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Child anxiety disorders

Consuelo Walss-Bass, Robert Suchting, Rene L Olvera, Douglas E Williamson
BACKGROUND: Immune system abnormalities have been repeatedly observed in several psychiatric disorders, including severe depression and anxiety. However, whether specific immune mediators play an early role in the etiopathogenesis of these disorders remains unknown. METHODS: In a longitudinal design, component-wise gradient boosting was used to build models of depression, assessed by the Mood-Feelings Questionnaire-Child (MFQC), and anxiety, assessed by the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in 254 adolescents from a large set of candidate predictors, including sex, race, 39 inflammatory proteins, and the interactions between those proteins and time...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Alex S Holdaway, Stephen P Becker
Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is associated with poorer peer functioning, no study has examined SCT in relation to student-teacher relationship quality. The current study examined whether SCT, as rated by both teachers and children, was uniquely associated with poorer student-teacher relationship quality above and beyond child demographics and other mental health symptoms (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder [ODD/CD], anxiety/depression)...
March 15, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Juliana Brum Moraes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, George Anderson, Marta Kubera, Andre F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Early life trauma (ELT) may increase the risk towards bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), disorders associated with activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways. It has remained elusive whether ELTs are associated with O&NS and which ELTs are associated with distinct affective disorder phenotypes. This case-control study examined patients with BD (n = 68) and MDD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 66). The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess specific ELT...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Karl Wissemann, Julia Y Gorday, Alexandria Meyer
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the perception that anxiety symptoms and experiences have negative consequences, and has been identified as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. AS has been measured in adults and in children, but to date, the construct of parent's sensitivity to their children's anxiety symptoms has not been identified, measured, or evaluated. The current study presents a novel measure of this construct, the Parent Sensitivity to Child Anxiety Index (PSCAI), and an initial evaluation of its psychometric properties...
March 15, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Laura C Politte, Lawrence Scahill, Janet Figueroa, James T McCracken, Bryan King, Christopher J McDougle
In a prior report, we showed that extended-release guanfacine (GEXR) is safe and effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) accompanied by ADHD symptoms. Here, we examine the impact of GEXR on oppositional behavior, anxiety, repetitive behavior, and sleep disturbance. Sixty-two subjects with ASD (53 boys, 9 girls; ages 5-14 years) were randomly assigned to GEXR (n = 30) or placebo (n = 32) for 8 weeks. Outcomes include the Home Situation Questionnaire-Modified for ASD (HSQ-ASD), Anxiety scale of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI), Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Modified for ASD (CYBOCS-ASD), and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Shefaly Shorey, Cornelia Chee, Yap-Seng Chong, Esperanza Debby Ng, Ying Lau, Cindy-Lee Dennis
BACKGROUND: Multiple international agencies, including the World Health Organization and the International Monetary Fund, have emphasized the importance of maternal mental health for optimal child health and development. Adequate social support is vital for the most vulnerable to postpartum mood disorders. Hence, an urgent need for sustainable social support programs to aid mothers ease into their new parenting role exists. OBJECTIVE: This study protocol aims to examine the effectiveness of a technology-based peer support intervention program among mothers at risk for postnatal depression in the early postpartum period...
March 14, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Daisy Oliveira Costa, Fabíola Isabel Suano de Souza, Glaura César Pedroso, Maria Wany Louzada Strufaldi
This study aimed to determine the presence and association of possible mental disorders diagnoses in primary care pregnant women and newborns' conditions. This is a longitudinal study with pregnant women (18-39 years), in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, attended at primary care facilities in the metropolitan region of São Paulo (February to August/2014). The following tools were used: sociodemographic questionnaire; Mental Disorders in Primary Care Assessment tool; and an interview with information and mother´s perception of the behavior of newborns...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Julia F Litzky, Maya A Deyssenroth, Todd M Everson, Barry M Lester, Luca Lambertini, Jia Chen, Carmen J Marsit
BACKGROUND: Depression and/or anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with impaired fetal growth and neurodevelopmental. Because placental imprinted genes play a central role in fetal development and respond to environmental stressors, we hypothesized that imprinted gene expression would be affected by prenatal depression and anxiety. METHODS: Placental gene expression was compared between mothers with prenatal depression and/or anxiety/obsessive compulsive disorder/panic and control mothers without psychiatric history (n=458) in the Rhode Island Child Health Study...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Julia S Anixt, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Halley Estridge, Laura Smith, William B Brinkman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of treatment decisions to address challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Parents of children aged 4 to 15 years with ASD seen in a developmental behavioral pediatric (DBP) clinic completed validated measures to characterize their child's behaviors and their own level of stress. Parents reported their treatment priority before the visit. During the visit, we assessed shared decision making (SDM) using the Observing Patient Involvement (OPTION) scale and alignment of the clinician's treatment plan with the parent's priority...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Johan Bester, Maya Sabatello, Clara D M van Karnebeek, John D Lantos
A 38-year-old woman is diagnosed with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, an autosomal dominant genetic condition that predisposes to a variety of cancers. The woman has an 11-year-old daughter. The geneticist recommends that the child be tested for the Li-Fraumeni genetic variant. The mother is concerned about the impact of testing and diagnosis on Karen's psychological well-being. She describes Karen as "highly strung" and as "a worrier." The child has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and is managed by a psychologist for counseling...
March 13, 2018: Pediatrics
Yuqing Zhang, Xinyu Zhou, Lining Yang, Sarah E Hetrick, John R Weisz, Pim Cuijpers, Jürgen Barth, Cinzia Del Giovane, Shuai Yuan, David Cohen, Donna Gillies, Xiaofeng Jiang, Teng Teng, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among children and adolescents who are exposed to trauma, and it is often associated with significant negative impacts on their psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Many types of psychotherapies have been found to be effective for PTSD in children and adolescents. However, due to the lack of direct comparisons between different psychotherapies, the hierarchy of treatment efficacy is still unclear. Therefore, we plan to conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of various types of psychotherapies for PTSD in children and adolescents...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Catherine L Ward, Lillian Artz, Lezanne Leoschut, Reshma Kassanjee, Patrick Burton
BACKGROUND: We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. METHODS: For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
Marianna Purgato, Alden L Gross, Theresa Betancourt, Paul Bolton, Chiara Bonetto, Chiara Gastaldon, James Gordon, Paul O'Callaghan, Davide Papola, Kirsi Peltonen, Raija-Leena Punamaki, Justin Richards, Julie K Staples, Johanna Unterhitzenberger, Mark van Ommeren, Joop de Jong, Mark J D Jordans, Wietse A Tol, Corrado Barbui
BACKGROUND: Results from studies evaluating the effectiveness of focused psychosocial support interventions in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low-income and middle-income countries have been inconsistent, showing varying results by setting and subgroup (eg, age or gender). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of these interventions, and to explore which children are likely to benefit most. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from 3143 children recruited to 11 randomised controlled trials of focused psychosocial support interventions versus waiting list...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
Laura Jane Bry, Tommy Chou, Elizabeth Miguel, Jonathan S Comer
Anxiety disorders are collectively the most prevalent mental health problems affecting youth. To increase the reach of mental health care, recent years have seen increasing enthusiasm surrounding mobile platforms for expanding treatment delivery options. Apps developed in academia and supported in clinical trials are slow to reach the consumer marketplace. Meanwhile, proliferation of industry-developed apps on consumer marketplaces has been high. The present study analyzed content within mobile products prominently marketed toward consumers for anxiety in youth...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Yu-Chien Chang, Chih-Hsuan Chen, Pai-Chuan Huang, Ling-Yi Lin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong developmental disability characterized by deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts. Existing literature on social relationships and well-being among adolescents with ASD in Asian countries is scant. AIMS: This study compared the perceptions of adolescents with ASD with those of their neurotypical peers toward their friendship quality, activity participation, and emotional well-being, and examined the relationships between friendship quality, activity participation, and emotional well-being...
March 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
Francisco R de la Peña, Marcos F Rosetti, Andrés Rodríguez-Delgado, Lino R Villavicencio, Juan D Palacio, Cecilia Montiel, Pablo A Mayer, Fernando J Félix, Marcela Larraguibel, Laura Viola, Silvia Ortiz, Sofía Fernández, Aurora Jaímes, Miriam Feria, Liz Sosa, Lino Palacios-Cruz, Rosa E Ulloa
Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Megan Rose Stafford, Mick Cooper, Michael Barkham, Jeni Beecham, Peter Bower, Karen Cromarty, Andrew J B Fugard, Charlie Jackson, Peter Pearce, Rebekah Ryder, Cathy Street
BACKGROUND: One in ten children in Britain have been identified as experiencing a diagnosable mental health disorder. School-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) may help young people identify, address, and overcome psychological distress. Data from four pilot trials suggest that SBHC may be clinically effective. However, a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to provide a robust test of its effectiveness, to assess its cost-effectiveness, and to determine the process of change...
March 9, 2018: Trials
Wei Liu, Yin Ting Cheung, Tara M Brinkman, Pia Banerjee, Deokumar Srivastava, Vikki G Nolan, Hongmei Zhang, James G Gurney, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of emotional, behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in child and adolescent survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated on a chemotherapy-only protocol were not well defined. METHODS: Self- and parent-reported emotional and behavioral symptoms were assessed for 161 survivors of childhood ALL (51.0% female; mean [SD] age 12.1[2.6] years; 7.5[1.6] years post-diagnosis). Age- and sex-adjusted scores were calculated for standardized measures, and compared to 90th percentile of norms...
March 9, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Anna McKinnon, Robert Keers, Jonathan R I Coleman, Kathryn J Lester, Susanna Roberts, Kristian Arendt, Susan M Bögels, Peter Cooper, Cathy Creswell, Catharina A Hartman, Krister W Fjermestad, Tina In-Albon, Kristen Lavallee, Heidi J Lyneham, Patrick Smith, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Maaike H Nauta, Ronald M Rapee, Yasmin Rey, Silvia Schneider, Wendy K Silverman, Mikael Thastum, Kerstin Thirlwall, Gro Janne Wergeland, Thalia C Eley, Jennifer L Hudson
BACKGROUND: Several delivery formats of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety have been proposed, however, there is little consensus on the optimal delivery format. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on changes in clinical severity (of the primary problem) during individual CBT, group CBT and guided parent-led CBT. The secondary goal was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on rates of remission for the three treatment formats...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Cristiane S Paula, Jair J Mari, Isabel Altenfelder Santos Bordin, Euripedes C Miguel, Isabela Fortes, Natalia Barroso, Luis Augusto Rohde, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to identify early vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders among Brazilian elementary school children, controlling for familial and community adversities. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study examining the association between child psychiatric disorders and potential early vulnerabilities (disability, low intellectual quotient, and negative dimensions of the temperament trait self-directedness (low resourcefulness, low purposefulness, low enlightened second nature), controlling for the potential confounders: familial and community adversities...
March 6, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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