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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634714/microbial-community-shift-in-a-suspended-stuffing-biological-reactor-with-pre-attached-aerobic-denitrifier
#1
Cong Du, Chongwei Cui, Shan Qiu, Shanwen Xu, Shengnan Shi, Thangavel Sangeetha, Fang Ma
Bioaugmentation is substantially determined by pre-attached communities in biological stuffing systems. However, the inevitable changes of microbial community shift occurred between pre-attached microorganisms on stuffing material and other existing communities in wastewater. Targeting at nitrogen removal in aerobic denitrification reactors, biological augmentation was built by polyurethane supporting material and aerobic denitrification bacteria of Pseudomonas stutzeri strains were primarily colonized. The total nitrogen removal reached a high efficiency of 77 ± 6%, resulting from a relative high nitrate removal (90%) and a low nitrite production of 24 mg l(-1)...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634470/the-dark-side-of-the-mushroom-spring-microbial-mat-life-in-the-shadow-of-chlorophototrophs-ii-metabolic-functions-of-abundant-community-members-predicted-from-metagenomic-analyses
#2
Vera Thiel, Michael Hügler, David M Ward, Donald A Bryant
Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630313/targeting-reactive-nitrogen-species-suppresses-hereditary-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Mo Li, Qian Chen, Teng Ma, Xiaochun Yu
Germline mutation of BRCA2 induces hereditary pancreatic cancer. However, how BRCA2 mutation specifically induces pancreatic tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here, we have examined a mouse model of Brca2-deficiency-induced pancreatic tumors and found that excessive reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitrite, are generated in precancerous pancreases, which induce massive DNA damage, including DNA double-strand breaks. RNS-induced DNA lesions cause genomic instability in the absence of Brca2. Moreover, with the treatment of antioxidant tempol to suppress RNS, not only are DNA lesions significantly reduced, but also the onset of pancreatic cancer is delayed...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629723/microbial-antioxidant-defense-enzymes
#4
REVIEW
Cindy Staerck, Amandine Gastebois, Patrick Vandeputte, Alphonse Calenda, Gérald Larcher, Louiza Gillmann, Nicolas Papon, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Free radicals are often described as chemical compounds characterized by unpaired electrons in their outer orbital rendering them highly reactive species. In mammalians, studies on free radicals were focused on reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) due to their relative importance in physiological as well as in pathological processes. These cellular compounds are produced by different physiological systems such as the aerobic metabolism and play a major role in cell signaling pathways but also in the host immune defenses against pathogenic microorganisms...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629495/noviherbaspirillum-denitrificans-sp-nov-a-denitrifying-bacterium-isolated-from-rice-paddy-soil-and-noviherbaspirillum-autotrophicum-sp-nov-a-denitrifying-facultatively-autotrophic-bacterium-isolated-from-rice-paddy-soil-and-proposal-to-reclassify-herbaspirillum
#5
Satoshi Ishii, Naoaki Ashida, Hiroki Ohno, Takahiro Segawa, Shuhei Yabe, Shigeto Otsuka, Akira Yokota, Keishi Senoo
Thirty-nine denitrifying bacterial strains closely related to one another, represented by strains TSA40T and TSA66T, were isolated from rice paddy soils. Strains TSA40T and TSA66T were Gram-stain-negative, slightly curved rod-shaped, and motile by means of polar flagella. They were able to reduce nitrate, nitrite and nitrous oxide, but unable to fix atmospheric N2. While strain TSA66T was able to grow autotrophically by H2-dependent denitrification, strain TSA40T could not. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that they belong to the family Oxalobacteraceae, the order Burkholderiales in the class Betaproteobacteria...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629014/physicochemical-properties-of-liposomal-modifiers-that-shift-macrophage-phenotype
#6
Hannah C Bygd, Lilusi Ma, Kaitlin M Bratlie
Liposomes are one of the most widely studied drug carriers due to their relative biocompatibility, lack of immune system stimulation, ability to be cell specific, and serve as a protective drug carrier. Due to several physicochemical properties such as size and charge, liposomes naturally target the phagocytic capabilities of macrophages. In the tumor microenvironment, macrophages strongly influence growth and progression, making them an appealing target for drug delivery. Using the natural capability of liposomes to target macrophages, and the knowledge that material properties can alter cellular responses, this work aims to influence macrophage phenotype with arginine-like surface modified DOPE:DOPC liposomes...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628989/pollutant-removal-and-microorganism-evolution-of-activated-sludge-under-ofloxacin-selection-pressure
#7
Qiang Kong, Xiao He, Yu Feng, Ming-Sheng Miao, Qian Wang, Yuan-da Du, Fei Xu
An activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was fed with synthetic wastewater containing ofloxacin (OFL) for 52days to study the overall performance of the SBR, the characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the bacterial community shift. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus and OFL were maintained at 90%, 96%, 80% and 65%, respectively. The EPS contents increased with increasing OFL concentration because more EPS was secreted to protect cells from OFL damage...
June 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628310/furoxan-nitric-oxide-donors-disperse-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-accelerate-growth-and-repress-pyoverdine-production
#8
Wee Han Poh, Nicolas Barraud, Stefano Guglielmo, Loretta Lazzarato, Barbara Rolando, Roberta Fruttero, Scott A Rice
The use of nitric oxide (NO) as a signal for biofilm dispersal has been shown to increase the susceptibility of many biofilms to antibiotics, promoting their eradication. The delivery of NO to biofilms can be achieved by using NO-donors with different kinetics and properties of NO release that can influence their efficacy as biofilm control agents. In this study, the kinetics of three furoxan-derivatives were evaluated. The effects of these NO-donors, which have an advantageous pharmacological profile of slower onset with an extended duration of action, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, biofilm development and dispersal were also characterized...
June 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625866/genome-analysis-of-crude-oil-degrading-franconibacter-pulveris-strain-dj34-revealed-its-genetic-basis-for-hydrocarbon-degradation-and-survival-in-oil-contaminated-environment
#9
Siddhartha Pal, Anirban Kundu, Tirtha Das Banerjee, Balaram Mohapatra, Ajoy Roy, Riddha Manna, Pinaki Sar, Sufia K Kazy
Franconibacter pulveris strain DJ34, isolated from Duliajan oil fields, Assam, was characterized in terms of its taxonomic, metabolic and genomic properties. The bacterium showed utilization of diverse petroleum hydrocarbons and electron acceptors, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. The genome (4,856,096bp) of this strain contained different genes related to the degradation of various petroleum hydrocarbons, metal transport and resistance, dissimilatory nitrate, nitrite and sulfite reduction, chemotaxy, biosurfactant synthesis, etc...
June 15, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625109/the-study-of-a-pilot-scale-aerobic-fenton-anoxic-aerobic-process-system-for-the-treatment-of-landfill-leachate
#10
Wenyong Hu, Yu Zhou, Xiaobo Min, Jingyi Liu, Xinyu Li, Lin Luo, Jiachao Zhang, Qiming Mao, Liyuan Chai, YaoYu Zhou
In this study, a combined Aerobic-Fenton-Anoxic/Aerobic system was designed for the remediation of raw landfill leachate in a pilot-scale experiment. This system included: i) a granular sludge biological oxidation procedure that achieves the accumulation of nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N) under aerobic conditions; ii) a Fenton process that improves the biodegradability of the bio-treated leachate; and iii) an activated sludge biological oxidation component under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Additionally, a shortcut nitrification and denitrification pathway was achieved...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624728/nitrite-production-from-urine-for-sulfide-control-in-sewers
#11
Min Zheng, Zhiqiang Zuo, Yizhen Zhang, Yujia Cui, Qian Dong, Yanchen Liu, Xia Huang, Zhiguo Yuan
Most commonly used methods for sewer sulfide control involves dosing chemical agents to wastewater, which incurs high operational costs. Here, we propose and demonstrate a cost-effective and environmentally attractive approach to sewer sulfide control through urine separation and its subsequent conversion to nitrite prior to intermittent dosage to sewers. Urine collected from a male toilet urinal was fed to laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors. The reactors stably converted roughly 50% of the nitrogen in urine to nitrite, with high abundance (at 17...
May 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623288/seabirds-supply-nitrogen-to-reef-building-corals-on-remote-pacific-islets
#12
Anne Lorrain, Fanny Houlbrèque, Francesca Benzoni, Lucie Barjon, Laura Tremblay-Boyer, Christophe Menkes, David P Gillikin, Claude Payri, Hervé Jourdan, Germain Boussarie, Anouk Verheyden, Eric Vidal
Seabirds concentrate nutrients from large marine areas on their nesting islands playing an important ecological role in nutrient transfer between marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here we investigate the role of guano on corals reefs across scales by analyzing the stable nitrogen isotopic (δ(15)N) values of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis on fringing reefs around two Pacific remote islets with large seabird colonies. Marine stations closest to the seabird colonies had higher nitrate + nitrite concentrations compared to more distant stations...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622967/new-markers-of-urinary-tract-infection
#13
REVIEW
Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Michal Nowicki
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic...
June 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622801/rapid-determination-of-nitrate-in-vegetables-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#14
Beatrice Campanella, Massimo Onor, Enea Pagliano
In this study we present a novel isotope dilution gas chromatography method for the determination of nitrate in vegetables. The analyte was extracted in water at 70(∘)C and mixed with (15)N isotopically enriched nitrate internal standard. The sample was centrifuged and the supernatant reacted with sulfamic acid for removal of nitrite, and with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate for converting nitrate into volatile EtONO2. This simple aqueous chemistry allowed for separation of analyte from sample matrix in the form of a gaseous derivative which could be sampled in the headspace before GC-MS analysis...
August 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622359/aerobic-exercise-protects-against-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-hypertrophy-via-%C3%AE-3-ar-nnos-no-activation
#15
Bin Wang, Ming Xu, Wenju Li, Xiaoli Li, Qiangsun Zheng, Xiaolin Niu
Aerobic exercise confers sustainable protection against cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play an important role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection, but the mechanism of NOS/NO stimulation during exercise remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the role of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), NOS activation, and NO metabolites (nitrite and nitrosothiols) in the sustained cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise. An HF model was constructed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622138/cellular-and-plasma-nitrite-levels-in-myeloid-leukemia-a-pathogenetic-decrease
#16
Mili Jain, Ashutosh Kumar, Uma Shankar Singh, Rashmi Kushwaha, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Madhu Dikshit, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Nitric oxide (NO) has contributory role in hemopoietic cell growth and differentiation. The effects of NO on leukemic cell growth have been predominantly studied in in vitro settings. This study was done to assess the alterations in nitrite level in myeloid leukemias.Thirty six newly diagnosed cases of myeloid leukemia (16 AML and 20 CML) were enrolled in the study. Neutrophil precursors from the marrow aspirate and peripheral blood were separated into cell bands using Percoll density gradient method of Borregard and Cowland...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620357/the-effectiveness-of-nitrate-mediated-control-of-the-oil-field-sulfur-cycle-depends-on-the-toluene-content-of-the-oil
#17
Navreet Suri, Johanna Voordouw, Gerrit Voordouw
The injection of nitrate is one of the most commonly used technologies to impact the sulfur cycle in subsurface oil fields. Nitrate injection enhances the activity of nitrate-reducing bacteria, which produce nitrite inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Subsequent reduction of nitrate to di-nitrogen (N2) alleviates the inhibition of SRB by nitrite. It has been shown for the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C (MHGC) field, that alkylbenzenes especially toluene are important electron donors for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite and N2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618986/inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-markers-as-indicator-of-atherogenesis-in-rats-antioxidants-as-preventive-pharmacological-methods
#18
Maria Del Carmen Baez, Mariana Tarán, María de La Paz Scribano, Ariel Balceda, Carla Buonanotte, Sergio Blencio, Ismael Fonseca, Monica Moya
The oxidative process in atherogenesis generated by proinflammatory induction and response to antioxidants vitamins in an experimental model were analyzed. METHODS: Male rats were used: (A)Control, (B)Control+vitamin E plus C, (C)Hyperfibrinogenemia and (D)Hyperfibrinogenemia+vitamins E plus C. Hyperfibrinogenemia induced by daily injection of adrenaline (0.1mg/day/rat) for 120 days. TREATMENT: 3.42 mg/kg of vitamin E plus 2.14 mg/kg of vitamin C, fifteen days after induction...
June 16, 2017: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617311/inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-polymorphisms-and-nitric-oxide-levels-in-individuals-with-chronic-periodontitis
#19
Raquel M Scarel-Caminaga, Flávia F Cera, Suzane C Pigossi, Livia S Finoti, Yeon J Kim, Aline C Viana, Rodrigo Secolin, Marcelo F Montenegro, José E Tanus-Santos, Silvana R P Orrico, Joni A Cirelli
This study aimed to investigate whether the -1026(A>C)(rs2779249) and +2087(A>G)(2297518) polymorphisms in the NOS2 gene were associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) and with salivary levels of nitrite (NO₂(-)) and/or nitrate + nitrite (NOx). A group of 113 mixed-race patients were subjected to periodontal, genetic, and biochemical evaluations (65 CP/48 periodontally healthy subjects). DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells and used for genotyping by polymerase chain reaction (real-time). Salivary NOx concentrations were determined using an ozone-based chemiluminescence assay...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617277/promotion-of-partial-nitritation-anammox-process-by-improving-granule-proportion
#20
Jun Cheng, Liang Zhang, Yandong Yang, Shujun Zhang, Xiaoyu Han, Yongzhen Peng
For enhancing the partial nitritation-anammox (PN/A) process, the effects of granule fraction on system performance were investigated in this study. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were inoculated with PN/A biomass with a floc mass fraction of 53%. In SBR1, when the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) was stable, flocculent sludge was gradually discharged from the reactor using a screen, and the granule fraction was therefore increased. However, nitrogen removal was not improved and finally deteriorated due to the loss of nitritation activity...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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