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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320657/regularized-dual-averaging-image-reconstruction-for-full-wave-ultrasound-computed-tomography
#1
Thomas Matthews, Kun Wang, Cuiping Li, Neb Duric, Mark Anastasio
Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) holds great promise for breast cancer screening. Waveform inversionbased image reconstruction methods account for higher-order diffraction effects and can produce high-resolution USCT images, but are computationally demanding. Recently, a source encoding technique was combined with stochastic gradient descent to greatly reduce image reconstruction times. However, this method bundles the stochastic data fidelity term with the deterministic regularization term. This limitation can be overcome by replacing stochastic gradient descent (SGD) with a structured optimization method, such as the regularized dual averaging (RDA) method, that exploits knowledge of the composition of the cost function...
March 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317781/stability-of-%C3%AE-carotene-during-baking-of-orange-fleshed-sweet-potato-wheat-composite-bread-and-estimated-contribution-to-vitamin-a-requirements
#2
Madjaliwa Nzamwita, Kwaku Gyebi Duodu, Amanda Minnaar
Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is known to be a rich source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and a potential tool for fighting vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. OFSP flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) substitution levels. The stability of β-carotene during baking and the contribution of OFSP-wheat composite breads to vitamin A requirements were evaluated. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene in breads containing 10, 20 and 30% OFSP flour was 62.7, 71...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306154/protein-intake-and-mobility-limitation-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-the-health-abc-study
#3
Denise K Houston, Janet A Tooze, Katelyn Garcia, Marjolein Visser, Susan Rubin, Tamara B Harris, Anne B Newman, Stephen B Kritchevsky
OBJECTIVES: The current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is based on short-term nitrogen balance studies in young adults and may underestimate the amount needed to optimally preserve physical function in older adults. We examined the association between protein intake and the onset of mobility limitation over 6 years of follow-up in older adults in the Health ABC study. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Memphis, Tennessee and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298271/optimizing-protein-intake-in-adults-interpretation-and-application-of-the-recommended-dietary-allowance-compared-with-the-acceptable-macronutrient-distribution-range
#4
REVIEW
Robert R Wolfe, Amy M Cifelli, Georgia Kostas, Il-Young Kim
The adult RDA is defined as the average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy people. The RDA for protein for adults ≥18 y of age (0.8 g/kg) has been essentially unchanged for >70 y. In practice, the RDA for protein was derived to estimate the minimum amount of protein that must be eaten to avoid a loss of body nitrogen. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) (10-35% of calories as protein) was developed to express dietary recommendations in the context of a complete diet...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294196/elucidation-of-major-contributors-involved-in-nitrogen-removal-and-transcription-level-of-nitrogen-cycling-genes-in-activated-sludge-from-wwtps
#5
You Che, Peixin Liang, Ting Gong, Xiangyu Cao, Ying Zhao, Chao Yang, Cunjiang Song
We investigated nitrogen-cycle bacterial communities in activated sludge from 8 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Redundancy analyses (RDA) showed that temperature was the most significant driving force in shaping microbial community structure, followed by influent NH4(+) and total nitrogen (TN). The diversity of ammonia oxidizing and nitrite reducing bacteria were investigated by the construction of amoA, nirS and nirK gene clone libraries. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Thauera and Mesorhizobium were the predominant nitrite reducing bacteria, and Nitrosomonas was the only detected ammonia oxidizing bacteria in all samples...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291361/reversible-tethering-of-polymers-onto-catechol-based-titanium-platforms
#6
William Laure, David Fournier, Patrice Woisel, Joël Lyskawa
In this work, we report on the reversible tethering of end-functionalized polymers onto catechol-based titanium platforms by exploiting the reversible Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition reaction. For this purpose, furan and maleimide end-functionalized polymers, prepared via RAFT polymerization, were covalently grafted through a DA reaction onto reactive titanium platforms elaborated from catechol-based anchors incorporating either the furan or the maleimide moiety. As a proof of concept, a hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylate) (POEGA) and a hydrophobic poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate) (PTFEA) were grafted onto titanium surfaces and subsequently detached by exploiting the thermo-reversible nature of the DA reaction (i...
March 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288351/the-response-of-soil-microbial-diversity-and-abundance-to-long-term-application-of-biosolids
#7
Abdul-Wahab Mossa, Matthew J Dickinson, Helen M West, Scott D Young, Neil M J Crout
The disposal of biosolids poses a major environmental and economic problem. Agricultural use is generally regarded as the best means of disposal. However, its impact on soil ecosystems remains uncertain. Biosolids can improve soil properties by supplying nutrients and increasing organic matter content but there is also a potentially detrimental effect arising from the introduction of heavy metals into soils. To assess the balance between these competing effects on soil health, we investigated soil bacterial and fungal diversity and community structure at a site that has been dedicated to the disposal of sewage sludge for over 100 years...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268626/multistep-model-for-predicting-upper-limb-3d-isometric-force-application-from-pre-movement-electrocorticographic-features
#8
Jing Wu, Benjamin R Shuman, Bingni W Brunton, Katherine M Steele, Jared D Olson, Rajesh P N Rao, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Neural correlates of movement planning onset and direction may be present in human electrocorticography in the signal dynamics of both motor and non-motor cortical regions. We use a three-stage model of jPCA reduced-rank hidden Markov model (jPCA-RR-HMM), regularized shrunken-centroid discriminant analysis (RDA), and LASSO regression to extract direction-sensitive planning information and movement onset in an upper-limb 3D isometric force task in a human subject. This mode achieves a relatively high true positive force-onset prediction rate of 60% within 250ms, and an above-chance 36% accuracy (17% chance) in predicting one of six planned 3D directions of isometric force using pre-movement signals...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266899/the-blue-lotus-flower-nymphea-caerulea-resin-used-in-a-new-type-of-electronic-cigarette-the-re-buildable-dripping-atomizer
#9
Justin L Poklis, Haley A Mulder, Matthew S Halquist, Carl E Wolf, Alphonse Poklis, Michelle R Peace
The blue lotus flower (Nymphea caerulea) is an Egyptian water lily containing apomorphine and nuciferine. Apomorphine has been described as a psychoactive alkaloid and is a non-selective dopamine agonist primarily used to treat Parkinson's disease as it stimulates dopamine receptors and improves motor function. Nuciferine is an alkaloid associated with dopamine receptor blockade. Today, blue lotus flower is used as a sleep aid and anxiety reliever. The rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA) is an electronic cigarette that allows direct application of an e-liquid onto the coil in the atomizer for aerosolization, compared to a typical electronic cigarette where the e-liquid is wicked from a storage vessel to the coil...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257716/the-risks-and-benefits-of-long-term-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-expert-review-and-best-practice-advice-from-the-american-gastroenterological-association
#10
REVIEW
Daniel E Freedberg, Lawrence S Kim, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the risks associated with long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), focusing on long-term use of PPIs for three common indications: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus (BE), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) bleeding prophylaxis. METHODS: The recommendations outlined in this review are based on expert opinion and on relevant publications from PubMed, EMbase, and the Cochrane library (through July 2016)...
March 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257091/tentative-characterization-of-polyphenolic-compounds-in-the-male-flowers-of-phoenix-dactylifera-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-and-dft
#11
Ridha Ben Said, Arafa I Hamed, Usam A Mahalel, Abdullah Sulaiman Al-Ayed, Mariusz Kowalczyk, Jaroslaw Moldoch, Wieslaw Oleszek, Anna Stochmal
Phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (poly)phenols. These phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS) with negative ion detection. Negative identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (MS), and in different MS/MS modes. For the first time, complete hypothesis, and routs for both p-coumaroylshikimic acids (CoSA) and caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA) were suggested and confirmed by Density Fonctional Theory (DFT) study...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249125/abundance-and-diversity-of-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-and-bacteria-in-the-rhizosphere-soil-of-three-plants-in-the-ebinur-lake-wetland
#12
Yuan He, Wenge Hu, Decao Ma, Hongzhu Lan, Yang Yang, Yan Gao
Ammonia oxidation is carried out by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA). The Ebinur Lake wetland is the best example of a temperate arid zone wetland ecosystem in China. Soil samples were collected from rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil containing Halocnemum strobilaceum (H and H'), Phragmites australis (R and R'), and Kareliniacaspia (K and K') to study the relationship between environmental factors and the community structure of AOB and AOA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AOA sequences belonged to the Nitrosopumilus and Nitrososphaera clusters...
March 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245892/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-sufficiency-among-canadian-children-residing-at-high-latitude-following-the-revision-of-the-rda-of-vitamin-d-intake-in-2010
#13
Lalani L Munasinghe, Yan Yuan, Noreen D Willows, Erin L Faught, John P Ekwaru, Paul J Veugelers
Recently, countries at high latitudes have updated their vitamin D recommendations to ensure adequate intake for the musculoskeletal health of their respective populations. In 2010, the dietary guidelines for vitamin D for Canadians and Americans aged 1-70 years increased from 5 μg/d to 15 μg/d, whereas in 2016 for citizens of the UK aged ≥4 years 10 μg/d is recommended. The vitamin D status of Canadian children following the revised dietary guidelines is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency among Canadian children...
February 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226806/multistep-model-for-predicting-upper-limb-3d-isometric-force-application-from-pre-movement-electrocorticographic-features
#14
Jing Wu, Benjamin R Shuman, Bingni W Brunton, Katherine M Steele, Jared D Olson, Rajesh P N Rao, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Jing Wu, Benjamin R Shuman, Bingni W Brunton, Katherine M Steele, Jared D Olson, Rajesh P N Rao, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Rajesh P N Rao, Jared D Olson, Benjamin R Shuman, Katherine M Steele, Jing Wu, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Bingni W Brunton
Neural correlates of movement planning onset and direction may be present in human electrocorticography in the signal dynamics of both motor and non-motor cortical regions. We use a three-stage model of jPCA reduced-rank hidden Markov model (jPCA-RR-HMM), regularized shrunken-centroid discriminant analysis (RDA), and LASSO regression to extract direction-sensitive planning information and movement onset in an upper-limb 3D isometric force task in a human subject. This mode achieves a relatively high true positive force-onset prediction rate of 60% within 250ms, and an above-chance 36% accuracy (17% chance) in predicting one of six planned 3D directions of isometric force using pre-movement signals...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222156/toothbrush-abrasivity-in-a-long-term-simulation-on-human-dentin-depends-on-brushing-mode-and-bristle-arrangement
#15
Mozhgan Bizhang, Ilka Schmidt, Yong-Hee Patricia Chun, Wolfgang H Arnold, Stefan Zimmer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of dentin to brushing abrasion using four different toothbrushes (rotating-oscillating, sonic and two types of manual toothbrushes) with the same brushing forces. METHODS: Dentin samples (n = 72) were selected from 72 impacted third molars. Half of the surface of dentin samples was covered with an adhesive tape, creating a protected and a freely exposed area in the same specimen. Brushing was performed with either a: sonic (Sonicare PowerUp, Philips GmbH, Hamburg, Germany), b: oscillating-rotating (Oral B Vitality Precisions Clean, Procter & Gamble, Schwalbach am Taunus, Germany) or two different manual toothbrushes c: flat trim brush head toothbrush (Dr...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193587/the-effects-of-rice-straw-biochar-on-indigenous-microbial-community-and-enzymes-activity-in-heavy-metal-contaminated-sediment
#16
Danlian Huang, Linshan Liu, Guangming Zeng, Piao Xu, Chao Huang, Linjing Deng, Rongzhong Wang, Jia Wan
Owning to the potential in carbon sequestration and other environmental benefits, biochar has been widely used for in-situ environmental remediation. Understanding the biological effects of biochar is essential. The goal of this study was to explore the response of indigenous microbes under the stress of different concentrations of biochar. The results showed that biochar could significantly change physicochemical properties, enzymes activity and microbial community composition depending on biochar concentration and incubation time...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185886/macronutrient-intake-in-preschoolers-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-the-relationship-between-macronutrients-and-growth
#17
Stephanie S Filigno, Shannon M Robson, Rhonda D Szczesniak, Leigh A Chamberlin, Meredith A Baker, Stephanie M Sullivan, John Kroner, Scott W Powers
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition is essential for growth in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The new CF Foundation Clinical Practice Guidelines bring attention to monitoring macronutrient intake as well as total energy. METHODS: Dietary intake of 75 preschool children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency was examined and compared to the Clinical Practice Guidelines. Regression analyses examined relationships between macronutrient intake and growth. RESULTS: Approximately 45% of children met the 110% minimum recommended dietary allowance (RDA) recommendation...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179492/indicator-amino-acid-derived-estimate-of-dietary-protein-requirement-for-male-bodybuilders-on-a-nontraining-day-is-several-fold-greater-than-the-current-recommended-dietary-allowance
#18
Arash Bandegan, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Mahroukh Rafii, Paul B Pencharz, Peter Wr Lemon
Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise."Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique]...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166302/the-influence-of-different-concentrations-of-bio-organic-fertilizer-on-cucumber-fusarium-wilt-and-soil-microflora-alterations
#19
Nan Huang, Weiwei Wang, Yanlai Yao, Fengxiang Zhu, Weiping Wang, Xiaojuan Chang
Fusarium wilt is one of the main diseases of cucumber, and bio-organic fertilizer has been used to control Fusarium wilt. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bio-organic fertilizer applied at four levels on the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber, the soil physico-chemical properties and the microbial communities. In comparison with the control (CK), low concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO2.5 and BIO5) did not effectively reduce the disease incidence and had little effect on soil microorganisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164788/variations-in-the-bacterial-community-compositions-at-different-sites-in-the-tomb-of-emperor-yang-of-the-sui-dynasty
#20
Zhi Huang, Fei Zhao, Yonghui Li, Jianwei Zhang, Youzhi Feng
To fully understand the bacterial processes in tomb environments, it is necessary to investigate the details of the bacterial communities present under such oligotrophic conditions. Here, high-throughput sequencing based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences was used to fully evaluate the bacterial communities at different sites in the tomb of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty. We also aimed to identify the soil factors that were significant related to bacterial diversity and community composition. The results showed the presence of a broad taxonomic diversity that included nine major phyla...
March 2017: Microbiological Research
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