keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Drosophila circuits

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214211/targeted-kinase-inhibition-relieves-slowness-and-tremor-in-a-drosophila-model-of-lrrk2-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Amy C Cording, Nicolas Shiaelis, Stavroula Petridi, C Adam Middleton, Laurence G Wilson, Christopher J H Elliott
In a number of Drosophila models of genetic Parkinson's disease (PD) flies climb more slowly than wild-type controls. However, this assay does not distinguish effects of PD-related genes on gravity sensation, "arousal", central pattern generation of leg movements, or muscle. To address this problem, we have developed an assay for the fly proboscis extension response (PER). This is attractive because the PER has a simple, well-identified reflex neural circuit, in which sucrose sensing neurons activate a pair of "command interneurons", and thence motoneurons whose activity contracts the proboscis muscle...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208230/learning-from-connectomics-on-the-fly
#2
REVIEW
Philipp Schlegel, Marta Costa, Gregory Sxe Jefferis
Parallels between invertebrates and vertebrates in nervous system development, organisation and circuits are powerful reasons to use insects to study the mechanistic basis of behaviour. The last few years have seen the generation in Drosophila melanogaster of very large light microscopy data sets, genetic driver lines and tools to report or manipulate neural activity. These resources in conjunction with computational tools are enabling large scale characterisation of neuronal types and their functional properties...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208224/unraveling-the-neural-basis-of-insect-navigation
#3
REVIEW
Stanley Heinze
One of the defining features of animals is their ability to navigate their environment. Using behavioral experiments this topic has been under intense investigation for nearly a century. In insects, this work has largely focused on the remarkable homing abilities of ants and bees. More recently, the neural basis of navigation shifted into the focus of attention. Starting with revealing the neurons that process the sensory signals used for navigation, in particular polarized skylight, migratory locusts became the key species for delineating navigation-relevant regions of the insect brain...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208223/neuronal-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-sleep-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea
Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208219/neuronal-modulation-of-d-melanogaster-sexual-behaviour
#5
REVIEW
Bárður Eyjólfsson Ellendersen, Anne C von Philipsborn
Drosophila melanogaster sexual behaviour relies on well-studied genetically determined neuronal circuits. At the same time, it can be flexible and is modulated by multiple external and internal factors. This review focuses on how physiological state, behavioural context and social experience impact sexual circuits in the two sexes. We discuss how females tune receptivity and other behaviours depending on mating status and how males adjust courtship intensity based on sexual satiety, age and the conflicting drive for aggression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198754/divergent-connectivity-of-homologous-command-like-neurons-mediates-segment-specific-touch-responses-in-drosophila
#6
Suguru Takagi, Benjamin Thomas Cocanougher, Sawako Niki, Dohjin Miyamoto, Hiroshi Kohsaka, Hokto Kazama, Richard Doty Fetter, James William Truman, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona, Akinao Nose
Animals adaptively respond to a tactile stimulus by choosing an ethologically relevant behavior depending on the location of the stimuli. Here, we investigate how somatosensory inputs on different body segments are linked to distinct motor outputs in Drosophila larvae. Larvae escape by backward locomotion when touched on the head, while they crawl forward when touched on the tail. We identify a class of segmentally repeated second-order somatosensory interneurons, that we named Wave, whose activation in anterior and posterior segments elicit backward and forward locomotion, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196461/mirna-suppression-of-a-notch-repressor-directs-non-neuronal-fate-in-drosophila-mechanosensory-organs
#7
Joshua Kavaler, Hong Duan, Rajaguru Aradhya, Luis F de Navas, Brian Joseph, Boris Shklyar, Eric C Lai
Although there is abundant evidence that individual microRNA (miRNA) loci repress large cohorts of targets, large-scale knockout studies suggest that most miRNAs are phenotypically dispensable. Here, we identify a rare case of developmental cell specification that is highly dependent on miRNA control of an individual target. We observe that binary cell fate choice in the Drosophila melanogaster peripheral sensory organ lineage is controlled by the non-neuronally expressed mir-279/996 cluster, with a majority of notum sensory organs exhibiting transformation of sheath cells into ectopic neurons...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179610/a-tug-of-war-between-cryptochrome-and-the-visual-system-allows-the-adaptation-of-evening-activity-to-long-photoperiods-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Christa Kistenpfennig, Mayumi Nakayama, Ruri Nihara, Kenji Tomioka, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Taishi Yoshii
In many animals, the circadian clock plays a role in adapting to the coming season by measuring day length. The mechanism for measuring day length and its neuronal circuits remains elusive, however. Under laboratory conditions, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, displays 2 activity peaks: one in the morning and one in the evening. These peaks appear to be regulated by 2 separate circadian oscillators (the morning and evening oscillators) that reside in different subsets of pacemaker clock neurons in the brain...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177429/identification-of-a-basidiomycete-specific-vilse-like-gtpase-activating-proteins-gaps-and-its-roles-in-the-production-of-virulence-factors-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Kashif Rahim, Liang Huo, Chenxi Li, Ping Zhang, Abdul Basit, Biyun Xiang, Bie Ting, Xiaoran Hao, Xudong Zhu
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous pathogenic yeast that causes fatal infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Regulation on the production of its virulence factor is not fully understood. Here we reported the characterization of a gene, named CVH1(CNA06260), encoding a Drosophila Vilse-like RhoGAP homologue, which is hallmarked by three conserved functional domains, i.e. WW, MyTH4, and RhoGAP. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that CVH1 is highly conserved from protists to mammals and interestingly in basidiomycetes, but absent in plants or Ascomycota and other lower fungi...
November 21, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172879/circadian-rhythms-in-visual-responsiveness-in-the-behaviorally-arrhythmic-drosophila-clock-mutant-clkjrk
#10
Olivia M Nippe, Alex R Wade, Christopher J H Elliott, Sangeeta Chawla
An organism's biological day is characterized by a pattern of anticipatory physiological and behavioral changes that are governed by circadian clocks to align with the 24-h cycling environment. Here, we used flash electroretinograms (ERGs) and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) to examine how visual responsiveness in wild-type Drosophila melanogaster and the circadian clock mutant ClkJrk varies over circadian time. We show that the ERG parameters of wild-type flies vary over the circadian day, with a higher luminance response during the subjective night...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165248/neuromodulatory-connectivity-defines-the-structure-of-a-behavioral-neural-network
#11
Feici Diao, Amicia D Elliott, Fengqiu Diao, Sarav Shah, Benjamin H White
Neural networks are typically defined by their synaptic connectivity, yet synaptic wiring diagrams often provide limited insight into network function. This is due partly to the importance of non-synaptic communication by neuromodulators, which can dynamically reconfigure circuit activity to alter its output. Here we systematically map the patterns of neuromodulatory connectivity in a network that governs a developmentally critical behavioral sequence in Drosophila. This sequence, which mediates pupal ecdysis, is governed by the serial release of several key factors, which act both somatically as hormones and within the brain as neuromodulators...
November 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149607/classifying-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-subtypes-by-single-cell-rna-sequencing
#12
Hongjie Li, Felix Horns, Bing Wu, Qijing Xie, Jiefu Li, Tongchao Li, David J Luginbuhl, Stephen R Quake, Liqun Luo
The definition of neuronal type and how it relates to the transcriptome are open questions. Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs) are among the best-characterized neuronal types: different PN classes target dendrites to distinct olfactory glomeruli, while PNs of the same class exhibit indistinguishable anatomical and physiological properties. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we comprehensively characterized the transcriptomes of most PN classes and unequivocally mapped transcriptomes to specific olfactory function for six classes...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140243/a-versatile-genetic-tool-for-post-translational-control-of-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Sachin Sethi, Jing W Wang
Several techniques have been developed to manipulate gene expression temporally in intact neural circuits. However, the applicability of current tools developed for in vivo studies in Drosophila is limited by their incompatibility with existing GAL4 lines and side effects on physiology and behavior. To circumvent these limitations, we adopted a strategy to reversibly regulate protein degradation with a small molecule by using a destabilizing domain (DD). We show that this system is effective across different tissues and developmental stages...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119859/novel-genetic-approaches-to-behavior-in-drosophila
#14
Fernando Martín, Esther Alcorta
The study of behavior requires manipulation of the controlling neural circuits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an ideal model for studying behavior because of its relatively small brain and the numerous sophisticated genetic tools that have been developed for this animal. Relatively recent technical advances allow the manipulation of a small subset of neurons with temporal resolution in flies while they are subject to behavior assays. This review briefly describes the most important genetic techniques, reagents, and approaches that are available to study and manipulate the neural circuits involved in Drosophila behavior...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109678/identification-of-genes-that-maintain-behavioral-and-structural-plasticity-during-sleep-loss
#15
Laurent Seugnet, Stephane Dissel, Matthew Thimgan, Lijuan Cao, Paul J Shaw
Although patients with primary insomnia experience sleep disruption, they are able to maintain normal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. This observation suggests that insomnia may be a condition where predisposing factors simultaneously increase the risk for insomnia and also mitigate against the deleterious consequences of waking. To gain insight into processes that might regulate sleep and buffer neuronal circuits during sleep loss, we manipulated three genes, fat facet (faf), highwire (hiw) and the GABA receptor Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl), that were differentially modulated in a Drosophila model of insomnia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109241/optogenetic-activation-of-the-fruitless-labeled-circuitry-in-drosophila-subobscura-males-induces-mating-motor-acts
#16
Ryoya Tanaka, Tomohiro Higuchi, Soh Kohatsu, Kosei Sato, Daisuke Yamamoto
It remains an enigma how the nervous system of different animal species produces different behaviors. We studied the neural circuitry for mating behavior in Drosophila subobscura, a species that displays unique courtship actions not shared by other members of the genera including the genetic model D. melanogaster, in which the core courtship circuitry has been identified. We disrupted the D. subobscurafruitless (fru) gene, a master regulator for the courtship circuitry formation in D. melanogaster, resulting in complete loss of mating behavior...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107518/transsynaptic-mapping-of-second-order-taste-neurons-in-flies-by-trans-tango
#17
Mustafa Talay, Ethan B Richman, Nathaniel J Snell, Griffin G Hartmann, John D Fisher, Altar Sorkaç, Juan F Santoyo, Cambria Chou-Freed, Nived Nair, Mark Johnson, John R Szymanski, Gilad Barnea
Mapping neural circuits across defined synapses is essential for understanding brain function. Here we describe trans-Tango, a technique for anterograde transsynaptic circuit tracing and manipulation. At the core of trans-Tango is a synthetic signaling pathway that is introduced into all neurons in the animal. This pathway converts receptor activation at the cell surface into reporter expression through site-specific proteolysis. Specific labeling is achieved by presenting a tethered ligand at the synapses of genetically defined neurons, thereby activating the pathway in their postsynaptic partners and providing genetic access to these neurons...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100505/optical-inhibition-of-larval-zebrafish-behaviour-with-anion-channelrhodopsins
#18
Gadisti Aisha Mohamed, Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Joses Ho, Seetha Krishnan, Farhan Mohammad, Adam Claridge-Chang, Suresh Jesuthasan
BACKGROUND: Optical silencing of activity provides a way to test the necessity of neurons in behaviour. Two light-gated anion channels, GtACR1 and GtACR2, have recently been shown to potently inhibit activity in cultured mammalian neurons and in Drosophila. Here, we test the usefulness of these channels in larval zebrafish, using spontaneous coiling behaviour as the assay. RESULTS: When the GtACRs were expressed in spinal neurons of embryonic zebrafish and actuated with blue or green light, spontaneous movement was inhibited...
November 3, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096245/glial-contributions-to-neuronal-health-and-disease-new-insights-from-drosophila
#19
REVIEW
Mary A Logan
Glial cells are essential for proper formation and maintenance of the nervous system. During development, glia keep neuronal cell numbers in check and ensure that mature neural circuits are appropriately sculpted by engulfing superfluous cells and projections. In the adult brain, glial cells offer metabolic sustenance and provide critical immune support in the face of acute and chronic challenges. Dysfunctional glial immune activity is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive decline, as well as neurodegenerative disease risk, but we still know surprisingly little about the specific molecular pathways that govern glia-neuron communication in the healthy or diseased brain...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082071/rapid-adaptive-remote-focusing-microscope-for-sensing-of-volumetric-neural-activity
#20
Mantas Žurauskas, Oliver Barnstedt, Maria Frade-Rodriguez, Scott Waddell, Martin J Booth
The ability to record neural activity in the brain of a living organism at cellular resolution is of great importance for defining the neural circuit mechanisms that direct behavior. Here we present an adaptive two-photon microscope optimized for extraction of neural signals over volumes in intact Drosophila brains, even in the presence of specimen motion. High speed volume imaging was made possible through reduction of spatial resolution while maintaining the light collection efficiency of a high resolution, high numerical aperture microscope...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
keyword
keyword
27785
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"