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Rémi Bos, Ronald M Harris-Warrick, Cécile Brocard, Liliia E Demianenko, Marin Manuel, Daniel Zytnicki, Sergiy M Korogod, Frédéric Brocard
Spinal motoneurons are endowed with nonlinear spiking behaviors manifested by a spike acceleration whose functional significance remains uncertain. Here, we show in rodent lumbar motoneurons that these nonlinear spiking properties do not rely only on activation of dendritic nifedipine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ channels, as assumed for decades, but also on the slow inactivation of a nifedipine-sensitive K+ current mediated by Kv1.2 channels that are highly expressed in axon initial segments. Specifically, the pharmacological and computational inhibition of Kv1...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Nikhil Jain, Frank M Phillips, Tristan Weaver, Safdar N Khan
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, economic analysis. OBJECTIVE: To study patient profile associated with preoperative chronic opioid therapy (COT), and study COT as a risk factor for 90-day complications, emergency department (ED) visits, and readmission after primary one- to two-level posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) for degenerative spine disease. We also evaluated associated costs, risk factors, and adverse events related to long-term postoperative opioid use. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic opioid use is associated with poor outcomes and dependence after spine surgery...
March 20, 2018: Spine
Elizabeth G Lieberman, Ryan M Boone, Stephanie Radoslovich, Valentina Haj, Jayme Hiratzka, Lynn M Marshall, Jung U Yoo
STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To determine the prevalence of moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery, and to describe associations between prevalence, severity of symptoms, demographic variables, and spine pathology. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The prevalence of LUTS is unknown in patients with lumbar spine disease. Furthermore, the extent of LUTS severity and the relationship between spine pathology and LUTS is not well documented...
March 20, 2018: Spine
S A Zhivolupov, L S Onischenko, N A Rashidov, I N Samartsev, E V Jakovlev
AIM: To analyze the spinal mechanisms of neuroplastic changes induced by neuromidin (ipidacrine) in a model of traumatic axonotomy of the sciatic nerve in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The histological study of the material from the anterior horn (lumbar portion of spinal cord) was performed in 6 rats using electron microscopy. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The comparative analysis of neuromorphological changes in rats of control and main groups revealed the neuroprotective and modifying effects of neuromidin on the spinal neuroplasticity...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Wayne West, Doreen Brady-West, Keon P West
Purpose: To compare the relationship between obesity markers Body Mass Index (BMI) and Back Fat Thickness (BFT) and oedema in the lumbo-sacral subcutaneous adipose tissue. Patients and methods: A retrospective study was performed of consecutive Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations on 149 adults (95 females and 54 males) scanned at 1.5T between October 1 and December 31, 2010. The extent of oedema was graded from 1 to 8 based on the number of involved anatomical segments on the Fat Sat sequence...
January 2018: Heliyon
Min Kyung Shin, Hee Seung Yang, Hea-Eun Yang, Dae Hyun Kim, Bo Ram Ahn, Hyup Kwon, Ju Hwan Lee, Suk Jung, Hyun Chul Choi, Sun Keaung Yun, Dong Young Ahn, Woo Sob Sim
Objective: To analyze the effect of lumbar strengthening exercise in lower-limb amputees with chronic low back pain. Methods: We included in this prospective study 19 lower-limb amputees who had experienced low back pain for longer than 6 months. Participants were treated with 30-minute lumbar strengthening exercises, twice weekly, for 8 weeks. We used the visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire, and measured parameters such as iliopsoas length, abdominal muscle strength, back extensor strength, and back extensor endurance...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Jeffrey A Zuccato, Christopher D Witiw, Julia Keith, Erin Dyer, Arjun Saghal, Leodante da Costa
Introduction: Pre-operative biopsy and diagnosis of chordomas of the mobile spine is indicated as en bloc resections improve outcomes. This review of the management of mobile spine chordomas includes two cases of unexpected mobile spine chordomas where a preoperative tissue diagnosis was decided against and may have altered surgical decision-making. Case presentation: Two lumbar spine chordomas thought to be metastatic and primary bony lesions preoperatively were not biopsied before surgery and eventual pathology revealed chordoma...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Yukio Nakamura, Mikio Kamimura, Akio Morikawa, Akira Taguchi, Takako Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kato
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of denosumab in patients with osteoporosis (OP) and non-metastatic breast cancer following treatment of 1) surgery, 2) surgery and aromatase inhibitors, and 3) surgery, aromatase inhibitors, and anti-cancer agents, compared with those in primary OP patients. Patients and methods: In this retrospective 24-month study, patients were divided into the primary OP group (34 cases) or OP receiving breast cancer treatment group (breast cancer group; 17 cases)...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
X Cheng, Y Zhang, C Wang, W Deng, L Wang, Y Duanmu, K Li, D Yan, L Xu, C Wu, W Shen, W Tian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the cross-sectional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas at different anatomic sites and the total VAT volume in a healthy Chinese population using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and to identify the optimal anatomic site for a single slice to estimate the total VAT volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 389 healthy Chinese subjects aged 19-63 years underwent lumbar spine QCT scans. The cross-sectional area of total adipose tissue and VAT were measured using the tissue composition module of the software (QCT Pro, Mindways) at each intervertebral disc level from T12 /L1 to L5 /S1 , as well as at the umbilical level...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Israr Ahmad, Tabrez Jafar, Farzana Mahdi, Keerti Ameta, Md Arshad, Siddharth Kumar Das, Shah Waliullah, Imran Rizvi, Abbas Ali Mahdi
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has an important role as a candidate gene for the regulation of bone mass in osteoporosis. However, its association with bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial and has not been established in different ethnic populations. To enhance the understanding of VDR gene polymorphism in the context of BMD, we investigated the plausible genetic association of TaqI and ApaI polymorphism with BMD in North Indian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.254 osteoporotic women (Age 55.82 ± 6...
March 17, 2018: Gene
Narayan Yoganandan, Jason Moore, Frank A Pintar, Anjishnu Banerjee, Nicholas DeVogel, JiangYue Zhang
While studies have been conducted using human cadaver lumbar spines to understand injury biomechanics in terms of stability/energy to fracture, and physiological responses under pure-moment/follower loads, data are sparse for inferior-to-superior impacts. Injuries occur under this mode from underbody blasts. OBJECTIVES: determine role of age, disc area, and trabecular bone density on tolerances/risk curves under vertical loading from a controlled group of specimens. T12-S1 columns were obtained, pretest X-rays and CTs taken, load cells attached to both ends, impacts applied at S1-end using custom vertical accelerator device, and posttest X-ray, CT, and dissections done...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Hung-Wei Hsu, Maxim Bashkuev, Matthias Pumberger, Hendrik Schmidt
Lumbar interbody fusion is currently the gold standard in treating patients with disc degeneration or segmental instability. Despite it having been used for several decades, the non-union rate remains high. A failed fusion is frequently attributed to an inadequate mechanical environment after instrumentation. Finite element (FE) models can provide insights into the mechanics of the fusion process. Previous fusion simulations using FE models showed that the geometries and material of the cage can greatly influence the fusion outcome...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Caroline F Baldo, Daniel Almeida, Erin Wendt-Hornickle, Alonso Guedes
OBJECTIVE: To describe a single-site transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block technique in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive, experimental anatomical study. ANIMALS: Four adult pony cadavers. METHODS: Freshly euthanized ponies were positioned in dorsal recumbency. A 6-13 MHz linear ultrasonic probe was used to scan the abdominal wall bilaterally midway between the last rib and iliac crest in search of the TAP location...
February 7, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Tsuyoshi Yamada, Toshitaka Yoshii, Naoki Yamamoto, Takashi Hirai, Hiroyuki Inose, Atsushi Okawa
BACKGROUND: Concurrent cervical and lumbar spinal canal stenosis is known as tandem spinal stenosis (TSS). As research on TSS is limited, there is no consensus on the optimal surgical approach to this problem. We evaluated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of TSS in patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LCS). METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of 565 patients who underwent lumbar surgeries performed for symptomatic LCS...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
You-Long Zhou, Gang Chen, Dao-Chi Bi, Xing Chen
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, full-endoscopic techniques to treat lumbar disc herniation (LDH) have gained popularity in clinical practice. However, few studies have described the safety and efficacy of percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) in treating younger patients with LDH. This study aims to evaluate the preliminary surgical outcome and complication of PTED in treating younger patients with LDH. METHODS: Between June 2012 and June 2016, 72 young patients (< 45 years old) who underwent PTED for single-level LDH were prospectively followed up...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Alpesh A Patel, Shah-Nawaz M Dodwad, Barrett S Boody, Surabhi Bhatt, Jason W Savage, Wellington K Hsu, Nan E Rothrock
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate validity of PROMIS physical function, pain interference, and pain behavior computer adaptive tests (CATs) in surgically treated lumbar stenosis patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There has been increasing attention given to patient reported outcomes associated with spinal interventions. Historical patient outcome measures have inadequate validation, demonstrate floor/ceiling effects, and infrequently used due to time constraints...
March 19, 2018: Spine
Zhila Maghbooli, Leila Khorrami-Nezhad, Elham Adabi, Majid Ramezani, Effat Asadollahpour, Farideh Razi, Mohammadtaher Rezanezhad
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and bone status taking into account serum vitamin D levels in postmenopausal Iranian women. METHODS: During January 2015 and February 2016, a total of 488 postmenopausal Iranian women participated in this cross-sectional study, all of whom were not taking osteoporosis medication and were not suffering from any chronic disorder. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4)...
March 19, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Jay C Wang, Juan C Jiménez Pérez, Alison M Friedmann, Abner Louissaint, Suzanne K Freitag
We report a case of myeloid sarcoma with multifocal skeletal involvement, including the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. A 23-month-old boy presented with left-sided proptosis and fevers, and was found to have an infiltrative mass involving the left sphenoid bone on orbital imaging. Full body imaging further demonstrated multiple bony lesions in the pelvis, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, bilateral femura, and left humerus, and biopsies of the humerus were consistent with myeloid sarcoma. The patient was started on a standard chemotherapy regimen and is responding well...
March 20, 2018: Orbit
De-An Qin, Jie-Fu Song, Li-Ping Song, Gui-Sheng Feng
Background Pain management for multiple bone metastases is complex and often requires multidisciplinary treatment. We herein describe patient-centered multidisciplinary pain management for metastatic cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old woman with multiple bone metastases of uterine cervical cancer developed intractable low back pain. After external beam radiotherapy failed, we performed lumbar spinal intralesional curettage, pedicle screw fixation, and nerve decompression. However, the neuralgia persisted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Hiroshi Takahashi, Yasuchika Aoki, Arata Nakajima, Masato Sonobe, Fumiaki Terajima, Masahiko Saito, Takuya Miyamoto, Keita Koyama, Keiichiro Yamamoto, Takeo Furuya, Masao Koda, Seiji Ohtori, Masashi Yamazaki, Koichi Nakagawa
PURPOSE: To determine levels of biomarkers reflecting damage to axon, myelin, astrocytes, and neuron in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with cervical compression myelopathy. METHODS: We collected 69 CSF samples from patients before spinal surgery for acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM, 20), chronic compression myelopathy (CM, 20), and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS 29; control). We measured levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit H (pNF-H), tau (reflecting axonal damage), myelin basic protein (MBP) (reflecting demyelination), S100b (reflecting astrocyte damage), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (reflecting neuronal damage)...
March 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
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