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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535608/antifungal-activities-of-dimeric-sesquiterpenes-shizukaols-c-and-f-isolated-from-chloranthus-japonicus-sieb
#1
Tae Hoon Kang, Yun Mi Lee, Won Jung Lee, Eui Il Hwang, Ki Duk Park, Gyang Ja Choi, Jae Sun Moon, Ho-Yong Park, Sung Uk Kim
Two dimeric sesquitepenes were separated from Chloranthus japonicus Sieb. and identified as shizukaols C and F. They exhibited potent antifungal activities (MICs = 4-16 μg/ml) in vitro against various plant pathogenic fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora infestans, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Alternaria kikuchana, and Magnaporthe grisea. Shizukaol C showed 88% and 91% protective activities in the greenhouse against Puccinia recondite (wheat leaf rust) and Phytophthora infestans (tomato late blight), respectively, at 100 µg/ml; shizukaol F exhibited 93% antifungal activity against Puccinia recondite at the same concentration...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535595/enhancement-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-removal-by-helophytes-along-subsurface-water-flowpaths-receiving-treated-wastewater
#2
Miquel Ribot, Susana Bernal, Myrto Nikolakopoulou, Timothy N Vaessen, Joaquín Cochero, Esperança Gacia, Albert Sorolla, Alba Argerich, Francesc Sabater, Manel Isnard, Eugènia Martí
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to receiving streams, which can eventually become saturated by excess of DIN. Aquatic plants (i.e., helophytes) can modify subsurface water flowpaths as well as assimilate nutrients and enhance microbial activity in the rhizosphere, yet their ability to increase DIN transformation and removal in WWTP-influenced streams is poorly understood. We examined the influence of helophytes on DIN removal along subsurface water flowpaths and how this was associated with DOC removal and labile C availability...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535493/nutrient-and-heavy-metal-accumulation-in-municipal-organic-waste-from-separate-collection-during-anaerobic-digestion-in-a-two-stage-laboratory-biogas-plant
#3
Christine Knoop, Christina Dornack, Thomas Raab
Municipal organic waste (MOW) is a promising feedstock for biogas plants and separate collection will increase available quantities. To close nutrient circles digestates shall be redistributed to arable land. However, less is known about digestate properties and how they are influenced during digestion. Therefore, changes in nutrient and heavy metal concentration in the solid digestate were investigated during anaerobic treatment of MOW in a two-stage laboratory biogas plant. Results show that the solid digestate is exposed to element accumulation, except for N, P and Mg...
May 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535423/chromatographic-separation-and-detection-methods-of-aloe-arborescens-miller-constituents-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Jilan A Nazeam, Haidy A Gad, Hala M El-Hefnawy, Abdel-Naser B Singab
Aloe arborescens Miller (Family Asphodelaceae) is a member of genus Aloe, which is used in traditional medicine to cure various diseases. The extracts of the plant have been reported to possess anticancer, immunomodulator, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The phytochemical investigations have revealed diverse chemical constituents, including phenolics [anthraquinones, anthrones, pyrones, chromones and coumarins], polysaccharides [arborans [(1-4) linked glucomannans, polysaccharide (A, B and C): (A: a linear (1-6)-O-α-glucan, B: a branching (1-2)-O-l-arabinose with (1-2)-O-d-galactose linkages and C: (1-4)-O-β-mannan with 18% acetyl group)]], glycoproteins and carboxypeptidase enzyme...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535421/differentiation-of-crataegus-spp-guided-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectrometry-with-chemometric-analyses
#5
Jensen A Lund, Paula N Brown, Paul R Shipley
For compliance with US Current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations for dietary supplements, manufacturers must provide identity of source plant material. Despite the popularity of hawthorn as a dietary supplement, relatively little is known about the comparative phytochemistry of different hawthorn species, and in particular North American hawthorns. The combination of NMR spectrometry with chemometric analyses offers an innovative approach to differentiating hawthorn species and exploring the phytochemistry...
May 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535420/evolutionary-changes-in-defensive-specialized-metabolism-in-the-genus-hordeum
#6
Naoki Ube, Miho Nishizaka, Tsuyoshi Ichiyanagi, Kotomi Ueno, Shin Taketa, Atsushi Ishihara
Plants have developed defensive specialized metabolites over the course of evolution. In the genus Hordeum, which includes the important cereal crop barley, specialized metabolites such as hordatines, benzoxazinones, and gramine have been identified. Hordeum species are classified into four clades, H, Xu, Xa, and I. The presence or absence of defensive specialized metabolites was analyzed in representative Hordeum species that included all of the four clades. In the H clade, Hordeum vulgare accumulated hordatines but not benzoxazinones, whereas H...
May 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535384/invertebrate-biomechanics
#7
S N Patek, A P Summers
Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535261/recruitment-of-a-lineage-specific-virulence-regulatory-pathway-promotes-intracellular-infection-by-a-plant-pathogen-experimentally-evolved-into-a-legume-symbiont
#8
Delphine Capela, Marta Marchetti, Camille Clérissi, Anthony Perrier, Dorian Guetta, Carine Gris, Marc Valls, Alain Jauneau, Stéphane Cruveiller, Eduardo P C Rocha, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Ecological transitions between different lifestyles, such as pathogenicity, mutualism and saprophytism, have been very frequent in the course of microbial evolution, and often driven by horizontal gene transfer. Yet, how genomes achieve the ecological transition initiated by the transfer of complex biological traits remains poorly known. Here we used experimental evolution, genomics, transcriptomics and high-resolution phenotyping to analyze the evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum into legume symbionts, following the transfer of a natural plasmid encoding the essential mutualistic genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535196/characterization-of-antixenosis-in-soybean-genotypes-to-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-biotype-b
#9
E L L Baldin, P L Cruz, R Morando, I F Silva, J P F Bentivenha, L R S Tozin, T M Rodrigues
Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) is one of the most important soybean pest worldwide. Herein, 15 soybean genotypes were evaluated, to characterize the occurrence of antixenosis to B. tabaci biotype B. Initially, a multiple-choice test with all genotypes was carried out, evaluating the settling and oviposition preference at 3 d after infestation, and the colonization by nymphs after 48 d of infestation. Subsequently, a no-choice test, using 14 genotypes, was conducted with infested plants individually, and the number of eggs was counted after 72 h...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535152/corrigendum-identification-and-evolution-of-a-plant-cell-wall-specific-glycoprotein-glycosyl-transferase-exad
#10
Svenning Rune Møller, Xueying Yi, Silvia Melina Velásquez, Sascha Gille, Pernille Louise Munke Hansen, Christian P Poulsen, Carl Erik Olsen, Martin Rejzek, Harriet Parsons, Zhang Yang, Hans H Wandall, Henrik Clausen, Robert A Field, Markus Pauly, Jose M Estevez, Jesper Harholt, Peter Ulvskov, Bent Larsen Petersen
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep45341.
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535150/a-new-scenario-for-gravity-detection-in-plants-the-position-sensor-hypothesis
#11
O Pouliquen, Y Forterre, A Bérut, H Chauvet, F Bizet, V Legué, B Moulia
The detection of gravity plays a fundamental role during the growth and evolution of plants. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular, cellular and physical mechanisms involved in the gravity detection, a coherent scenario consistent with all the observations is still lacking. In this special issue article, we discuss recent experiments showing that the response to inclination of shoots is independent of the gravity intensity, meaning that the gravity sensor detects an inclination and not a force...
May 23, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535126/activated-charcoal-significantly-reduces-the-amount-of-colchicine-released-from-gloriosa-superba-in-simulated-gastric-and-intestinal-media
#12
Shukry Zawahir, Indika Gawarammana, Paul I Dargan, Mahfoudh Abdulghni, Andrew H Dawson
BACKGROUND: Poisoning with Gloriosa superba, a plant containing colchicine, is common in Sri Lanka. OBJECTIVES: This study was to estimate release of colchicine from 5 g of different parts of Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media, and examine the binding efficacy of activated charcoal (AC) to colchicine within this model. METHODS: A USP dissolution apparatus-II was used to prepare samples for analysis of colchicine using HPLC...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535079/the-tomato-kinase-pti1-contributes-to-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-response-to-two-flagellin-derived-peptides-and-promotes-resistance-to-pseudomonas-syringae-infection
#13
Simon Schwizer, Christine M Kraus, Diane M Dunham, Yi Zheng, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Marina A Pombo, Zhangjun Fei, Suma Chakravarthy, Gregory Martin
The Pti1 kinase was identified from a reverse genetic screen as contributing to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). This was unexpected because Pti1 was originally identified as an interactor of the Pto kinase and was implicated in effector-triggered immunity. The tomato genome has two Pti1 genes, referred to as Pti1a and Pti1b. A hairpin-Pti1 (hpPti1) construct was developed and used to generate two independent stable transgenic tomato lines, which had reduced transcript abundance of both genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535048/control-of-maillard-reactions-in-foods-strategies-and-chemical-mechanisms
#14
Marianne N Lund, Colin Ray
Maillard reactions lead to changes in food color, organoleptic properties, protein functionality, and protein digestibility. Numerous different strategies for controlling Maillard reactions in foods have been attempted during the last decades. In this paper, recent advances in strategies for controlling the Maillard reaction and subsequent downstream reaction products in food systems are critically reviewed. The underlying mechanisms at play are presented, strengths and weaknesses of each strategy are discussed, and reasonable reaction mechanisms are proposed to reinforce the evaluations...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534876/alpine-soil-carbon-is-vulnerable-to-rapid-microbial-decomposition-under-climate-cooling
#15
Linwei Wu, Yunfeng Yang, Shiping Wang, Haowei Yue, Qiaoyan Lin, Yigang Hu, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Lauren Hale, Xiangzhen Li, Jack A Gilbert, Jizhong Zhou
As climate cooling is increasingly regarded as important natural variability of long-term global warming trends, there is a resurging interest in understanding its impact on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we report a soil transplant experiment from lower to higher elevations in a Tibetan alpine grassland to simulate the impact of cooling on ecosystem community structure and function. Three years of cooling resulted in reduced plant productivity and microbial functional potential (for example, carbon respiration and nutrient cycling)...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534845/enhanced-production-of-gypenoside-lxxv-using-a-novel-ginsenoside-transforming-%C3%AE-glucosidase-from-ginseng-cultivating-soil-bacteria-and-its-anti-cancer-property
#16
Chang-Hao Cui, Da Jung Kim, Suk-Chae Jung, Sun-Chang Kim, Wan-Taek Im
Minor ginsenosides, such as compound K, Rg₃(S), which can be produced by deglycosylation of ginsenosides Rb₁, showed strong anti-cancer effects. However, the anticancer effects of gypenoside LXXV, which is one of the deglycosylated shapes of ginsenoside Rb₁, is still unknown due to the rarity of its content in plants. Here, we cloned and characterized a novel ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase (BglG167b) derived from Microbacterium sp. Gsoil 167 which can efficiently hydrolyze gypenoside XVII into gypenoside LXXV, and applied it to the production of gypenoside LXXV at the gram-scale with high specificity...
May 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534840/birth-outcomes-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-disaster-a-long-term-retrospective-study
#17
Claire Leppold, Shuhei Nomura, Toyoaki Sawano, Akihiko Ozaki, Masaharu Tsubokura, Sarah Hill, Yukio Kanazawa, Hiroshi Anbe
Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534831/rapidly-simultaneous-determination-of-six-effective-components-in-cistanche-tubulosa-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#18
Xinhong Wang, Xiaoguang Wang, Yuhai Guo
Quantitative determination of multiple effective components in a given plant usually requires a very large amount of authentic natural products. In this study, we proposed a rapid and non-destructive method for the simultaneous determination of echinacoside, verbascoside, mannitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose in Cistanche tubulosa by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted on 116 batches of C. tubulosa samples...
May 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534824/isorhynchophylline-a-potent-plant-alkaloid-induces-apoptotic-and-anti-metastatic-effects-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-through-the-modulation-of-diverse-cell-signaling-cascades
#19
Hanwool Lee, Seung Ho Baek, Jong Hyun Lee, Chulwon Kim, Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Seok-Geun Lee, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Woong Mo Yang, Jae-Young Um, Gautam Sethi, Kwang Seok Ahn
Isorhynchophylline (Rhy) is an active pharmacological component of Uncaria rhynchophylla that has been reported previously to exert significant antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects. However, very little is known about its potential anti-cancer activities. This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of Rhy against various human carcinoma cell lines. We found that Rhy exhibited substantial cytotoxic effect against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells when compared with other human carcinoma cell lines including those of lung, pancreas, prostate, head and neck, breast, multiple myeloma, brain and renal cell carcinoma...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534821/from-genome-to-phenotype-an-integrative-approach-to-evaluate-the-biodiversity-of-lactococcus-lactis
#20
REVIEW
Valérie Laroute, Hélène Tormo, Christel Couderc, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Pascal Le Bourgeois, Muriel Cocaign-Bousquet, Marie-Line Daveran-Mingot
Lactococcus lactis is one of the most extensively used lactic acid bacteria for the manufacture of dairy products. Exploring the biodiversity of L. lactis is extremely promising both to acquire new knowledge and for food and health-driven applications. L. lactis is divided into four subspecies: lactis, cremoris, hordniae and tructae, but only subsp. lactis and subsp. cremoris are of industrial interest. Due to its various biotopes, Lactococcus subsp. lactis is considered the most diverse. The diversity of L...
May 19, 2017: Microorganisms
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