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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691331/gabaergic-local-interneurons-shape-female-fruit-fly-response-to-mating-songs
#1
Daichi Yamada, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Xiaodong Li, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yuki Ishikawa, Azusa Kamikouchi
Many animals use acoustic signals to attract a potential mating partner. In fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ), the courtship pulse song has a species-specific inter-pulse interval (IPI) that activates mating. Although a series of auditory neurons in the fly brain exhibit different tuning patterns to IPIs, it is unclear how the response of each neuron is tuned. Here we studied the neural circuitry regulating the activity of AMMC-B1 neurons, key secondary auditory neurons in the excitatory neural pathway that relay song information...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688104/two-novel-forms-of-erg-oscillation-in-drosophila-age-and-activity-dependence
#2
Atsushi Ueda, Scott Woods, Ian McElree, Tristan C D G O'Harrow, Casey Inman, Savantha Thenuwara, Muhammad Aftab, Atulya Iyengar
Over an animal's lifespan, neuronal circuits and systems often decline in an inherently heterogeneous fashion. To compare the age-dependent progression of changes in visual behavior with alterations in retinal physiology, we examined phototaxis and electroretinograms (ERGs) in a wild-type D. melanogaster strain (Canton-S) across their lifespan. In aged flies (beyond 50% median lifespan), we found a marked decline in phototaxis, while motor coordination was less disrupted, as indicated by relatively stronger negative geotaxis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681474/ejaculation-induced-by-the-activation-of-crz-neurons-is-rewarding-to-drosophila-males
#3
Shir Zer-Krispil, Hila Zak, Lisha Shao, Shir Ben-Shaanan, Lea Tordjman, Assa Bentzur, Anat Shmueli, Galit Shohat-Ophir
The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]...
April 17, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674958/neuronal-calcium-signaling-in-metabolic-regulation-and-adaptation-to-nutrient-stress
#4
REVIEW
Siddharth Jayakumar, Gaiti Hasan
All organisms can respond physiologically and behaviorally to environmental fluxes in nutrient levels. Different nutrient sensing pathways exist for specific metabolites, and their inputs ultimately define appropriate nutrient uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Nutrient sensing mechanisms at the cellular level require pathways such as insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that integrates information from different organ systems like the fat body and the gut. Such integration is essential for coordinating growth with development...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673388/neural-circuits-driving-larval-locomotion-in-drosophila
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Q Clark, Aref Arzan Zarin, Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario, Chris Q Doe
More than 30 years of studies into Drosophila melanogaster neurogenesis have revealed fundamental insights into our understanding of axon guidance mechanisms, neural differentiation, and early cell fate decisions. What is less understood is how a group of neurons from disparate anterior-posterior axial positions, lineages and developmental periods of neurogenesis coalesce to form a functional circuit. Using neurogenetic techniques developed in Drosophila it is now possible to study the neural substrates of behavior at single cell resolution...
April 19, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671739/cellular-diversity-in-the-drosophila-midbrain-revealed-by-single-cell-transcriptomics
#6
Vincent Croset, Christoph Daniel Treiber, Scott Waddell
To understand the brain, molecular details need to be overlaid onto neural wiring diagrams so that synaptic mode, neuromodulation and critical signaling operations can be considered. Single-cell transcriptomics provide a unique opportunity to collect this information. Here we present an initial analysis of thousands of individual cells from Drosophila midbrain, that were acquired using Drop-Seq. A number of approaches permitted the assignment of transcriptional profiles to several major brain regions and cell-types...
April 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651236/substrates-for-neuronal-cotransmission-with-neuropeptides-and-small-molecule-neurotransmitters-in-drosophila
#7
REVIEW
Dick R Nässel
It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643770/neural-control-of-startle-induced-locomotion-by-the-mushroom-bodies-and-associated-neurons-in-drosophila
#8
Jun Sun, An Qi Xu, Julia Giraud, Haiko Poppinga, Thomas Riemensperger, André Fiala, Serge Birman
Startle-induced locomotion is commonly used in Drosophila research to monitor locomotor reactivity and its progressive decline with age or under various neuropathological conditions. A widely used paradigm is startle-induced negative geotaxis (SING), in which flies entrapped in a narrow column react to a gentle mechanical shock by climbing rapidly upwards. Here we combined in vivo manipulation of neuronal activity and splitGFP reconstitution across cells to search for brain neurons and putative circuits that regulate this behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630041/tracking-drosophila-larval-behavior-in-response-to-optogenetic-stimulation-of-olfactory-neurons
#9
David A Clark, Donovan Kohler, America Mathis, Eryn Slankster, Samipya Kafle, Seth R Odell, Dennis Mathew
The ability of insects to navigate toward odor sources is based on the activities of their first-order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). While a considerable amount of information has been generated regarding ORN responses to odorants, the role of specific ORNs in driving behavioral responses remains poorly understood. Complications in behavior analyses arise due to different volatilities of odorants that activate individual ORNs, multiple ORNs activated by single odorants, and the difficulty in replicating naturally observed temporal variations in olfactory stimuli using conventional odor-delivery methods in the laboratory...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628885/a-statistically-representative-atlas-for-mapping-neuronal-circuits-in-the-drosophila-adult-brain
#10
Ignacio Arganda-Carreras, Tudor Manoliu, Nicolas Mazuras, Florian Schulze, Juan E Iglesias, Katja Bühler, Arnim Jenett, François Rouyer, Philippe Andrey
Imaging the expression patterns of reporter constructs is a powerful tool to dissect the neuronal circuits of perception and behavior in the adult brain of Drosophila , one of the major models for studying brain functions. To date, several Drosophila brain templates and digital atlases have been built to automatically analyze and compare collections of expression pattern images. However, there has been no systematic comparison of performances between alternative atlasing strategies and registration algorithms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625047/coupling-neurogenesis-to-circuit-formation
#11
Ki-Jun Yoon, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
A central question in neuroscience is how developmental programs instruct the formation of complex neural circuits with temporal, spatial, and numerical precision. Pinto-Teixeira et al. (2018) reveal simple developmental rules that govern sequential neurogenesis to concurrently establish highly organized retinotopic maps in the Drosophila visual system.
April 5, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618589/functional-imaging-and-optogenetics-in-drosophila
#12
Julie H Simpson, Loren L Looger
Understanding how activity patterns in specific neural circuits coordinate an animal's behavior remains a key area of neuroscience research. Genetic tools and a brain of tractable complexity make Drosophila a premier model organism for these studies. Here, we review the wealth of reagents available to map and manipulate neuronal activity with light.
April 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615868/insect-responses-to-linearly-polarized-reflections-orphan-behaviors-without-neural-circuits
#13
REVIEW
Tanja Heinloth, Juliane Uhlhorn, Mathias F Wernet
The e-vector orientation of linearly polarized light represents an important visual stimulus for many insects. Especially the detection of polarized skylight by many navigating insect species is known to improve their orientation skills. While great progress has been made towards describing both the anatomy and function of neural circuit elements mediating behaviors related to navigation, relatively little is known about how insects perceive non-celestial polarized light stimuli, like reflections off water, leaves, or shiny body surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614291/sleep-helicon-cells-charge-the-circuit
#14
Maria E Yurgel, Alex C Keene
A new study in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has identified a neural circuitry that connects regions that control sleep with those that encode sleep pressure. These novel cells, termed helicon cells for their unique morphology, are modulated by sleep control centers and integrate sensory information, providing a novel mechanism for gating of sleep.
April 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599654/serotonergic-modulation-of-olfaction-in-rodents-and-insects
#15
REVIEW
Quentin Gaudry
Recent advances in genetic tools and optical imaging technology have allowed rodent and Drosophila researchers to explore the relationship between serotonergic modulation and olfactory processing at a mechanistic level previously unfeasible. Here, I review the basic organization of olfactory and serotonergic systems in both rodents and Drosophila and draw comparisons where similarities exist. I discuss circuit level models that explain many of serotonin's effects on olfactory responses in the olfactory system's inputs and outputs...
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593252/dedicated-photoreceptor-pathways-in-drosophila-larvae-mediate-navigation-by-processing-either-spatial-or-temporal-cues
#16
Tim-Henning Humberg, Pascal Bruegger, Bruno Afonso, Marta Zlatic, James W Truman, Marc Gershow, Aravinthan Samuel, Simon G Sprecher
To integrate changing environmental cues with high spatial and temporal resolution is critical for animals to orient themselves. Drosophila larvae show an effective motor program to navigate away from light sources. How the larval visual circuit processes light stimuli to control navigational decision remains unknown. The larval visual system is composed of two sensory input channels, Rhodopsin5 (Rh5) and Rhodopsin6 (Rh6) expressing photoreceptors (PRs). We here characterize how spatial and temporal information are used to control navigation...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590612/a-conserved-circadian-function-for-the-neurofibromatosis-1-gene
#17
Lei Bai, Yool Lee, Cynthia T Hsu, Julie A Williams, Daniel Cavanaugh, Xiangzhong Zheng, Carly Stein, Paula Haynes, Han Wang, David H Gutmann, Amita Sehgal
Loss of the Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) protein, neurofibromin, in Drosophila disrupts circadian rhythms of locomotor activity without impairing central clock function, suggesting effects downstream of the clock. However, the relevant cellular mechanisms are not known. Leveraging the discovery of output circuits for locomotor rhythms, we dissected cellular actions of neurofibromin in recently identified substrates. Herein, we show that neurofibromin affects the levels and cycling of calcium in multiple circadian peptidergic neurons...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579685/impact-of-insulin-signaling-and-proteasomal-activity-on-physiological-output-of-a-neuronal-circuit-in-aging-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Marcus J Allen, Jennifer Adcott, Chi Tung Wong, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
The insulin family of growth factors plays an important role in development and function of the nervous system. Reduced insulin and insulin-growth-factor signaling (IIS), however, can improve symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases in laboratory model organisms and protect against age-associated decline in neuronal function. Recently, we showed that chronic, moderately lowered IIS rescues age-related decline in neurotransmission through the Drosophila giant fiber escape response circuit. Here, we expand our initial findings by demonstrating that reduced functional output in the giant fiber system of aging flies can be prevented by increasing proteasomal activity within the circuit...
March 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576455/development-of-concurrent-retinotopic-maps-in-the-fly-motion-detection-circuit
#19
Filipe Pinto-Teixeira, Clara Koo, Anthony Michael Rossi, Nathalie Neriec, Claire Bertet, Xin Li, Alberto Del-Valle-Rodriguez, Claude Desplan
Understanding how complex brain wiring is produced during development is a daunting challenge. In Drosophila, information from 800 retinal ommatidia is processed in distinct brain neuropiles, each subdivided into 800 matching retinotopic columns. The lobula plate comprises four T4 and four T5 neuronal subtypes. T4 neurons respond to bright edge motion, whereas T5 neurons respond to dark edge motion. Each is tuned to motion in one of the four cardinal directions, effectively establishing eight concurrent retinotopic maps to support wide-field motion...
March 20, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547121/-drosophila-mushroom-bodies-integrate-hunger-and-satiety-signals-to-control-innate-food-seeking-behavior
#20
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
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