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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916456/acute-fasting-regulates-retrograde-synaptic-enhancement-through-a-4e-bp-dependent-mechanism
#1
Grant Kauwe, Kazuya Tsurudome, Jay Penney, Megumi Mori, Lindsay Gray, Mario R Calderon, Fatima Elazouzzi, Nicole Chicoine, Nahum Sonenberg, A Pejmun Haghighi
While beneficial effects of fasting on organismal function and health are well appreciated, we know little about the molecular details of how fasting influences synaptic function and plasticity. Our genetic and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that acute fasting blocks retrograde synaptic enhancement that is normally triggered as a result of reduction in postsynaptic receptor function at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This negative regulation critically depends on transcriptional enhancement of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein (4E-BP) under the control of the transcription factor Forkhead box O (Foxo)...
November 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906168/immunofluorescent-antibody-staining-of-intact-drosophila-larvae
#2
Laurina Manning, Chris Q Doe
Antibody staining is a vital technique for studying the development of many model organisms, including Drosophila. Reliable protocols have long been available for antibody staining of Drosophila whole-mount embryos and dissected larvae. By contrast, methods for staining whole larvae have rarely been reported, are unreliable, and fail to work on large third-instar larvae. This has become a major limitation to understanding the role of multitissue interactions such as neural circuit formation and cell metastasis...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888110/tubby-domain-superfamily-protein-is-required-for-the-formation-of-the-7s-snare-complex-in-drosophila
#3
Eun Jang Yoon, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Eun Lee, Seok Jun Moon, Chul Hoon Kim
Tubby domain superfamily protein (TUSP) is a distant member of the Tubby-like protein (TULP) family. Although other TULPs play important roles in sensation, metabolism, and development, the molecular functions of TUSP are completely unknown. Here, we explore the function of TUSP in the Drosophila nervous system where it is expressed in all neurons. Tusp mutant flies exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis. This paralysis can be rescued by tissue-specific expression of Tusp in the giant fibers and peripherally synapsing interneurons of the giant fiber system, a well-characterized neuronal circuit that mediates rapid escape behavior in flies...
November 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873574/postprandial-sleep-mechanics-in-drosophila
#4
Keith R Murphy, Sonali A Deshpande, Maria E Yurgel, James P Quinn, Jennifer L Weissbach, Alex C Keene, Ken Dawson-Scully, Robert Huber, Seth M Tomchik, William W Ja
Food consumption is thought to induce sleepiness. However, little is known about how postprandial sleep is regulated. Here, we simultaneously measured sleep and food intake of individual flies and found a transient rise in sleep following meals. Depending on the amount consumed, the effect ranged from slightly arousing to strongly sleep inducing. Postprandial sleep was positively correlated with ingested volume, protein, and salt-but not sucrose-revealing meal property-specific regulation. Silencing of leucokinin receptor (Lkr) neurons specifically reduced sleep induced by protein consumption...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872203/molecular-mechanisms-of-asymmetric-divisions-in-mammary-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Angela Santoro, Thalia Vlachou, Manuel Carminati, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Marina Mapelli
Stem cells have the remarkable ability to undergo proliferative symmetric divisions and self-renewing asymmetric divisions. Balancing of the two modes of division sustains tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. Asymmetric divisions of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) and sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells served as prototypes to learn what we consider now principles of asymmetric mitoses. They also provide initial evidence supporting the notion that aberrant symmetric divisions of stem cells could correlate with malignancy...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868467/k-channel-reorganization-and-homeostatic-plasticity-during-postembryonic-development-biophysical-and-genetic-analyses-in-acutely-dissociated-drosophila-central-neurons
#6
Taixiang Saur, I-Feng Peng, Peng Jiang, Neng Gong, Wei-Dong Yao, Tian-Le Xu, Chun-Fang Wu
Intrinsic electric activities of neurons play important roles in establishing and refining neural circuits during development. However, how the underlying ionic currents undergo postembryonic reorganizations remains largely unknown. Using acutely dissociated neurons from larval, pupal, and adult Drosophila brains, we show drastic re-assemblies and compensatory regulations of voltage-gated (IKv) and Ca(2+)-activated (IK(Ca)) K(+ )currents during postembryonic development. Larval and adult neurons displayed prominent fast-inactivating IKv, mediated by the Shaker (Sh) channel to a large extent, while in the same neurons IK(Ca) was far smaller in amplitude...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855059/neural-circuitry-coordinating-male-copulation
#7
Hania J Pavlou, Andrew C Lin, Megan C Neville, Tetsuya Nojima, Fengqiu Diao, Brian E Chen, Benjamin H White, Stephen F Goodwin
Copulation is the goal of the courtship process, crucial to reproductive success and evolutionary fitness. Identifying the circuitry underlying copulation is a necessary step towards understanding universal principles of circuit operation, and how circuit elements are recruited into the production of ordered action sequences. Here, we identify key sex-specific neurons that mediate copulation in Drosophila, and define a sexually dimorphic motor circuit in the male abdominal ganglion that mediates the action sequence of initiating and terminating copulation...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852783/an-array-of-descending-visual-interneurons-encoding-self-motion-in-drosophila
#8
Marie P Suver, Ainul Huda, Nicole Iwasaki, Steve Safarik, Michael H Dickinson
: The means by which brains transform sensory information into coherent motor actions is poorly understood. In flies, a relatively small set of descending interneurons are responsible for conveying sensory information and higher-order commands from the brain to motor circuits in the ventral nerve cord. Here, we describe three pairs of genetically identified descending interneurons that integrate information from wide-field visual interneurons and project directly to motor centers controlling flight behavior...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846759/rationally-subdividing-the-fly-nervous-system-with-versatile-expression-reagents
#9
J H Simpson
The ability to image and manipulate specific cell populations in Drosophila enables the investigation of how neural circuits develop and coordinate appropriate motor behaviors. Gal4 lines give genetic access to many types of neurons, but the expression patterns of these reagents are often complex. Here, we present the generation and expression patterns of LexA lines based on the vesicular neurotransmitter transporters and Hox transcription factors. Intersections between these LexA lines and existing Gal4 collections provide a strategy for rationally subdividing complex expression patterns based on neurotransmitter or segmental identity...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845623/synaptic-transmission-parallels-neuromodulation-in-a-central-food-intake-circuit
#10
Philipp Schlegel, Michael J Texada, Anton Miroschnikow, Andreas Schoofs, Sebastian Hückesfeld, Marc Peters, Casey M Schneider-Mizell, Haluk Lacin, Feng Li, Richard D Fetter, James W Truman, Albert Cardona, Michael J Pankratz
NeuromedinU is a potent regulator of food intake and activity in mammals. In Drosophila, neurons producing the homologous neuropeptide hugin regulate feeding and locomotion in a similar manner. Here, we use EM-based reconstruction to generate the entire connectome of hugin-producing neurons in the Drosophila larval CNS. We demonstrate that hugin neurons use synaptic transmission in addition to peptidergic neuromodulation and identify acetylcholine as a key transmitter. Hugin neuropeptide and acetylcholine are both necessary for the regulatory effect on feeding...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828941/neuromodulators-signal-through-astrocytes-to-alter-neural-circuit-activity-and-behaviour
#11
Zhiguo Ma, Tobias Stork, Dwight E Bergles, Marc R Freeman
Astrocytes associate with synapses throughout the brain and express receptors for neurotransmitters that can increase intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)). Astrocytic Ca(2+) signalling has been proposed to modulate neural circuit activity, but the pathways that regulate these events are poorly defined and in vivo evidence linking changes in astrocyte Ca(2+) levels to alterations in neurotransmission or behaviour is limited. Here we show that Drosophila astrocytes exhibit activity-regulated Ca(2+) signalling in vivo...
November 9, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818173/the-trp-channels-pkd2-nompc-and-trpm-act-in-cold-sensing-neurons-to-mediate-unique-aversive-behaviors-to-noxious-cold-in-drosophila
#12
Heather N Turner, Kevin Armengol, Atit A Patel, Nathaniel J Himmel, Luis Sullivan, Srividya Chandramouli Iyer, Surajit Bhattacharya, Eswar Prasad R Iyer, Christian Landry, Michael J Galko, Daniel N Cox
The basic mechanisms underlying noxious cold perception are not well understood. We developed Drosophila assays for noxious cold responses. Larvae respond to near-freezing temperatures via a mutually exclusive set of singular behaviors-in particular, a full-body contraction (CT). Class III (CIII) multidendritic sensory neurons are specifically activated by cold and optogenetic activation of these neurons elicits CT. Blocking synaptic transmission in CIII neurons inhibits CT. Genetically, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels Trpm, NompC, and Polycystic kidney disease 2 (Pkd2) are expressed in CIII neurons, where each is required for CT...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798632/a-faithful-internal-representation-of-walking-movements-in-the-drosophila-visual-system
#13
Terufumi Fujiwara, Tomás L Cruz, James P Bohnslav, M Eugenia Chiappe
The integration of sensorimotor signals to internally estimate self-movement is critical for spatial perception and motor control. However, which neural circuits accurately track body motion and how these circuits control movement remain unknown. We found that a population of Drosophila neurons that were sensitive to visual flow patterns typically generated during locomotion, the horizontal system (HS) cells, encoded unambiguous quantitative information about the fly's walking behavior independently of vision...
October 31, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780048/parallel-computations-in-insect-and-mammalian-visual-motion-processing
#14
REVIEW
Damon A Clark, Jonathan B Demb
Sensory systems use receptors to extract information from the environment and neural circuits to perform subsequent computations. These computations may be described as algorithms composed of sequential mathematical operations. Comparing these operations across taxa reveals how different neural circuits have evolved to solve the same problem, even when using different mechanisms to implement the underlying math. In this review, we compare how insect and mammalian neural circuits have solved the problem of motion estimation, focusing on the fruit fly Drosophila and the mouse retina...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780045/mechanosensation-and-adaptive-motor-control-in-insects
#15
REVIEW
John C Tuthill, Rachel I Wilson
The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780041/regulation-of-drosophila-brain-wiring-by-neuropil-interactions-via-a-slit-robo-rptp-signaling-complex
#16
Carlos Oliva, Alessia Soldano, Natalia Mora, Natalie De Geest, Annelies Claeys, Maria-Luise Erfurth, Jimena Sierralta, Ariane Ramaekers, Dan Dascenco, Radoslaw K Ejsmont, Dietmar Schmucker, Natalia Sanchez-Soriano, Bassem A Hassan
The axonal wiring molecule Slit and its Round-About (Robo) receptors are conserved regulators of nerve cord patterning. Robo receptors also contribute to wiring brain circuits. Whether molecular mechanisms regulating these signals are modified to fit more complex brain wiring processes is unclear. We investigated the role of Slit and Robo receptors in wiring Drosophila higher-order brain circuits and identified differences in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Robo/Slit function. First, we find that signaling by Robo receptors in the brain is regulated by the Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase RPTP69d...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#17
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767173/euchromatin-histone-methyltransferase-1-regulates-cortical-neuronal-network-development
#18
Marijn Bart Martens, Monica Frega, Jessica Classen, Lisa Epping, Elske Bijvank, Marco Benevento, Hans van Bokhoven, Paul Tiesinga, Dirk Schubert, Nael Nadif Kasri
Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the human Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene cause Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by autistic-like features and severe intellectual disability (ID). Neurodevelopmental disorders including ID and autism may be related to deficits in activity-dependent wiring of brain circuits during development. Although Kleefstra syndrome has been associated with dendritic and synaptic defects in mice and Drosophila, little is known about the role of EHMT1 in the development of cortical neuronal networks...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764141/memory-elicited-by-courtship-conditioning-requires-mushroom-body-neuronal-subsets-similar-to-those-utilized-in-appetitive-memory
#19
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760793/a-genetic-screen-to-assess-dopamine-receptor-dopr1-dependent-sleep-regulation-in-drosophila
#20
Yiqin Jiang, Elise Pitmon, Jack Berry, Fred W Wolf, Zach McKenzie, Tim J Lebestky
Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb) to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilize DopR in daytime sleep regulation...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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