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Nitrite

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667816/nitrate-photochemistry-at-the-air-ice-interface-and-in-other-ice-reservoirs
#1
Alexander S McFall, Kasey C Edwards, Cort Anastasio
The photolysis of snowpack nitrate (NO3-) is an important source of gaseous reactive nitrogen species that affect atmospheric oxidants, particularly in remote regions. However, it is unclear whether nitrate photochemistry differs between the three solute reservoirs in/on ice: in liquid-like regions (LLRs) in the ice; within the solid ice matrix; and in a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) at the air-ice interface, where past work indicates photolysis is enhanced. In this work, we explore the photoformation of nitrite in these reservoirs using laboratory ices...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666943/the-gtn-patch-a-simple-and-effective-new-approach-to-cardioprotection
#2
Derek M Yellon, Zhenhe He, Rayomand Khambata, Amrita Ahluwalia, Sean M Davidson
There remains a significant un-met need to reduce the extent of myocardial injury caused by ischaemia and reperfusion injury in patients experiencing an ST-elevation MI. Although nitric oxide is central to many cardioprotective strategies currently undergoing investigation, cardioprotection from the delivery of nitrates/nitrites has been inconsistently observed. The route of administration appears to be a critical variable. The glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) patch is commonly used as a simple and practical means of delivering nitric oxide to patients with ischaemic heart disease, but whether acute cardioprotection can be achieved by application of a GTN patch has not been investigated before...
April 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666878/-methemoglobinemia-after-inhalation-of-poppers
#3
U Janssens, S Hillen, T Janssens, J Grafe
BACKGROUND: This case report presents a case of symptomatic methemoglobinemia (MetHb 31.6%) after inhalation of volatile nitrites (poppers). METHODS: The patient's medical history and symptoms are discussed together with pathophysiology of methemoglobinemia, diagnostics, and antidote therapy. Pulse oxymetry, arterial blood gas analysis, and CO-oximetry receive particular attention as well as antidote therapy with methylene blue. RESULTS: The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylene blue...
April 17, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665543/vertical-distribution-of-ammonia-oxidizing-microorganisms-across-a-soil-profile-of-the-chinese-loess-plateau-and-their-responses-to-nitrogen-inputs
#4
Jinjin Tao, Tongshuo Bai, Rui Xiao, Peng Wang, Fuwei Wang, Alexander M Duryee, Yi Wang, Yi Zhang, Shuijin Hu
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) oxidize ammonia into nitrite, the first and rate-limiting step of microbial nitrification, and exert major controls over soil nitrogen transformations. The Loess Plateau in northwest China is characterized with deep soils that are often exposed to the surface and reactive nitrogen (N) inputs due to erosion and human removal of the surface soil. However, few have examined the distribution of AOA and AOB along the profile of Loess Plateau soils and their responses to N inputs...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664082/unsaponifiable-fraction-isolated-from-grape-vitis-vinifera-l-seed-oil-attenuates-oxidative-and-inflammatory-responses-in-human-primary-monocytes
#5
Maria C Millan-Linares, Beatriz Bermudez, Maria E Martin, Ernesto Muñoz, Rocio Abia, Francisco Millan, Francisco J G Muriana, Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz
Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed has well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Herein, we report that the unsaponifiable fraction (UF) isolated from grape seed oil (GSO) possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties towards human primary monocytes. The UF isolated from GSO was phytochemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC. Freshly obtained human monocytes were used to analyse the effects of GSOUF (10-100 μg mL-1) on oxidative and inflammatory responses using FACS analysis, RT-qPCR, and ELISA procedures...
April 17, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663881/recent-developments-in-drug-design-of-no-donor-hybrid-compounds
#6
Sarel Francois Malan, Rajan Sharma, Jacques Joubert
The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is considered one of the most versatile endogenous molecules and is a crucial signalling molecule in numerous biochemistry pathways of the human body. NO is directly related to pathological processes and plays an important role in many different and interrelated physiological processes. In some cases, a depletion of NO or an attenuation of its effector system could exist as in hypertension, angina and impotence; in others, an overproduction of NO may be a major cause of damage, as in circulatory shock, sepsis, neurodegenerative disorders and inflammatory responses...
April 16, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660753/crataegus-special-extract-ws-1442-effects-on-enos-and-microrna-155
#7
Xinwen Wang, Yan Liang, Jian Shi, Hao-Jie Zhu, Barry E Bleske
Increased expression of microRNA 155 (miR-155) results in a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and impaired endothelial function. Factors that have been shown to increase expression of miR-155 may be mitigated by WS 1442, an extract of hawthorn leaves and flowers ( Crataegus special extract) that contains a range of pharmacologically active substances including oligomeric proanthocyanidins and flavonoids. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of WS 1442 on the expression of miR-155 and eNOS in the presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α )...
April 16, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660708/the-role-of-cod-n-ratio-on-the-start-up-performance-and-microbial-mechanism-of-an-upflow-microaerobic-reactor-treating-piggery-wastewater
#8
Jia Meng, Jiuling Li, Jianzheng Li, Sergi Astals, Jun Nan, Kaiwen Deng, Philip Antwi, Pianpian Xu
This study investigated the role of COD/N ratio on the start-up and performance of an upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) treating piggery wastewater at 0.5 mgO2 /L. At high COD/N ratio (6.24 and 4.52), results showed that the competition for oxygen between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria limited the removal of nitrogen. Nitrogen removal efficiency was below 40% in both scenarios. Decreasing the influent COD/N ratio to 0.88 allowed achieving high removal efficiencies for COD (∼75%) and nitrogen (∼85%) due to the lower oxygen consumption for COD mineralization...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660455/purification-characterization-and-antioxidant-activity-of-the-exopolysaccharide-from-weissella-cibaria-sj14-isolated-from-sichuan-paocai
#9
Yuanting Zhu, Chengtao Wang, Sisi Jia, Boyang Wang, Kang Zhou, Shujuan Chen, Yong Yang, Shuliang Liu
In the present study, an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain SJ14 isolated from Sichuan paocai was identified as Weissella cibaria, with a typical ropy phenotype. W. cibaria SJ14 possessed good capabilities of acid production, salt tolerance, and nitrite depletion. The crude polysaccharides were obtained from the culture supernatant of strain SJ14 and further fractionated by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography. Consequently, two acidic EPS fractions (EPS-1 and EPS-3) were obtained with the average molecular weights of 7...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660387/long-term-inhibition-of-pde5-ameliorates-aging-induced-changes-in-rat-testis
#10
Srdjan J Sokanovic, Ivan Capo, Marija M Medar, Silvana A Andric, Tatjana S Kostic
NO-cGMP signaling pathway has been implicated in reduction of testicular steroidogenesis during aging. Here we analyzed the effect of PDE5 inhibition on old testicular phenotype formation. The old phenotype exhibited low testosterone and increased nitrite levels in circulation, increased cGMP accumulation in testicular interstitial fluid (TIF), progressive atrophy of testicular seminiferous tubules and enlargement of interstitial area followed by rise in blood vessel density and slight increase in the number of Leydig cells and macrophages...
April 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660141/carbonic-anhydrase-is-not-a-relevant-nitrite-reductase-or-nitrous-anhydrase-in-the-lung
#11
Philipp A Pickerodt, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Martin Russ, Adrian Gonzalez-Lopez, Philipp Lother, Elvira Steiner, Katja Vorbrodt, Thilo Busch, Willehad Boemke, Roland C E Francis, Erik R Swenson
The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, acetazolamide and its structurally similar analogue, methazolamide prevent or reduce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs and humans in vivo, by a mechanism unrelated to CA inhibition. In rodent blood and isolated blood vessels, Aamand et al. (2009) reported that inhibition of CA led to increased generation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite and vascular relaxation in vitro. We tested the physiological relevance of augmented NO generation by CA from nitrite with acetazolamide in anaesthetized pigs during alveolar hypoxia in vivo...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659727/nitrite-circumvents-platelet-resistance-to-nitric-oxide-in-patients-with-heart-failure-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-chronic-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Alessandra Borgognone, Eduard Shantsila, Sophie M Worrall, Eakkapote Prompunt, Thomas Loka, Brodie L Loudon, Myriam Chimen, G Ed Rainger, Janet M Lord, Ashley Turner, Peter Nightingale, Martin Feelisch, Paulus Kirchhof, Gregory Y H Lip, Steve P Watson, Michael P Frenneaux, Melanie Madhani
Aims: Heart failure (HF) is a pro-thrombotic state. Both platelet and vascular responses to nitric oxide (NO) donors are impaired in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to healthy volunteers (HV) due to scavenging of NO, and possibly also reduced activity of the principal NO sensor, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), limiting the therapeutic potential of NO donors as anti-aggregatory agents. Previous studies have shown that nitrite inhibits platelet activation presumptively after its reduction to NO, but the mechanism(s) involved remain poorly characterized...
April 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659617/resistance-and-resilience-of-small-scale-recirculating-aquaculture-systems-ras-with-or-without-algae-to-ph-perturbation
#13
Norulhuda Mohamed Ramli, Christos Giatsis, Fatimah Md Yusoff, Johan Verreth, Marc Verdegem
The experimental set-up of this study mimicked recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) where water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and turbidity were controlled and wastes produced by fish and feeding were converted to inorganic forms. A key process in the RAS was the conversion of ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate through nitrification. It was hypothesized that algae inclusion in RAS would improve the ammonia removal from the water; thereby improving RAS water quality and stability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658815/oxidative-stress-nox-l-arginine-ratio-and-glutathione-glutathione-s-transferase-ratio-as-predictors-of-sterile-inflammation-in-patients-with-alcoholic-cirrhosis-and-hepatorenal-syndrome-type-ii
#14
Vanja P Nickovic, Dijana Miric, Bojana Kisic, Hristina Kocic, Marko Stojanovic, Salvatore Buttice, Gordana Kocic
Continuous intake of alcohol leads to liver cirrhosis because of imbalance of oxidative stress/antioxidative defense and chronic 'sterile inflammation'. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the most severe complication of liver cirrhosis. The aim of our study was to assess: (1) the oxidative stress/antioxidative defense markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), (2) inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)], and (3) nitrate/nitrite levels (NOx) and its substrate L-arginine level...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657939/cisplatin-alters-sodium-excretion-and-renal-clearance-in-rats-gender-and-drug-dose-related
#15
Sima Jilanchi, Ardeshir Talebi, Mehdi Nematbakhsh
Background: Nephrotoxicity is one of the side effects of cisplatin (CP) therapy which is gender related. CP disturbs renal function through glomerular filtration rate and electrolytes transport disturbances. This study was designed to compare some markers related to renal function in two protocols of CP treatment in rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female rats were subjected to receive single (treat 1; 7.5 mg/kg) and continues doses (treat 2; 3 mg/kg/day for 5 days) of CP, and the measurements were compared with control animals...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657937/the-role-of-angiotensin-ii-infusion-on-the-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-renal-function-in-intact-and-bilateral-renal-denervation-rats
#16
Mohammad Karim Azadbakht, Jalal Hassanshahi, Mehdi Nematbakhsh
Background: The role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in communication between renal system and cardiovascular system is extremely important. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) index defines as heart rate (HR) alteration versus mean arterial pressure (MAP) change ratio . Sympathetic nerve is arm of the baroreflexes and any change in its activity will lead to change in the BRS. The role of angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in systemic circulation accompanied with bilateral renal denervation (RDN) on BRS index and renal function was studied...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655557/an-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-chemical-additive-based-on-sodium-benzoate-potassium-sorbate-and-sodium-nitrite-on-the-fermentation-and-aerobic-stability-of-corn-silage
#17
Limin Kung, Megan L Smith, Erica Benjamim da Silva, Michelle C Windle, Thiago C da Silva, Stephanie A Polukis
We evaluated the effectiveness of an additive comprising sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite (SSL) as active ingredients for its ability to improve the aerobic stability of corn silages made in North America. In experiment 1, treatment with SSL (1.5 and 2.0 L/t) on whole-plant corn (WPC) was compared with treatment with an additive containing buffered propionic acid and citric acid (BPA; 2 L/t) on corn harvested at 32 and 38% DM and ensiled for 120 d. Silage treated with BPA was higher in ammonia-N and propionic acid relative to other treatments...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655423/aerosol-sampler-for-analysis-of-fine-and-ultrafine-aerosols
#18
Pavel Mikuška, Lukáš Čapka, Zbyněk Večeřa
A new aerosol sampler based on the original version of Aerosol Counterflow Two-Jets Unit (ACTJU) is described. The ACTJU collector, connected with a water-based Condensation Growth Unit (CGU) placed upstream of the ACTJU, accomplished the quantitative collection of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles down to a few nanometers in diameter. Condensation of water vapor in the CGU enlarges nanometer sized particles to larger sizes in the supermicrometer range and the formed droplets are then collected into water in the ACTJU collector...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653430/photo-oxygenation-for-nitritation-and-the-effect-of-dissolved-oxygen-concentrations-on-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation
#19
Brigitte Mukarunyana, Jack van de Vossenberg, Jules B van Lier, Peter van der Steen
Removal of nitrogen from wastewater without using electricity consuming aerators was previously observed in photo-bioreactors with a mixed algal-bacterial biomass. Algammox is the particular process based on algae, ammonium oxidizing organisms and anammox bacteria. In this research the activity of anammox bacteria in such an oxygen-producing environment was tested, as well as the effect of short-duration increase in dissolved oxygen (DO) to values potentially inhibiting anammox activity. Sequencing batch photo-bioreactors were fed with settled domestic wastewater enriched with ammonium (200mgNH4 + -N/L) and exposed to light within the photosynthetic active range with intensity of about 500μmol/m2 ·s...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653428/the-threshold-of-influent-ammonium-concentration-for-nitrate-over-accumulation-in-a-one-stage-deammonification-system-with-granular-sludge-without-aeration
#20
Xiaolong Wang, Yuegen Yan, Dawen Gao
Low-strength ammonium is still a challenge for the mainstream deammonification because of nitrate over-accumulation. In this study, the threshold of influent ammonium concentration of one-stage deammonification system with granular sludge was investigated, by stepwise decreasing influent ammonium from high concentrations (280mg/L to 140mg/L) to the low concentration (70mg/L) in 108d at 32°C without aeration. Results showed that, under 70mg/L NH4 + -N, ΔNO3 - -N/ΔNH4 + -N ratio increased to 0.2, deviated from the theoretical value of 0...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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