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William Abouhassan, John Kuang Chao, Ananth S Murthy
BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis is an uncommon complication after shunting procedures for congenital hydrocephalus. We report a case of a child with myelomeningocele and normocephaly at the time of birth. She underwent ventricular shunting for Chiari malformation and hydrocephalus at 3 days of age. An immediate postoperative CT scan confirmed all sutures were open. Serial CT scans document an open metopic suture at 2 months, closed metopic suture at 5 months, and trigonocephaly at 11 months with concomitant slit ventricle syndrome, and collapsed lateral and third ventricles...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
C J Das, M Soneja, S Tayal, A Chahal, S Srivastava, A Kumar, U Baruah
Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a clinical condition resulting from impaired hepatic venous drainage, in which there is obstruction to the hepatic venous outflow at any level from the small hepatic veins to the junction of the inferior vena cava and the right atrium leading to hepatic congestion. The diagnosis of BCS is based on imaging, which can be gathered from non-invasive investigations such as ultrasonography coupled with venous Doppler, triphasic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Sharad Rajpal, Colson Tomberlin, Andrew Bauer, Robert C Forsythe, Sigita Burneikiene
BACKGROUND: The variety of diagnostic characteristics associated with neurocysticercosis have been well studied, however, its potential to be implicated in other differential diagnosis has not been well demonstrated. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 55-year-old Hispanic man who underwent a Chiari decompression surgery, which was complicated with hydrocephalus. Despite a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement, he continued to have headaches and was soon found to have several skull base subarachnoid lesions, which were later diagnosed as the sequelae of an active neurocysticercosis infection...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Rajani Singh, Rajnish Arora, Raj Kumar
Chiari malformations (CMs) are variant structural setup of cerebellum and brain stem at the craniovertebral junction. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem lie above the foramen magnum. When the part of the cerebellum and/or brainstem protrudes into the upper spinal canal through foramen magnum, it is defined as CM. Chiari malformations may develop when part of the skull is smaller than normal or misshapen, due to which the cerebellum herniates into spinal canal through foramen magnum. This compresses the cerebellum and brainstem affecting functions controlled by these parts and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Constantine L Karras, Ali O Jamshidi, Daniel M Prevedello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Ibrahim Hussain, Theodore H Schwartz, Jeffrey P Greenfield
Basilar invagination is defined as abnormal upward and/or posterior displacement of the odontoid leading to ventral compression of the cervicomedullary junction. This condition leads to lower cranial neuropathies, sensorimotor deficits, and myelopathy. These symptoms can persist even after posterior decompression, which is an indication for ventral decompression. Transoral approaches to the upper cervical spine carry significant morbidity, limiting their utility. The endonasal approach to the upper cervical spine presents an alternative for patients with amenable anatomy...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
Peter Sykora, Ylenia Chiari, Andrew Heaton, Nickolas Moreno, Scott Glaberman, Robert W Sobol
DNA damage has been linked to genomic instability and the progressive breakdown of cellular and organismal homeostasis, leading to the onset of disease and reduced longevity. Insults to DNA from endogenous sources include base deamination, base hydrolysis, base alkylation, and metabolism-induced oxidative damage that can lead to single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks. Alternatively, exposure to environmental pollutants, radiation or ultra-violet light, can also contribute to exogenously derived DNA damage...
March 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Wouter I Schievink, M Marcel Maya, Zachary R Barnard, Franklin G Moser, Stacey Jean-Pierre, Alan D Waxman, Miriam Nuño
BACKGROUND: Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a devastating early onset dementia. Symptoms of bvFTD may be caused by spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH), a treatable disorder, but no comprehensive study of such patients has been reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe detailed characteristics of a large cohort of patients with SIH and symptoms of bvFTD. METHODS: We identified patients with SIH who met clinical criteria for bvFTD...
March 8, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Ash Singhal, Alexander Cheong, Paul Steinbok
INTRODUCTION: In 2003, pediatric neurosurgeons were surveyed under the auspices of the education committee of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN) to determine prevailing opinions regarding the management of Chiari I malformation (C1M) with and without associated syringomyelia. In the ensuing years, there has been further information from multiple C1M studies, with regards to indications, success rates of different surgical interventions, and complications. The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate current opinions and practices in pediatric C1M...
March 12, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Julia M Leach, Sabato Mellone, Pierpaolo Palumbo, Stefania Bandinelli, Lorenzo Chiari
Although turning has been reported as one of the leading activities performed during a fall, and falls during turning result in 8-times more hip fractures than falls during linear gait, the quantity and quality of turns resulting in falls remain unknown since turns are rarely assessed during activities of daily living. 160 community-dwelling older adults were monitored for one week using smartphone technology. Turn measures and activity rates were quantified. Fall incidence within 12 months from continuous monitoring defined fall status, with 7/153 prospective fallers/non-fallers...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kakharman Yesmembetov, Zhansaya Muratova, Sergey Borovskiy, Irina Ten, Kulpash Kaliaskarova
We report the clinical case of 23-year-old patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown genesis, significant resistant ascites, and 2 episodes of bleeding from esophageal varices. Evaluation did not find any cause of liver disease, and the patient was placed on the transplant wait list due to subcompensated liver function (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 16, Child-Pugh class B) and poorly controlled severe portal hypertension. After treatment with diuretics, largevolume paracentesis, antibiotics, and vasoconstrictors, hepatorenal syndrome and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis resolved and liver function improved significantly...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Keisuke Kakisaka, Kei Endo, Ryo Sugimoto, Kazuyuki Ishida, Tamotsu Sugai, Yasuhiro Takikawa
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second-most common primary liver cancer, although its occurrence is relatively rare. Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is characterized by outflow obstruction from the liver, with hepatocellular carcinoma being the most common cause of malignant BCS. In this case report, we describe the occurrence of an unrecognized ICC that induced BCS and esophageal achalasia.
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Srdjan Cirovic, Robert Lloyd, Jelena Jovanovik, Holger A Volk, Clare Rusbridge
BACKGROUND: Syringomyelia is a pathological condition in which fluid-filled cavities (syringes) form and expand in the spinal cord. Syringomyelia is often linked with obstruction of the craniocervical junction and a Chiari malformation, which is similar in both humans and animals. Some brachycephalic toy breed dogs such as Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) are particularly predisposed. The exact mechanism of the formation of syringomyelia is undetermined and consequently with the lack of clinical explanation, engineers and mathematicians have resorted to computer models to identify possible physical mechanisms that can lead to syringes...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Hasan Önal, Atilla Ersen, Hakan Gemici, Erdal Adal, Serhat Güler, Serdar Sander, Sait Albayram
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a rare and potentially serious condition in childhood. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume depletion is thought to be the main causative feature for intracranial hypotension, results from spontaneous CSF leak, often at the spine level. SIH is increasingly diagnosed in clinical practice, although it manifests into a variegated symptomatology. Indeed, downward displacement of the brain, sometimes mimicking a Chiari I malformation, but concomitant presentation of these syndromes has rarely been reported...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Bernhard Meier
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is not to be considered a disease as it is present in about 25 % of people. Yet, it is the prime reason for paradoxical embolism that can cause serious problems, such as death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral ischemia. The frequency of such events is probably underestimated as other causes tend to be blamed for them. Device PFO closure can be easily accomplished as outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort and risk and it has been referred to as mechanical vaccination...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Ali Kandeger, Hasan Ali Guler, Umran Egilmez, Ozkan Guler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Vinod Kumar Tewari, Rituj Somvanshi, Ravindra Bihari Trivedi, Mazhar Hussain, H K Das Gupta, R S Dubey
Tethering of the spinal cord in the lumbosacral region with myelomeningocele is a well-known phenomenon. Only sporadic cases of tethering along the rest of the neuraxis, including the hindbrain, cervical, and thoracic spinal cord have been documented, always along with some associated congenital malformations (hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, myelomeningocele, meningocele, hamartomatous stalk, spina bifida occulta, intramedullary lipoma, intradural fibrous adhesions, the fusion of the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae, split cord malformation, or low-lying cord)...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Alexander Kolb, Simon Robinson, David Stelzeneder, Markus Schreiner, Catharina Chiari, Reinhard Windhager, Siegfried Trattnig, Klaus Bohndorf
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of ultrahigh field 7-T SWI to visualize vessels and assess their density in the immature epiphyseal cartilage of human knee joints. METHODS: 7-T SWI of 12 knees (six healthy volunteers, six patients with osteochondral abnormalities; mean age 10.7 years; 3 female, 9 male) were analysed by two readers, classifying intracartilaginous vessel densities (IVD) in three grades (no vessels, low IVD and high IVD) in defined femoral, tibial and patellar zones...
February 26, 2018: European Radiology
Zhi Chai, Xiaoming Xue, Huijie Fan, Lin Sun, Hongyu Cai, Yanmiao Ma, Cungen Ma, Ran Zhou
This study aimed to quantitatively assess and compare the effect and safety of posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) and posterior fossa decompression (PFD) in treating patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM1). PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched through May 2017. Fourteen cohort studies, involving a total of 3666 patients with CM1, were included. Studies were pooled, and the relative risk (RR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The decrease in syringomyelia was better for patients in the PFDD group than for patients in the PFD group (RR=1...
February 23, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Elena Pellicer, Babette S Siebold, Craig B Birgfeld, Emily R Gallagher
BACKGROUND: The recommended treatment for craniosynostosis, is cranial vault expansion to prevent increased intracranial pressure and optimize developmental outcomes. Some patients complain about postoperative headaches and occasionally require revision to treat increased intracranial pressure. This study examines whether specific factors are associated with an increased risk of postoperative headaches or intracranial hypertension. METHODS: This retrospective cohort included patients with craniosynostosis from 1995 and 2010...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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