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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454199/benthic-nitrite-exchanges-in-the-seine-river-france-an-early-diagenetic-modeling-analysis
#1
Zahra Akbarzadeh, Anniet M Laverman, Fereidoun Rezanezhad, Mélanie Raimonet, Eric Viollier, Babak Shafei, Philippe Van Cappellen
Nitrite is a toxic intermediate compound in the nitrogen (N) cycle. Elevated concentrations of nitrite have been observed in the Seine River, raising questions about its sources and fate. Here, we assess the role of bottom sediments as potential sources or sinks of nitrite along the river continuum. Sediment cores were collected from two depocenters, one located upstream, the other downstream, from the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) servicing the conurbation of Paris. Pore water profiles of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were measured...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452136/neuroprotective-effects-of-valproic-acid-on-brain-ischemia-are-related-to-its-hdac-and-gsk3-inhibitions
#2
Monalisa Ribeiro Silva, Alyne Oliveira Correia, Gabriel Cabral Alencar Dos Santos, Lucas Leimig Telles Parente, Keicy Parente de Siqueira, Danielly Gonçalves Sombra Lima, Jonathan Almeida Moura, Ana Elisa da Silva Ribeiro, Roberta Oliveira Costa, Daniel Luna Lucetti, Elaine Cristina Pereira Lucetti, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
Valproic acid (VA) is an antiepileptic that is also used for the treatment of bipolar disorders. The objective was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of VA on a brain ischemia model. The groups of male Wistar rats were: SO (sham-operated), ischemic and ischemic treated with VA (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.). After anesthesia with ketamine and xilazine, the animals were subjected to clamping of carotid arteries (30 min) and reperfusion. Except for the carotid clamping, the SO group was submitted to the same procedure...
February 13, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450889/olive-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-alters-the-cytokine-profile-of-leishmania-major-infected-macrophages-new-insight-into-the-underlying-mechanism
#3
F Keirandish, N Mosaffa, M J Tarahi, Sh Fallahi
This study aimed to identify the effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on IFNγ, TNFα, TGFβ, and nitric oxide (NO) resulted from macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) amastigotes in the culture medium. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the level of Oleuropein in plant extract. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of OLE, the isolated BALB/c mice peritoneal macrophages were infected with L. major promastigotes and treated with 6.25, 12.5, and 25μg/mL concentrations of OLE...
February 16, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450536/administration-of-nitric-oxide-through-a-novel-copper-chitosan-delivery-system-in-human-corneal-and-limbal-epithelial-cell-injury
#4
Vasiliki Tellios, Hong Liu, Nikoleta Tellios, Xiangji Li, Cindy M L Hutnik
Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO) has gained attention for its role in facilitating wound healing by promoting cell migration, while being cytoprotective in a variety of cell types. We determined the efficacy of NO, administered using a novel application of copper-chitosan treatments (Cu-Ch), in facilitating corneal epithelial wound healing using an in vitro model of corneal epithelial and limbal epithelial cell injury. Methods: Human corneal epithelial (HCE) and human limbal epithelial (HLE) cells were monitored under no-scratch (CON), untreated scratch (CS), scratch + plain chitosan composite (0%), scratch + 1% copper solution Cu-Ch (1%), and scratch + 2% copper solution Cu-Ch (2%) conditions...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445240/high-fat-diet-induced-metabolically-obese-and-normal-weight-rabbit-model-shows-early-vascular-dysfunction-mechanisms-involved
#5
Gabriela Alarcon, Julieta Roco, Mirta Medina, Analia Medina, Maria Peral, Susana Jerez
BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes significantly to the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the vascular health of metabolically obese and normal weight (MONW) individuals is not completely comprehended. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular function on the basis of a high fat diet (HFD)-MONW rabbit model. SUBJECTS: Twenty four male rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet (CD, n = 12) or a high-fat diet (18% extra fat on the regular diet, HFD, n = 12) for 6 weeks...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445130/comparative-genomic-inference-suggests-mixotrophic-lifestyle-for-thorarchaeota
#6
Yang Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Jie Pan, Brett J Baker, Ji-Dong Gu, Meng Li
Thorarchaeota are a new archaeal phylum within the Asgard superphylum, whose ancestors have been proposed to play possible ecological roles in cellular evolution. However, little is known about the lifestyles of these uncultured archaea. To provide a better resolution of the ecological roles and metabolic capacity of Thorarchaeota, we obtained Thorarchaeota genomes reconstructed from metagenomes of different depth layers in mangrove and mudflat sediments. These genomes from deep anoxic layers suggest the presence of Thorarchaeota with the potential to degrade organic matter, fix inorganic carbon, reduce sulfur/sulfate and produce acetate...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445129/light-and-temperature-control-the-seasonal-distribution-of-thaumarchaeota-in-the-south-atlantic-bight
#7
Qian Liu, Bradley B Tolar, Meredith J Ross, Jelani B Cheek, Corinne M Sweeney, Natalie J Wallsgrove, Brian N Popp, James T Hollibaugh
Mid-summer peaks in the abundance of Thaumarchaeota and nitrite concentration observed on the Georgia, USA, coast could result from in situ activity or advection of populations from another source. We collected data on the distribution of Thaumarchaeota, ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria (AOB), Nitrospina, environmental variables and rates of ammonia oxidation during six cruises in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) from April to November 2014. These data were used to examine seasonality of nitrification in offshore waters and to test the hypothesis that the bloom was localized to inshore waters...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442870/an-innovative-electrochemical-sensor-ground-on-nio-nanoparticles-and-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-for-quantitative-determination-of-nitrite
#8
Yue Wan, Yi Fan Zheng, Bin Zhou, Xu Chun Song
An electrochemical sensor ground on nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was exploited for the detection of nitrite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) ensure the morphology of the nanocomposite consisted of NiO nanoparticle and MWCNTs. High Resolution Transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) reveals that the structure of NiO nanoparticles and MWCNTs. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) persuasively verified presence of the C, Ni and O element. The electrochemical character of the nanocomposite were researched by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the behavior of electrochemical oxidation to nitrite on NiO/MWCNTs/CP was explored by chronoamperometry...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442666/electrocatalysis-and-detection-of-nitrite-on-a-pd-fe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-nanocomposite-modified-glassy-carbon-electrode
#9
Xiu Ru Lin, Yi Fan Zheng, Xu Chun Song
An electrochemical palladium/ferric oxide (Pd/Fe2O3) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated by hydrothermal method of Fe2O3 and electrochemical deposition of palladium nanoparticles, respectively. As-prepared Pd/Fe2O3 composite modified electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the catalytic oxidation of nitrite compared to Fe2O3, PdNPs modified electrodes and bare electrode. The parameters such as the influence of amount of Pd nanoparticles deposition onto the Pd/Fe2O3 modified electrode (ME) and effect of solution pH were investigated and discussed in detail...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439574/model-based-evaluation-of-n2o-production-pathways-in-the-anammox-enriched-granular-sludge-cultivated-in-a-sequencing-batch-reactor
#10
Xi Lu, Tiago Duarte Santos Pereira, Hussein Alhazmi, Joanna Majtacz, Qi Zhou, Li Xie, Jacek Makinia
A mechanistic model was developed as an extension of the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 to describe three nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathways in a laboratory-scale anammox-enriched granular sequencing batch reactor. Heterotrophic denitrification and two processes mediated by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), i.e. ammonia (NH4+) oxidation via hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and autotrophic denitrification, were considered. A systematic model calibration and validation protocol was developed to obtain a unique set of kinetic parameters in the extended model...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438917/rapid-start-up-of-a-nitritation-granular-reactor-using-activated-sludge-as-inoculum-at-the-influent-organics-ammonium-mass-ratio-of-2-1
#11
Jianfang Wang, Zeyu Zhang, Feiyue Qian, Yaoliang Shen, Zekun Qi, Xiaoqing Ji, Emma Marcello Lagu Kajamisso
Partial oxidation of ammonium to nitrite is a pre- and crucial step to achieve shortcut biological nitrogen removal from ammonium-rich wastewater. In the present study, a nitritation granular reactor using activated sludge as inoculum was started up in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at a fixed influent C/N ratio of 2:1. Variations in the reactor performance, functional bacteria activities, sludge morphology and bacterial community structure were investigated. Results showed the formation of compact granules was achieved in 55 days, and a stable nitrite accumulation rate of 0...
February 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438848/effect-of-nitrite-exposure-on-the-antioxidant-enzymes-and-glutathione-system-in-the-liver-of-bighead-carp-aristichthys-nobilis
#12
Yan Lin, Ling-Hong Miao, Wen-Jing Pan, Xin Huang, Jack Mike Dengu, Wu-Xiao Zhang, Xian-Ping Ge, Bo Liu, Ming-Chun Ren, Qun-Lan Zhou, Jun Xie, Liang-Kun Pan, Bing-Wen Xi
Nitrite (NO 2 - ) can cause oxidative stress in aquatic animal when it accumulates in the organism, resulting in different toxic effects on fish. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on the antioxidant enzymes and glutathione system in the liver of Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). Fish [Initial average weight: (180.05 ± 0.092) g] were exposed to 48.634 mg/L nitrite for 96 h, and a subsequent 96 h for the recovery test. Fish livers were collected to assay antioxidant enzymes activity, hepatic structure and expression of genes after 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h of exposure and12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h of recovery...
February 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437395/visible-light-mediated-nitration-of-protected-anilines
#13
Simon J S Duesel, Burkhard König
The photocatalytic nitration of protected anilines proceeds with riboflavin tetraacetate as organic photoredox catalyst. Sodium nitrite serves as NO2-source in the visible-light driven room temperature reaction. Various nitroanilines are obtained in moderate to good yields without the addition of acid or stoichiometric oxidation agents. The catalytic cycle is closed by aerial oxygen as the terminal oxidant.
February 13, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435646/can-nitrocobalamin-be-reduced-by-ascorbic-acid-to-nitroxylcobalamin-some-surprising-mechanistic-findings
#14
Justyna Polaczek, Łukasz Orzeł, Grażyna Stochel, Rudi van Eldik
Despite detailed studies on nitroxylcobalamin (CblNO) formation, the possible intracellular generation of CblNO via reduction of nitrocobalamin (CblNO 2 ) remains questionable. To study this further, spectroscopic studies on the reaction of CblNO 2 with the intracellular antioxidant ascorbic acid (HAsc - ) were performed in aqueous solution at pH < 5.0. It was found that nitroxylcobalamin is the final product of this interaction, which is not just a simple reaction but a rather complex chemical process. We clearly show that an excess of nitrite suppresses the formation of CblNO, from which it follows that ascorbic acid cannot reduce coordinated nitrite...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434576/candidatus-nitrosocaldus-cavascurensis-an-ammonia-oxidizing-extremely-thermophilic-archaeon-with-a-highly-mobile-genome
#15
Sophie S Abby, Michael Melcher, Melina Kerou, Mart Krupovic, Michaela Stieglmeier, Claudia Rossel, Kevin Pfeifer, Christa Schleper
Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread in moderate environments but their occurrence and activity has also been demonstrated in hot springs. Here we present the first enrichment of a thermophilic representative with a sequenced genome, which facilitates the search for adaptive strategies and for traits that shape the evolution of Thaumarchaeota. Candidatus Nitrosocaldus cavascurensis has been enriched from a hot spring in Ischia, Italy. It grows optimally at 68°C under chemolithoautotrophic conditions on ammonia or urea converting ammonia stoichiometrically into nitrite with a generation time of approximately 23 h...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432804/effects-of-long-term-nitrate-supplementation-on-carbohydrate-metabolism-lipid-profiles-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-male-obese-type-2-diabetic-rats
#16
Sevda Gheibi, Sajad Jeddi, Mattias Carlström, Hanieh Gholami, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Supplementation with inorganic nitrate to boost the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, may act as a potential therapeutic agent in diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nitrate on carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammation in obese type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, control + nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes + nitrate. Diabetes was induced using a high-fat diet and low-dose of streptozotocin...
February 10, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432741/dietary-nitrate-protects-submandibular-gland-from-hyposalivation-in-ovariectomized-rats-via-suppressing-cell-apoptosis
#17
Yipu Xu, Baoxing Pang, Liang Hu, Xiaoyu Feng, Lei Hu, Jingsong Wang, Chunmei Zhang, Songlin Wang
Xerostomia, a major oral symptom of menopause, is a subjective feeling of dry mouth associated with oral pain and difficulties in deglutition and speech, which significantly reduces patient's quality of life. Dietary nitrate, which can be converted to nitric oxide, has multiple physiological functions in the body, including antioxidant activity and vasodilatation; however, its protective effect against xerostomia remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrate on estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431233/lactoferrin-increases-sperm-membrane-functionality-of-frozen-equine-semen
#18
H S Martins, G C da Silva, S F Cortes, F O Paes, O A Martins Filho, Mss Araujo, R Stahlberg, M A Lagares
During cryopreservation, sperm was submitted to an increase in reactive oxygen species generation. This work aimed to improve the quality of frozen equine sperm after the addition of antioxidants lactoferrin (Lf) and catalase (Cat) to a freezing extender. Semen from six stallions was frozen with the extenders: F1) control, INRA 82 freezing extender, F2) F1 + 500 μg/ml Lf and F3) F1 + 200 IU/ml Cat. After thawing, sperm motility parameters, membrane functionality and integrity, and acrosome integrity and spontaneous acrosome-reacted sperm were evaluated with a computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypoosmotic swelling test and epifluorescent microscopy, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429654/ultrasonic-assisted-synthesis-and-the-structural-characterization-of-novel-the-zig-zag-cd-ii-metal-organic-polymer-and-their-nanostructures
#19
Faeze Mojtabazade, Babak Mirtamizdoust, Ali Morsali, Pejman Talemi
A sonochemical method was used to synthesize nano-rods of a novel cadmium(II) metal-organic coordination polymer, [Cd(p-2yeinh)(NO2)]n (1) (p-2yeinh = pyridin-2-yl ethylidene-isonicotinohydrazide). The effect of the synthesis parameters such as time, concentrations and irradiation power has been studied and optimized. It was shown that the thickness of rods has changed from 27 nm to 45 nm. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), and single crystal X-ray analysis...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429088/monitoring-two-component-sensor-kinases-with-a-chemotaxis-signal-readout
#20
Run-Zhi Lai, John S Parkinson
Bacteria use two-component signal transduction systems to elicit adaptive responses to environmental changes. The simplest of these systems comprises a transmembrane sensor with histidine kinase activity and its cytoplasmic response regulator partner. Stimulus-response studies of two-component signaling systems typically employ expression reporters, such as β-galactosidase, that operate with relatively slow kinetics and low precision. In this chapter, we illustrate a new strategy for directly measuring the signaling activities of two-component sensor kinases in vivo...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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