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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528528/ustekinumab-a-review-in-moderate-to-severe-crohn-s-disease
#1
Yvette N Lamb, Sean T Duggan
Ustekinumab (Stelara(®)) has been recently approved in the EU and the USA as intravenous induction and subcutaneous maintenance therapy for adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease who have failed or were intolerant to treatment with immunomodulators, corticosteroids or at least one tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist. Ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody to the shared p40 subunit of the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 cytokines, has a unique mechanism of action distinct from that of TNF antagonists...
May 20, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528521/myeloid-populations-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#2
REVIEW
María Morell, Nieves Varela, Concepción Marañón
Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) encompass a wide spectrum of clinical signs as a reflection of their complex physiopathology. A variety of mechanisms related with the innate immune system are in the origin of the loss of self-tolerance in these diseases, and for most of them, the myeloid leukocytes are key actors. Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils are first-line immune effectors located in the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. They are crucial in the organization of the local and systemic responses to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and determine the intensity, orientation, and duration of the local immune response through the expression of chemokines, costimulatory or protolerogenic factors...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528519/il-6-blockade-in-the-management-of-non-infectious-uveitis
#3
Giuseppe Lopalco, Claudia Fabiani, Jurgen Sota, Orso Maria Lucherini, Gian Marco Tosi, Bruno Frediani, Florenzo Iannone, Mauro Galeazzi, Rossella Franceschini, Donato Rigante, Luca Cantarini
Several pathogenetic studies have paved the way for a newer more rational therapeutic approach to non-infectious uveitis, and treatment of different forms of immune-driven uveitis has drastically evolved in recent years after the advent of biotechnological drugs. Tumor necrosis factor-α targeted therapies, the first-line recommended biologics in uveitis, have certainly led to remarkable results in patients with non-infectious uveitis. Nevertheless, the decision-making process turns out to be extremely difficult in anti-tumor necrosis factor or multidrug-resistant cases...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528510/immunogenomics-using-genomics-to-personalize-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
Rance C Siniard, Shuko Harada
While the use of genomic data has the potential to revolutionize patient care, there is still much work to be done with regard to the transformation of host-tumor interactions into favorable clinical outcomes for our patients. High-throughput technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), have rapidly advanced our understanding of oncology, and we are learning that most tumors do not simply possess consistently mutated genes that are responsible for tumorigenesis, facilitating the need for personalized cancer therapy...
May 20, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528507/mertk-does-not-mediate-phagocytosis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-but-attenuates-inflammation-induced-by-staphylococcal-lipoteichoic-acid-through-blocking-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#5
Bing Zhang, Huimei Wu, Lei Fang, Peishan Ding, Ke Xu, Qingbin Yang, Rongyu Liu
Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) expressed in macrophages is essential for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Here, we investigate whether MerTK is involved in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and regulation of staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. We found that stimulating RAW264.7 macrophages with S. aureus activated multiple signaling pathways including toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), scavenger receptor A (SR-A), and MerTK. Meanwhile, S. aureus stimulation also induced activation of proteins focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rac1, which are related to phagocytosis...
May 20, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528212/targeted-co-delivery-of-polypyrrole-and-rapamycin-by-trastuzumab-conjugated-liposomes-for-combined-chemo-photothermal-therapy
#6
Hanh Thuy Nguyen, Tuan Hiep Tran, Raj Kumar Thapa, Cao Dai Phung, Beom Soo Shin, Jee-Heon Jeong, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
Trastuzumab is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody that selectively recognizes HER2/neu receptor for targeting breast cancers. In this study, we aimed to present a strategy to combine chemo and phototherapy and targeted delivery via monoclonal antibody for enhanced anticancer effects. We co-loaded a chemotherapeutic agent, rapamycin, and a photosensitizer, polypyrrole, in trastuzumab-conjugated liposomes (LRPmAb) for combined chemo-photothermal therapy. LRPmAb had small size (172.2±9.6nm), narrow distribution, and negative ζ-potential (-12...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528167/cxcl1-inhibition-regulates-uvb-induced-skin-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-in-xpa-deficient-mice
#7
Makoto Kunisada, Chieko Hosaka, Chihiro Takemori, Eiji Nakano, Chikako Nishigori
Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) is a hereditary disease characterized by early onset of skin cancers and freckles-like pigmented maculae in the sun-exposed sites. Although etiology of predisposition to UV-induced skin tumors in XP-A is well investigated as a repair deficiency in UV-induced DNA damage, the mechanism of exaggerated sunburn in patients with XP-A and whether UV-induced inflammation relates to skin tumor-prone phenotype remains to be elucidated. Using gene profiling of XP-A model mice, Xpa-deficient mice, we found that expression of CXCL1 in the skin and blood levels of in Xpa-deficient mice increased significantly after UVB exposure at an even a limited area in comparison to those of wild-type mice...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528122/probdnf-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-of-mouse-neural-stem-cells
#8
Jia-Yi Li, Jia Liu, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil Abdul Manaph, Larisa Bobrovskaya, Xin-Fu Zhou
ProBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is an important regulator of neurodegeneration, hippocampal long-term depression, and synaptic plasticity. ProBDNF and its receptors pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR), vps10p domain-containing receptor Sortilin and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) are expressed in neuronal and glial cells. The role of proBDNF in regulation of neurogenesis is not fully defined. This study aims to uncover the function of proBDNF in regulating the differentiation, migration and proliferation of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528009/identification-of-novel-haemophilus-parasuis-serovar-5-vaccine-candidates-using-an-immunoproteomic-approach
#9
Gang Li, Fang Xie, Jianjun Li, Jiao Liu, Dapeng Li, Yanhe Zhang, Paul R Langford, Yanwen Li, Siguo Liu, Chunlai Wang
Haemophilus parasuis is the aetiological agent of Glässer's disease, which is responsible for cases of fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. No vaccine is known that provides cross-protection against all serovars. The identification of novel immunoprotective antigens would undoubtedly contribute to the development of efficient subunit vaccines. In the present study, an immunoproteomic approach was used to analyze secreted proteins of H. parasuis and six proteins with high immunogenicity were identified...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527968/rapid-immunohistochemistry-with-thyroid-transcription-factor-1-for-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma
#10
Hayato Konno, Hajime Saito, Hiroshi Nanjo, Yuko Hiroshima, Nobuyasu Kurihara, Satoshi Fujishima, Maiko Atari, Yusuke Sato, Satoru Motoyama, Ryuta Nakamura, Yoichi Akagami, Yoshihiro Minamiya
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative pathologic diagnosis of solitary pulmonary tumors to differentiate between metastatic and primary lung cancer is extremely important to determine the appropriate range of excision. Accurate intraoperative pathologic evaluation may be often difficult, however, and needs additional immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation to support the diagnosis. Although conventional IHC is a powerful tool for diagnosis, its clinical use is limited intraoperatively because of time constraints...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527909/binding-assay-for-characterization-of-protein-kinase-inhibitors-possessing-sub-picomolar-to-sub-millimolar-affinity
#11
Hedi Sinijarv, Shanshan Wu, Taavi Ivan, Kaido Viht, Asko Uri
High demand for inhibitors regulating the activity of protein kinases has stimulated the quest for high throughput and reliable compound screening assays. Here we introduce a method applying a non-metal photoluminescent probe ARC-Lum(Fluo) for determination of dissociation constants of competitive inhibitors of protein kinases. Employing a single probe instead of a combination of antibody and fluorescent tracer makes the assay simpler, cheaper, and more accurate than several other inhibitor-screening technologies...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527908/simultaneous-production-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-bacillus-thuringiensis-bt-cry1-toxins-using-a-mixture-immunization
#12
Sa Dong, Cunzheng Zhang, Yuan Liu, Xiao Zhang, Yajing Xie, Jianfeng Zhong, Chongxin Xu, Xianjin Liu
The detections of Cry1 toxins are mainly dependent on immunoassays based on specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb). In the present study, a mixture immunization with seven Cry1 toxins was administered. The results showed that five mAbs with different characteristics, especially one mAb named 5-E8 which could recognize all the seven Cry1 toxins were obtained. Based on the 5-E8 mAb, a double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) which can specifically detect the seven Cry1 toxins without cross-reactivity to Cry2A and vip3 was developed with the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 6...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527886/immuno-pcr-a-new-technique-for-the-serodiagnosis-of-tuberculosis
#13
REVIEW
Promod K Mehta, Bhawna Dahiya, Suman Sharma, Netrapal Singh, Renu Dharra, Zoozeal Thakur, Neeru Mehta, Krishna B Gupta, Mahesh C Gupta, Dhruva Chaudhary
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is essential to control the disease. The conventional microbiological tests have limitations and there is an urgent need to devise a simple, rapid and reliable point-of-care (POC) test. The failure of TB diagnostic tests based on antibody detection due to inconsistent and imprecise results has stimulated renewed interest in the development of rapid antigen detection methods. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized to continue research for designing new antibody-based detection tests with improved accuracy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527859/tackling-influenza-with-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#14
REVIEW
Davide Corti, Elisabetta Cameroni, Barbara Guarino, Nicole L Kallewaard, Qing Zhu, Antonio Lanzavecchia
Monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of several human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity and inflammatory conditions and represent a new frontier for the treatment of infectious diseases. In the last decade, new methods have allowed the efficient interrogation of the human antibody repertoire from influenza immune individuals and the isolation of several monoclonal antibodies capable of dealing with the high variability of influenza viruses. Here, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the specificity, antiviral and immunological mechanisms of action and development into the clinic of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies against influenza A and B viruses...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527850/complement-activation-by-pulp-capping-materials-plays-a-significant-role-in-both-inflammatory-and-pulp-stem-cells-recruitment
#15
Thomas Giraud, Pierre Rufas, Fanny Chmilewsky, Charlotte Rombouts, Jacques Dejou, Charlotte Jeanneau, Imad About
INTRODUCTION: The role of complement, especially through the C5a fragment, is well-known for the initiation of inflammation. Its involvement in regeneration has been shown more recently by the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells. C5a can be produced locally by the pulp fibroblasts in response to injury or infection. This work aims to investigate the effect of different pulp capping biomaterials on complement activation and its possible influence on inflammatory and pulp stem cell recruitment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527839/modulation-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-14-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-3-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-4-and-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-development-of-periapical-lesions
#16
Lorena Teodoro de Castro Cassanta, Virmondes Rodrigues, Jose Roberto Violatti-Filho, Benedito Alves Teixeira Neto, Vinícius Marques Tavares, Eduarda Castelo Branco Araujo Bernal, Danila Malheiros Souza, Marcelo Sivieri Araujo, Sanivia Aparecida de Lima Pereira, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Periapical cysts and granulomas are chronic lesions caused by an inflammatory immune response against microbial challenge in the root canal. Different cell types, cytokines, and molecules have been associated with periapical lesion formation and expansion. Therefore, because of the chronic inflammatory state of these lesions, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 and -19, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and -4, CD68, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in periapical cysts and granulomas...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527704/anti-madcam-antibody-pf-00547659-for-ulcerative-colitis-turandot-a-phase-2-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Séverine Vermeire, William J Sandborn, Silvio Danese, Xavier Hébuterne, Bruce A Salzberg, Maria Klopocka, Dino Tarabar, Tomas Vanasek, Miloš Greguš, Paul A Hellstern, Joo Sung Kim, Miles P Sparrow, Kenneth J Gorelick, Michelle Hinz, Alaa Ahmad, Vivek Pradhan, Mina Hassan-Zahraee, Robert Clare, Fabio Cataldi, Walter Reinisch
BACKGROUND: PF-00547659 is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to human mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) to selectively reduce lymphocyte homing to the intestinal tract. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of PF-00547659 in patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. METHODS: This phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial recruited patients aged 18-65 years from 105 centres in 21 countries, with a history (≥3 months) of active ulcerative colitis extending more than 15 cm beyond the anal verge (with a total Mayo score ≥6 and a Mayo endoscopic subscore ≥2) who had failed or were intolerant to at least one conventional therapy...
May 17, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527686/local-innate-responses-and-protective-immunity-after-intradermal-immunization-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-e2-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-in-cattle
#18
Sams M A Sadat, Marlene Snider, Ravendra Garg, Robert Brownlie, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogens in cattle. Recently, we developed a novel adjuvant platform (TriAdj) that includes a toll-like receptor 3 agonist, poly (I:C); an innate defense regulatory peptide; and water-soluble polymer, poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP). To develop a needle-free intradermal (ID) subunit vaccine, the BVDV type-2 E2 protein was formulated with TriAdj, and immune protection was evaluated in calves against a BVDV-2 strain. Intradermal delivery of E2/TriAdj elicited robust virus neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527648/a-case-of-amebiasis-with-negative-serologic-markers-that-caused-intra-abdominal-abscess
#19
Rie Tanaka, Norihiro Furusyo, Rinne Takeda, Sho Yamasaki, Akira Kusaga, Eiichi Ogawa, Masayuki Murata, Ryota Nakanishi, Yoshihiko Maehara
A 23-year-old Japanese woman presented with abdominal distention following fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain during a stay in Taiwan. Serology for the detection of amebic-antibodies and stool microscopic examination were both negative. A computed tomography scan showed a 13 cm diameter abscess spreading from the lower abdominal wall to the pelvic retroperitoneal space. Needle aspiration of the abscess was done under computed tomography guidance, and microscopy of the aspirated fluid revealed trophozoites of Entamoeba...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527342/relative-efficacy-of-t-cell-stimuli-as-inducers-of-productive-hiv-1-replication-in-latently-infected-cd4-lymphocytes-from-patients-on-suppressive-cart
#20
Nadejda Beliakova-Bethell, Marjan Hezareh, Joseph K Wong, Matthew C Strain, Mary K Lewinski, Douglas D Richman, Celsa A Spina
Quantification of cell-associated replication-competent HIV, in blood samples from patients with undetectable plasma viremia, requires specialized culture conditions that include exogenous pan T cell stimulation. Different research groups have used several stimuli for this purpose; however, the relative efficacies of these T cell stimuli to induce productive HIV replication from latently infected cells ex vivo have not been systematically evaluated. To this end, we compared four commonly used T cell stimuli: 1) irradiated allogeneic cells plus phytohaemagglutinin (PHA); 2) PHA alone; 3) phorbol myristate acetate plus Ionomycin; and 4) immobilized αCD3 plus αCD28 antibodies...
May 17, 2017: Virology
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