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Man made mineral fibers

Mark J Utell, L Daniel Maxim
Refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) are amorphous fibers that belong to a class of materials termed synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), also called man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs), which includes alkaline earth silicate wool, glass wool, rock (stone) wool, slag wool, and special-purpose glass fibers. RCFs are more durable and biopersistent than several other SVFs, although very much less biopersistent than either amosite or crocidolite asbestos. Chronic inhalation studies indicated that rats and hamsters exposed to RCF fibers developed fibrosis and tumors...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Alessandro F Gualtieri
A number of mineral fibers represent a health hazard because they are classified as cancer-causing chemical/physical toxicants upon (chronic) dust inhalation. Although in the last decades they have been the subject of intensive multidisciplinary investigations, the mechanisms by which mineral fibers induce toxic and pathogenic adverse effects on human health and environment are not yet fully understood. The major intricacy of the biological approach that prevents the design of a conclusive shared model of behavior of mineral fibers in a biological system stems from their very nature with intrinsic variability in chemical, molecular, structural and morphometric parameters, biodurability and surface reactivity...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Xin Luo, Yi Rong, Limin Wang, Jintong He, Ming Zhao, Wei Lu, Runbo Zhang, Weiwei Sun, Weihong Chen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the determination methods of fiber number concentration between China and WHO. METHODS: Individual fiber samplings were conducted at a RCF manufacturing enterprise for 40 types of work. Flow rate was set as 2 L/min and lasted 2 to 4 hours. We used acetone-triacetin to prepare samples. The rules of two methods were used to count fibers for each sample respectively. The differences between the results of two methods were compared using the sign-rank test, and the correlation between the two methods' counting results were evaluated by the Spearsman rank correlation analysis...
November 2015: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Ewa Orlowski, Sabyne Audignon-Durand, Marcel Goldberg, Ellen Imbernon, Patrick Brochard
OBJECTIVES: The aim of Evalutil is to document occupational exposure to asbestos and man-made mineral fibers. METHODS: These databases provide grouped descriptive and metrological data from observed situations of occupational exposure, collected through the analysis of scientific articles and technical reports by industrial hygienists. RESULTS: Over 5,000 measurements were collected. We describe the occupations, economic activities, fiber-containing products, and operations on them that have been documented most often...
October 2015: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Elizabeth Fireman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Manufactured (artificial) fibers represent an important and continuously growing volume among substitutes to natural fibers. A major proportion of the population in an industrialized society has been, is, or will be in contact with these fibers. The fibrous configuration of asbestos is well recognized as being an important parameter in toxicity, and now that of synthetic fibers is also suspected of inducing serious health effects on the respiratory system. There is an ongoing debate about the actual fibrogenic effect of these man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs) in humans...
March 2014: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
G Assennato, F Cuccaro
Many epidemiological studies, mostly with a case-control design, show an increased risk of cancer, in particular lung cancer, in construction workers. Asbestos is the occupational carcinogen considered for a long time the most important in this sector, but now it covers a residual role, at least in Italy. In this review the most recent studies are considered and the presence of other carcinogens, as crystalline silica, man-made mineral fibers, diesel exhausts, metals, solvents, UV rays, must be considered in risk evaluation also, possibly, for health and epidemiologic surveillance...
July 2012: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Roser Costa, Ramon Orriols
Man-made mineral fibers are produced using inorganic materials and are widely used as thermal and acoustic insulation. These basically include continuous fiberglass filaments, glass wool (fiberglass insulation), stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers. Likewise, in the last two decades nanoscale fibers have also been developed, among these being carbon nanotubes with their high electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability. Both man-made mineral fibers and carbon nanotubes have properties that make them inhalable and potentially harmful, which have led to studies to assess their pathogenicity...
December 2012: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Danièle Luce, Isabelle Stücker
BACKGROUND: Occupational causes of respiratory cancers need to be further investigated: the role of occupational exposures in the aetiology of head and neck cancers remains largely unknown, and there are still substantial uncertainties for a number of suspected lung carcinogens. The main objective of the study is to examine occupational risk factors for lung and head and neck cancers. METHODS/DESIGN: ICARE is a multi-center, population-based case-control study, which included a group of 2926 lung cancer cases, a group of 2415 head and neck cancer cases, and a common control group of 3555 subjects...
2011: BMC Public Health
Lap Ah Tse, Ignatius Tak-Sun Yu, Hong Qiu, Joseph Siu Kai Au, Xiao-Rong Wang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to fill in the gap of knowledge on the lung cancer burden resulting from occupational exposures among Chinese men through a population-based case-referent study. METHODS: Detailed information on lifestyle and full occupational histories of 1,208 male lung cancer incident cases and 1,069 age-matched male community referents were obtained through interviews during 2004-2006. The associations between lung cancer risk and exposures to specific or group of agents that were confirmed or suspected occupational carcinogens were analyzed...
January 2012: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Yoshiharu Aizawa, Yuichiro Kudo
Because the lungs are exposed to airborne hazardous materials, alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a major role in defending against the exposure to various noxious chemical substances. In this study, we reviewed magnetometric investigations of the effects of various chemicals on the lungs and AMs. Magnetometry, using magnetite as an indicator, was used to evaluate the effects of certain chemicals on the lung and AMs. A rapid decrease of the remanent magnetic field after the cessation of external magnetization, a phenomenon called relaxation, was impaired when the lungs and macrophages were exposed to toxic substances...
July 2010: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Hisako Shinji, Mitsuyasu Watanabe, Yuichiro Kudo, Masato Niitsuya, Masashi Tsunoda, Toshihiko Satoh, Yasuhiro Sakai, Makoto Kotani, Yoshiharu Aizawa
OBJECTIVES: The toxicity of microglass fibers (MG), one of the man-made mineral fibers, has not been sufficiently evaluated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of MGin vitro. METHODS: Alveolar macrophages were obtained from the bronchoalveolar lavage of male F344/N rats. The macrophages were exposed to MG at concentrations of 0, 40, 80, 160 and 320 μg/ml. The effects of MG on the macrophages were examined by cell magnetometry, LDH assay and morphological observation...
March 2005: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Zhao-Qiang Jiang, Li-Jin Zhu, Jun-Qiang Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2010: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Javier Pintos, Marie-Elise Parent, Bruce W Case, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Jack Siemiatycki
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of exposure to occupational asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) across a wide range of occupations on risk of mesothelioma. METHODOLOGY: Two population-based case-control studies (1979-1986 and 1996-2001) provided 35 histologically confirmed mesothelioma cases and 1965 controls. A detailed job history was obtained to evaluate occupational exposure to many agents, including asbestos and MMVF. RESULTS: The mesothelioma odds ratio for exposure to any asbestos type was 3...
October 2009: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Loren Lipworth, Carlo La Vecchia, Cristina Bosetti, Joseph K McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review and meta-analysis of risks of cancers of the lung and head and neck (HN) from exposure to rock wool (RW) and glass wool (GW). METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk estimates of lung and HN cancer in epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF), specifically RW and GW. RESULTS: Sixteen estimates of lung cancer risk yielded a summary relative risk (RR) of 1...
September 2009: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Heidi J Salonen, Sanna K Lappalainen, Henri M Riuttala, Antti P Tossavainen, Pertti O Pasanen, Kari E Reijula
Several sources of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) may exist in an office environment causing irritation symptoms among occupants. In 258 office buildings, the occurrence and density of settled MMVFs on surfaces were measured by two sampling methods. Altogether, 1113 samples of settled dust were collected from surfaces with plastic bags and gelatine tape and were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope and a stereomicroscope, respectively. Tape samples from 68 buildings were collected from frequently cleaned (n = 162) and seldom cleaned (n = 57) room surfaces in 56 and 29 offices, respectively, and from supply air ducts (n = 24) in 10 offices...
October 2009: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Seiya Sakai, Kousuke Inada, Akira K Tanaka, David P Kelly, Greg P Sykes, K P Lee
Since fibrous particles such as asbestos and some man-made fibers (MMF) have been known to produce carcinogenic or fibrogenic effects, disk-shaped potassium octatitanate (POT) particles (trade name: Terracess TF) were manufactured as nonfibrous particles. A 90-day inhalation toxicity study of Terracess TF was performed to evaluate comparative inhalation toxicity of the disk shape with a fibrous shape that was previously evaluated. Four groups of 20 male and 15 female rats each were exposed to Terracess TF aerosols at concentrations of 0, 2, 10, or 50 mg/m(3) for 90 days...
January 2010: Inhalation Toxicology
Li-jin Zhu, Min Zhang, Li Ju
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2009: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Min Zhang, Xing Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2009: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Javier Pintos, Marie-Elise Parent, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Bruce W Case, Jack Siemiatycki
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of occupational asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) on the risk of lung cancer in two population-based case-control studies entailing exposure at lower levels than in historic cohort studies. METHODOLOGY: Study I (1979 to 1986) comprised 857 cases and 1066 population and cancer controls. Study II (1996 to 2001) comprised 858 cases and 1295 population controls. A detailed job history was obtained to evaluate lifetime occupational exposure to 294 agents, including asbestos and MMVF...
November 2008: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
A Cannizzaro, A Campopiano, A Olori, F Basili, S Boccanera
Now among asbestos substitutes, the man-made organic fibers (MMOFs) find interesting applications on the industrial side. This class includes aramidic, polyacrylic, polyamides, polyolefins and polyvinylic fibers and it has been listed in category 3 of IARC classification (not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans). The aim of this study is to provide a panoramic regarding the toxicity of MMOFs present on the market according to their chemical-physical properties. Three materials have been taken in to consideration: the polyacrylonitrile (PAN), the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the Kevlar...
July 2007: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
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