknown and their mechanisms of action have not been demonstrated. Here we show that mouse teneurin-3 is expressed in multiple topographically interconnected areas of the hippocampal region, including proximal CA1, distal subiculum, and medial entorhinal cortex...
February 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395908/differing-strategies-despite-shared-lineages-of-motor-neurons-and-glia-to-achieve-robust-development-of-an-adult-neuropil-in-drosophila
#5
Jonathan Enriquez, Laura Quintana Rio, Richard Blazeski, Stephanie Bellemin, Pierre Godement, Carol Mason, Richard S Mann
In vertebrates and invertebrates, neurons and glia are generated in a stereotyped manner from neural stem cells, but the purpose of invariant lineages is not understood. We show that two stem cells that produce leg motor neurons in Drosophila also generate neuropil glia, which wrap and send processes into the neuropil where motor neuron dendrites arborize. The development of the neuropil glia and leg motor neurons is highly coordinated. However, although motor neurons have a stereotyped birth order and transcription factor code, the number and individual morphologies of the glia born from these lineages are highly plastic, yet the final structure they contribute to is highly stereotyped...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393045/internal-amino-acid-state-modulates-yeast-taste-neurons-to-support-protein-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#6
Kathrin Steck, Samuel J Walker, Pavel M Itskov, Célia Baltazar, José-Maria Moreira, Carlos Ribeiro
To optimize fitness, animals must dynamically match food choices to their current needs. For drosophilids, yeast fulfills most dietary protein and micronutrient requirements. While several yeast metabolites activate known gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in Drosophila melanogaster , the chemosensory channels mediating yeast feeding remain unknown. Here we identify a class of proboscis GRNs required for yeast intake. Within this class, taste peg GRNs are specifically required to sustain yeast feeding. Sensillar GRNs, however, mediate feeding initiation...
February 2, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367405/diversity-of-internal-sensory-neuron-axon-projection-patterns-is-controlled-by-the-pou-domain-protein-pdm3-in-drosophila-larvae
#7
Cheng Sam Qian, Margarita Kaplow, Jennifer K Lee, Wesley B Grueber
Internal sensory neurons innervate body organs and provide information about internal state to the central nervous system to maintain physiological homeostasis. Despite their conservation across species, the anatomy, circuitry, and development of internal sensory systems are still relatively poorly understood. A largely unstudied population of larval Drosophila sensory neurons, termed tracheal dendrite (td) neurons, innervate internal respiratory organs and may serve as a model for understanding the sensing of internal states...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361567/-drosophila-sidekick-is-required-in-developing-photoreceptors-to-enable-visual-motion-detection
#8
Sergio Astigarraga, Jessica Douthit, Dorota Tarnogorska, Matthew S Creamer, Omer Mano, Damon A Clark, Ian A Meinertzhagen, Jessica E Treisman
The assembly of functional neuronal circuits requires growth cones to extend in defined directions and recognize the correct synaptic partners. Homophilic adhesion between vertebrate Sidekick proteins promotes synapse formation between retinal neurons involved in visual motion detection. We show here that Drosophila Sidekick accumulates in specific synaptic layers of the developing motion detection circuit and is necessary for normal optomotor behavior. Sidekick is required in photoreceptors, but not in their target lamina neurons, to promote the alignment of lamina neurons into columns and subsequent sorting of photoreceptor axons into synaptic modules based on their precise spatial orientation...
February 5, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345616/inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-in-cholinergic-projection-neurons-fully-rescues-aging-associated-olfactory-circuit-degeneration-in-drosophila
#9
Ashiq Hussain, Atefeh Pooryasin, Mo Zhang, Laura F Loschek, Marco La Fortezza, Anja B Friedrich, Catherine-Marie Blais, Habibe K Üçpunar, Vicente A Yépez, Martin Lehmann, Nicolas Gompel, Julien Gagneur, Stephan J Sigrist, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
Loss of the sense of smell is among the first signs of natural aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Cellular and molecular mechanisms promoting this smell loss are not understood. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster also loses olfaction before vision with age. Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. Using behavioral functional screening, we pinpoint that expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen scavenger SOD2 in cholinergic projection neurons is necessary and sufficient to prevent smell degeneration in aging flies...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343813/the-drosophila-gr28bd-product-is-a-non-specific-cation-channel-that-can-be-used-as-a-novel-thermogenetic-tool
#10
Aditi Mishra, Autoosa Salari, Benton R Berigan, Kayla C Miguel, Marzie Amirshenava, Abbey Robinson, Benjamin C Zars, Jenna L Lin, Lorin S Milescu, Mirela Milescu, Troy Zars
Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328919/color-processing-in-the-early-visual-system-of-drosophila
#11
Christopher Schnaitmann, Väinö Haikala, Eva Abraham, Vitus Oberhauser, Thomas Thestrup, Oliver Griesbeck, Dierk F Reiff
Color vision extracts spectral information by comparing signals from photoreceptors with different visual pigments. Such comparisons are encoded by color-opponent neurons that are excited at one wavelength and inhibited at another. Here, we examine the circuit implementation of color-opponent processing in the Drosophila visual system by combining two-photon calcium imaging with genetic dissection of visual circuits. We report that color-opponent processing of UVshort/blue and UVlong/green is already implemented in R7/R8 inner photoreceptor terminals of "pale" and "yellow" ommatidia, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324046/gustatory-processing-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Kristin Scott
The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322941/persistent-activity-in-a-recurrent-circuit-underlies-courtship-memory-in-drosophila
#13
Xiaoliang Zhao, Daniela Lenek, Ugur Dag, Barry Dickson, Krystyna Keleman
Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBg), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MBγ>M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory...
January 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316506/expansion-microscopy-development-and-neuroscience-applications
#14
REVIEW
Emmanouil D Karagiannis, Edward S Boyden
Many neuroscience questions center around understanding how the molecules and wiring in neural circuits mechanistically yield behavioral functions, or go awry in disease states. However, mapping the molecules and wiring of neurons across the large scales of neural circuits has posed a great challenge. We recently developed expansion microscopy (ExM), a process in which we physically magnify biological specimens such as brain circuits. We synthesize throughout preserved brain specimens a dense, even mesh of a swellable polymer such as sodium polyacrylate, anchoring key biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids to the polymer...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311742/simple-integration-of-fast-excitation-and-offset-delayed-inhibition-computes-directional-selectivity-in-drosophila
#15
Eyal Gruntman, Sandro Romani, Michael B Reiser
A neuron that extracts directionally selective motion information from upstream signals lacking this selectivity must compare visual responses from spatially offset inputs. Distinguishing among prevailing algorithmic models for this computation requires measuring fast neuronal activity and inhibition. In the Drosophila melanogaster visual system, a fourth-order neuron-T4-is the first cell type in the ON pathway to exhibit directionally selective signals. Here we use in vivo whole-cell recordings of T4 to show that directional selectivity originates from simple integration of spatially offset fast excitatory and slow inhibitory inputs, resulting in a suppression of responses to the nonpreferred motion direction...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281970/transcriptional-effects-of-a-positive-feedback-circuit-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Jarosław Bryk, R Guy Reeves, Floyd A Reed, Jai A Denton
BACKGROUND: Synthetic systems that use positive feedback have been developed to control human disease vectors and crop pests. The tTAV system, which has been deployed in several insect species, relies on a positive feedback circuit that can be inhibited via dietary tetracycline. Although insects carrying tTAV fail to survive until adulthood in the absence of tetracycline, the exact reason for its lethality, as well as the transcriptomic effects of an active positive feedback circuit, remain unknown...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276156/a-phyllopod-mediated-feedback-loop-promotes-intestinal-stem-cell-enteroendocrine-commitment-in-drosophila
#17
Chang Yin, Rongwen Xi
The intestinal epithelium in the Drosophila midgut is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which are capable of generating both enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells (EEs) via alternative cell fate specification. Activation of Delta-Notch signaling directs ISCs for enterocyte generation, but how EEs are generated from ISCs remains poorly understood. Here, we identified Phyllopod (Phyl) as a key regulator that drives EE generation from ISCs. Phyl, which is normally suppressed by Notch, functions as an adaptor protein that bridges Tramtrack 69 (Ttk69) and E3 ubiquitin ligase Sina for degradation...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262372/mechanical-properties-of-a-drosophila-larval-chordotonal-organ
#18
Achintya Prahlad, Christian Spalthoff, Deqing Kong, Jörg Großhans, Martin C Göpfert, Christoph F Schmidt
Proprioception is an integral part of the feedback circuit that is essential for locomotion control in all animals. Chordotonal organs perform proprioceptive and other mechanosensory functions in insects and crustaceans. The mechanical properties of these organs are believed to be adapted to the sensory functions, but had not been probed directly. We measured mechanical properties of a particular chordotonal organ-the lateral pentascolopidial (lch5) organ of Drosophila larvae-which plays a key role in proprioceptive locomotion control...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261684/neural-mechanisms-underlying-sensitivity-to-reverse-phi-motion-in-the-fly
#19
Aljoscha Leonhardt, Matthias Meier, Etienne Serbe, Hubert Eichner, Alexander Borst
Optical illusions provide powerful tools for mapping the algorithms and circuits that underlie visual processing, revealing structure through atypical function. Of particular note in the study of motion detection has been the reverse-phi illusion. When contrast reversals accompany discrete movement, detected direction tends to invert. This occurs across a wide range of organisms, spanning humans and invertebrates. Here, we map an algorithmic account of the phenomenon onto neural circuitry in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258853/drosophila-active-zones-from-molecules-to-behaviour
#20
REVIEW
Nadine Ehmann, David Owald, Robert J Kittel
In a constantly changing environment, neuronal circuits need to be updated and adjusted to elicit directed actions. Synaptic plasticity plays an important role in modulating such globally and locally acting networks. The active zone (AZ) is a protein-rich compartment of chemical synapses, where precisely orchestrated molecular interactions control synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion with the presynaptic membrane. The subsequent release of neurotransmitter substances onto postsynaptic receptor fields forms the basis of neuronal communication...
December 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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