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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441785/evaluation-of-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-euphorbia-triaculeata-forssk-extract
#1
Zarraq I A Al-Faifi, Yahya S Masrahi, Magdy Sayed Aly, Turki A Al-Turki, Tarek Dardeer
Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. plant extract from Jazan region, Saudi Arabia, in an in vitro cancer model, which could be beneficial in anticancer therapy against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), prostate cell line (PC-3), human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HEPG2) and normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). The human foreskin fibroblast cell line, (Hs68), was also included in the cell panel. Doxorubicin and 5-Flurouracil, broad-spectrum anticancer drugs, were used as the positive control...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441782/deep-sequencing-analysis-of-rnas-from-citrus-plants-grown-in-a-citrus-sudden-death-affected-area-reveals-diverse-known-and-putative-novel-viruses
#2
Emilyn E Matsumura, Helvecio D Coletta-Filho, Shahideh Nouri, Bryce W Falk, Luca Nerva, Tiago S Oliveira, Silvia O Dorta, Marcos A Machado
Citrus sudden death (CSD) has caused the death of approximately four million orange trees in a very important citrus region in Brazil. Although its etiology is still not completely clear, symptoms and distribution of affected plants indicate a viral disease. In a search for viruses associated with CSD, we have performed a comparative high-throughput sequencing analysis of the transcriptome and small RNAs from CSD-symptomatic and -asymptomatic plants using the Illumina platform. The data revealed mixed infections that included Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) as the most predominant virus, followed by the Citrus sudden death-associated virus (CSDaV), Citrus endogenous pararetrovirus (CitPRV) and two putative novel viruses tentatively named Citrus jingmen-like virus (CJLV), and Citrus virga-like virus (CVLV)...
April 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441780/pollen-grain-preservation-and-fertility-in-valuable-commercial-rose-cultivars
#3
Annalisa Giovannini, Anca Macovei, Matteo Caser, Andrea Mansuino, Gian Guido Ghione, Marco Savona, Daniela Carbonera, Valentina Scariot, Alma Balestrazzi
In the cut flower market, traditional breeding is still the best way to achieve new rose cultivars. The geographical delocalization of cultivar constitution (generally made in Europe and North America) and plant cultivation (large areas in Africa and South America) represents a limit point for crossing and selection. Rose breeders often need to overcome geographical distances, resulting in asynchrony in flowering among crossing parents, by storing and sending pollen. Hence, a key aspect in breeding programs is linked to pollen availability and conservation, jointly with the identification of parameters related to pollen fertility...
April 24, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441779/glyoxalase-goes-green-the-expanding-roles-of-glyoxalase-in-plants
#4
REVIEW
Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Muhammad Jamshed, Abhinandan Kumar, Logan Skori, Sabine Scandola, Tina Wang, David Spiegel, Marcus A Samuel
The ubiquitous glyoxalase enzymatic pathway is involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. The glyoxalase system has been more extensively studied in animals versus plants. Plant glyoxalases have been primarily associated with stress responses and their overexpression is known to impart tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In plants, glyoxalases exist as multigene families, and new roles for glyoxalases in various developmental and signaling pathways have started to emerge...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441769/uva-uvb-and-uvc-light-enhances-the-biosynthesis-of-phenolic-antioxidants-in-fresh-cut-carrot-through-a-synergistic-effect-with-wounding
#5
Bernadeth B Surjadinata, Daniel A Jacobo-Velázquez, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos
Previously, we found that phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (AOX) in carrots increased with wounding intensity. It was also reported that UV radiation may trigger the phenylpropanoid metabolism in plant tissues. Here, we determined the combined effect of wounding intensity and UV radiation on phenolic compounds, AOX, and the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity of carrots. Accordingly, phenolic content, AOX, and PAL activity increased in cut carrots with the duration of UVC radiation, whereas whole carrots showed no increase...
April 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441758/acteoside-and-isoacteoside-protect-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-induced-cytotoxicity-cognitive-deficit-and-neurochemical-disturbances-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Young-Ji Shiao, Muh-Hwan Su, Hang-Ching Lin, Chi-Rei Wu
Acteoside and isoacteoside, two phenylethanoid glycosides, coexist in some plants. This study investigates the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of acteoside and isoacteoside in amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)-infused rats and Aβ 1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. It further elucidates the role of amyloid cascade and central neuronal function in these effects. Acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated cognitive deficits, decreased amyloid deposition, and reversed central cholinergic dysfunction that were caused by Aβ 1-42 in rats...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441735/effects-of-flavonoids-and-triterpene-analogues-from-leaves-of-eleutherococcus-sieboldianus-makino-koidz-himeukogi-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#7
Atsuyoshi Nishina, Masaya Itagaki, Yuusuke Suzuki, Mamoru Koketsu, Masayuki Ninomiya, Daisuke Sato, Takashi Suzuki, Satoshi Hayakawa, Makoto Kuroda, Hirokazu Kimura
Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Makino) Koidz. is a local product from the area in and around Yonezawa City in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. It has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time. We isolated and identified four types of flavonoid glycosides [astragalin (1), isoquercetin (2), rhamnocitrin 3-O-glucoside (3), and nicotiflorin (4)], a triterpene [methyl hederagenin (5)], and three types of triterpene glycosides [δ-hederin (6), echinocystic acid 3-O-arabinoside (7), and cauloside B (8)] from the methanol extract of E...
April 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441712/virus-based-devices-prospects-for-allopoiesis
#8
Bogdan Dragnea
The assembly line is a commonly invoked example of allopoiesis, the process whereby a system produces a different system than itself. In this sense, virus production in plants is an instance of bio-enabled bottom-up allopoiesis because the plant host can be regarded as a programmable assembly line for the virus. Reprogramming this assembly line and integrating it into a larger lineup of chemical manipulations has seen a flurry of activity recently, with more sophisticated systems emerging every year. The field of virus nanomaterials now has several subdisciplines that focus on virus shells as assemblers, scaffolds for molecular circuitry, chemical reactors, magnetic and photonic beacons, and therapeutic carriers...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441627/effect-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-drought-stress-on-phenolic-acids-flavonols-saponins-and-antioxidant-activity-in-agave-salmiana
#9
César A Puente-Garza, Cristina Meza-Miranda, Desiree Ochoa-Martínez, Silverio García-Lara
This work evaluated the effect of in vitro drought stress on morphological characteristics, phenolic compounds, flavonols, saponin content, and antioxidant activity in plantlets of Agave salmiana. Drought stress was induced with polyethylene glycol (PEG) at 0, 10, 20 and 30% w/v in Murashige and Skoog solid medium. The determination of specific flavonols and saponins was achieved via HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ELSD, respectively. Compared with the control, plants grown in 30% PEG showed a change in the width of the leaves and a different color, showing less clarity and more darkening (L = 21...
April 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441624/various-soil-amendments-and-environmental-wastes-affect-the-im-mobilization-and-phytoavailability-of-potentially-toxic-elements-in-a-sewage-effluent-irrigated-sandy-soil
#10
Sabry M Shaheen, Mohamed S Shams, Mohamed R Khalifa, Mohamed A El-Dali, Jörg Rinklebe
Contamination of long-term sewage effluent irrigated soils by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a serious concern due to its high environmental and health risk. Our scientific hypothesis is that soil amendments can cause contradictory effects on the element mobilization and phytoavailability depending on the type of element and amendment. Therefore, we aimed to assess the impact of the application (1%) of several low cost amendments and environmental wastes on the (im)mobilization, availability, and uptake of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in a long term sewage effluent irrigated sandy soils collected from Egypt...
April 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441612/mass-loading-and-removal-of-benzotriazoles-benzothiazoles-benzophenones-and-bisphenols-in-indian-sewage-treatment-plants
#11
Rajendiran Karthikraj, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Little is known about the occurrence of emerging environmental contaminants, such as benzotriazoles (BTRs), benzothiazoles (BTHs), benzophenones (BzPs), and bisphenol analogues (BPs) in India. In this study, we determined the occurrence and removal of BTRs, BTHs, BzPs, and BPs in five Indian sewage treatment plants (STPs). The respective measured mean concentrations (N = 5) in influents and effluents were 370 and 57.4 ng L(-1) for BTRs, 50800 and 20200 ng L(-1) for BTHs, 351 and 163 ng L(-1) for BzPs, and 98...
April 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441603/assessment-of-wastewater-treatment-facility-compliance-with-decreasing-ammonia-discharge-limits-using-a-regression-tree-model
#12
Bihu Suchetana, Balaji Rajagopalan, JoAnn Silverstein
A regression tree-based diagnostic approach is developed to evaluate factors affecting US wastewater treatment plant compliance with ammonia discharge permit limits using Discharge Monthly Report (DMR) data from a sample of 106 municipal treatment plants for the period of 2004-2008. Predictor variables used to fit the regression tree are selected using random forests, and consist of the previous month's effluent ammonia, influent flow rates and plant capacity utilization. The tree models are first used to evaluate compliance with existing ammonia discharge standards at each facility and then applied assuming more stringent discharge limits, under consideration in many states...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441592/characterization-of-major-natural-and-anthropogenic-source-profiles-for-size-fractionated-pm-in-yangtze-river-delta
#13
Pulong Chen, Tijian Wang, Mei Dong, Matthew Kasoar, Yong Han, Min Xie, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, Mengmeng Li, Tunan Huang
Samples of size-fractionated particles were collected from local natural and anthropogenic sources in two industrial cities in the Yangtze River Delta, using either grab/resuspension sampling or ambient air sampling. The chemical characterizations of twenty one source profiles were obtained, based on elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn), soluble ions (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+), K(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+)) and carbonaceous material such as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441590/screening-arabidopsis-mutants-in-genes-useful-for-phytoremediation
#14
María Sanz-Fernández, María Rodríguez-Serrano, Ana Sevilla-Perea, Liliana Pena, M Dolores Mingorance, Luisa M Sandalio, María C Romero-Puertas
Emissions of heavy metals have risen over the past 200 years and significantly exceed those from natural sources. Phytoremediation strategies may be able to recover soil productivity in self-sustaining ecosystems; however, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in plant heavy-metal perception and signalling is scarce. The aim of this study was to assemble a "molecular tool box" of genes useful for phytoremediation. To identify mutants with different heavy-metal-tolerance, we first selected a medium from mixtures containing three metals based on their presence in two Spanish mining areas and then screened about 7000 lines of Arabidopsis T-DNA mutants and found 74 lines more resistant and 56 more susceptible than the wild type (WT)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441589/nutrient-stress-induced-chromatin-changes-in-plants
#15
REVIEW
David Secco, James Whelan, Hatem Rouached, Ryan Lister
The ability of plants to appropriately respond to the soil nutrient availability is of primary importance for their development and to complete their life cycle. Deciphering these multifaceted adaptive mechanisms remains a major challenge for scientists to date. Recent technological breakthroughs now enable to assess the dynamism and complexity of these processes at unprecedented resolution. In this review, we present some of the most recent findings on the involvement of histone modifications, histone variants and DNA methylation in response to nutrient stresses as well as discussing the potential roles these chromatin changes could serve as priming or as trans-generational stress memory mechanisms...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441567/plant-development-from-dynamics-to-mechanics
#16
Jan Traas
A new study analyses the complex changes in shape occurring during petal development in snapdragon. Combining simulations with quantitative analysis leads to a new model, where molecular regulators control overall organ shape through mechanical conflicts operating at the level of entire tissues.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441554/how-far-are-we-from-closing-the-loop-of-sewage-resource-recovery-a-real-picture-of-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-italy
#17
Matteo Papa, Paola Foladori, Lorena Guglielmi, Giorgio Bertanza
This paper presents the results of a broad-scale survey of resource recovery implementation in Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey comprising a large number of WWTPs done in Europe: more than 600 plants were investigated, representing a treated load of around 20 million population equivalent (≈25% of the total in Italy). Conventional and innovative options for both material and energy recovery along the water and sludge line were surveyed, in order to i) offer a real and complete picture of the current state of resource recovery in WWTPs, and ii) underline key aspects and potential areas for improvements, as a baseline for future developments in the direction of more sustainable plants...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441546/isolation-of-new-polyacetylenes-from-the-roots-of-eurycoma-longifolia-via-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography
#18
Minglong Wang, Huijuan Zou, Qibin Chen, Jianguo Cao, Haji Akber Aisa, Guozheng Huang
Eurycoma longifolia is a tropical plant of diverse applications in folk medicine, which occurs in Southeast Asia. In this study, pre-purified fraction (0.86g) of the crude extracts from the roots of E. longifolia, was subjected to preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) at a volume ratio of 5:2:5:2 (v/v). Longifolione A (1, 19mg, purity 96.0%) and longifolione C (3, 317mg, purity 96.2%), together with longifolione B (2, purity 77...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441534/managing-the-plant-microbiome-for-biocontrol-fungi-examples-from-hypocreales
#19
REVIEW
Ryan M Kepler, Jude E Maul, Stephen A Rehner
Feeding an increasing global population requires continued improvements in agricultural efficiency and productivity. Meeting estimated future production levels requires the adoption of practices that increase output without environmental degradation associated with external inputs to supplement nutrition or control pests. Enriching the community of microbes associated with plants in agricultural systems for those providing ecosystem services such as pest control is one possible component towards achieving sustainable productivity increases...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441533/a-global-view-of-rna-protein-interactions-identifies-post-transcriptional-regulators-of-root-hair-cell-fate
#20
Shawn W Foley, Sager J Gosai, Dongxue Wang, Nur Selamoglu, Amelia C Sollitti, Tino Köster, Alexander Steffen, Eric Lyons, Fevzi Daldal, Benjamin A Garcia, Dorothee Staiger, Roger B Deal, Brian D Gregory
The Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is comprised of two cell types, hair and nonhair cells, which differentiate from the same precursor. Although the transcriptional programs regulating these events are well studied, post-transcriptional factors functioning in this cell fate decision are mostly unknown. Here, we globally identify RNA-protein interactions and RNA secondary structure in hair and nonhair cell nuclei. This analysis reveals distinct structural and protein binding patterns across both transcriptomes, allowing identification of differential RNA binding protein (RBP) recognition sites...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
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