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Nicola Veronese, Brendon Stubbs, Stefania Maggi, Maria Notarnicola, Mario Barbagallo, Joseph Firth, Ligia J Dominguez, Maria Gabriella Caruso
Inadequate magnesium (Mg) intake is associated with lower physical performance, but the relationship with frailty in older people is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher dietary Mg intake is associated with a lower risk of frailty in a large cohort of North American individuals. Details regarding Mg intake were recorded through a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and categorized as greater than/equal to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) vs. lower. Frailty was defined using the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures index...
November 16, 2017: Nutrients
Nighat Y Sofi, Monika Jain, Umesh Kapil, Vuthaluru Seenu, Lakshmy R, Chander P Yadav, Ravindra M Pandey, Neha Sareen
The study was conducted with an objective to investigate the association between reproductive factors, nutritional status and serum 25(OH)D levels among women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC). A total of 200 women with BC attending a tertiary healthcare institute of Delhi, India matched with 200 healthy women for age (±2years) and socio economic status were included in the study. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, reproductive factors, physical activity and dietary intake (24hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire) using interviewer administered structured questionnaires and standard tools...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jiajiang Lin, Jun Meng, Yan He, Jianming Xu, Zuliang Chen, Philip C Brookes
The incorporation of various types of crop straw to agricultural soils has long been practiced to improve soil fertility. However, the effects of crop straw on the fate of organo-chlorine pesticides in flooded paddy soils are not well understood. The dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in four vertical profiles (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50 mm depth) of two flooded paddy soils, a Plinthudult (Soil 1) and a Tropudult (Soil 2) was investigated following the application of four crop straws (rice, wheat, rape and Chinese milk vetch) to them...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xian Cheng, Liding Chen, Ranhao Sun, Peiru Kong
It is important to assess river ecosystem health in large-scale basins when considering the complex influence of anthropogenic activities on these ecosystems. This study investigated the river ecosystem health in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) by sampling 148 river sites during the pre- and post-rainy seasons in 2013. A model was established to assess the river ecosystem health based on water physicochemical, nutrient, and macroinvertebrate indices, and the health level was divided into "very poor," "poor," "fair," "good," and "excellent" according to the health score calculated from the assessment model...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wenjing Guo, Yuanrong Zhu, Zhiyou Fu, Ning Qin, Hao Wang, Shasha Liu, Yan Hu, Fengchang Wu, John P Giesy
Long-term (2000 to 2012) monthly data on communities of phytoplankton, and environmental variables were measured in water collected from Meiliang Bay and Wuli Lake of Tai Lake, China. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was conducted to explore relationships between the phytoplankton communities and environmental variables. Change points for concentrations of nutrients, which serve as early warnings of state shifts in lacustrine ecosystems, were identified using the Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN). The biomass of phytoplankton was positively correlated with the concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), suspended solids (SS), water temperature (WT), and pH but negatively correlated with the N/P ratio (by mass) and Secchi disk depth (SD)...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Aicha Melouane, Abdelaziz Ghanemi, Simon Aubé, Mayumi Yoshioka, Jonny St-Amand
Identifying therapeutic target genes represents the key step in functional genomics-based therapies. Within this context, the disease heterogeneity, the exogenous factors and the complexity of genomic structure and function represent important challenges. The functional genomics aims to overcome such obstacles via identifying the gene functions and therefore highlight disease-causing genes as therapeutic targets. Genomic technologies promise to reshape the research on ageing muscle, exercise response and drug discovery...
November 1, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
Qinglong Liu, Jingchun Tang, Kai Gao, Ranjit Gurav, John P Giesy
A microcosm experiment was conducted for 112 d by spiking petroleum hydrocarbons into soils from four regions of China. Molecular analyses of soils from microcosms revealed changes in taxonomic diversity and oil catabolic genes of microbial communities. Degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in Sand from the Bohai Sea (SS) and Northeast China (NE) exhibited greater microbial mineralization than those of the Dagang Oilfield (DG) and Xiamen (XM). High-throughput sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles demonstrated an obvious reconstruction of the bacterial community in all soils...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cameron J Mitchell, Amber M Milan, Sarah M Mitchell, Nina Zeng, Farha Ramzan, Pankaja Sharma, Scott O Knowles, Nicole C Roy, Anders Sjödin, Karl-Heinz Wagner, David Cameron-Smith
Background: The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein intake in the adult population is widely promoted as 0.8 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) Aging may increase protein requirements, particularly to maintain muscle mass.Objective: We investigated whether controlled protein consumption at the current RDA or twice the RDA (2RDA) affects skeletal muscle mass and physical function in elderly men.Design: In this parallel-group randomized trial, 29 men aged >70 y [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.3 ± 4...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hyun Min Jang, Jangwoo Lee, Young Beom Kim, Jong Hun Jeon, Jingyeong Shin, Mee-Rye Park, Young Mo Kim
This study examines the fate of twenty-three representative antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) encoding tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones, β-lactam antibiotics, macrolides, florfenicol and multidrug resistance during thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) of sewage sludge. The bacterial community, class 1 integrons (intI1) and four metal resistance genes (MRGs) were also quantified to determine the key drivers of changes in ARGs during TAD. At the end of digestion, significant decreases in the quantities of ARGs, MRGs and intI1 as well as 16S rRNA genes were observed...
October 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Cynthia Gomes, Jaemog Soh
Mammalian spermatogenesis occurs in a precise and coordinated manner in the seminiferous tubules. One of the attempts to understand the detailed biological process during mammalian spermatogenesis at the molecular level has been to identify the testis specific genes followed by study of the testicular expression pattern of the genes. From the subtracted cDNA library of rat testis prepared using representational difference analysis (RDA) method, a complimentary DNA clone encoding type III member of a DnaJ family protein, DnaJC18, was cloned (GenBank Accession No...
September 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Ke Wang, Hailong Mao, Xiangkun Li
The metabolic function of microbial community dominated organics and nutrients transformation in aerobic composting process. In this study, the metabolic characteristics of bacterial and fungal communities were evaluated in 60 days composting of sludge and pumice by using FUNGuild and PICRUSt, respectively. The results showed that microbial community structure and metabolic characteristics were distinctively different at four composting periods. Bacterial genes related to carbohydrate metabolisms decreased during the first 30 days, but bacterial sequences associated with oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acids synthesis were enhanced in curing phase...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Inger Elisabeth Måren, Jutta Kapfer, Per Arild Aarrestad, John-Arvid Grytnes, Vigdis Vandvik
Successional dynamics in plant community assembly may result from both deterministic and stochastic ecological processes. The relative importance of different ecological processes is expected to vary over the successional sequence, between different plant functional groups, and with the disturbance levels and land-use management regimes of the successional systems. We evaluate the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in bryophyte and vascular plant community assembly after fire in grazed and un-grazed anthropogenic coastal heathlands in Northern Europe...
October 24, 2017: Ecology
Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar, Paramasivam Sivakumar, Muthukrishnan Saradhadevi
The genetic potential and biofortification of India-grown rice with bioavailable folate has not been studied yet. The objectives of this study were to determine the folates concentration in four cultivars of rice through UPLC-MS/MS. Total folate concentration in rice cultivars ranged from 11.0 to 51 μg/100 g with a mean of 26.0 μg/100 g. Among the four rice cultivars, the pigmented grain cultivar Nootripathu possesses two-fold rich sources of total folates than the other three non-pigmented grain cultivars...
October 23, 2017: Natural Product Research
Taoxiang Zhang, Suping Hu, Wenhao Yang
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a well-recognized cause of human illness. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in five purple soils from Sichuan Province was investigated. The dynamics of E. coli O157:H7 survival in purple soils were described by the Weibull model. Results showed that this model is suitable to fit survival curves of E. coli O157:H7 in purple soils, with the calculated td value (survival time needed to reach the detection limit of 100 CFU·g(-1)) ranging from 2.99 days to 26.36 days. The longest survival time of E...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Guang Xu, Xuhan Ding, Mahinda Kuruppu, Wei Zhou, Wahidul Biswas
Bauxite residue is a by-product of aluminium processing. It is usually stored in large-scale residue drying area (RDA). The bauxite residue is highly alkaline and contains a large percentage of metal oxides which are hazardous to the environment and human health. Therefore, the generated dust is a major environmental concern that needs to be addressed and efficiently managed. One of the major dust generation sources is from the coarse fraction of the bauxite residue named red sand. To minimize the environmental and health impacts, non-traditional chemical stabilizers can be applied to construct a binding surface crust with certain hardness and strength...
October 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jennifer M Sacheck, Maria I Van Rompay, Virginia R Chomitz, Christina D Economos, Misha Eliasziw, Elizabeth Goodman, Catherine M Gordon, Michael F Holick
Objective: We investigated the daily dose of vitamin D needed to achieve serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] sufficiency among schoolchildren at-risk for deficiency. Study Design: The Daily D Health Study was a randomized double-blind vitamin D supplementation trial among racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (n=685) in the northeastern U.S. Children were supplemented with vitamin D3 at 600, 1000, or 2000 IU/day for six months. Measurements included serum 25(OH)D at baseline (Oct-Dec), 3 months (Jan-March), 6 months (April-June), and 12 months (6 months post-supplementation)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Fan Yang, Baoyou Shi, Weiyu Zhang, Jing Cui, Jianbo Guo, Dongsheng Wang, Nan Wu, Xinyuan Liu
Inter-basin water transfer and source water switching will be increasingly launched due to significant population increase and the shortage of the local water resources in cities around the world. Source water switch may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms, and loose deposits in drinking water distribution system (DWDS). Great sulfate alteration during source water switch had been deemed as the main cause of a red water case that occurred in a northern China city...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sajjad Moradi, Leila Khorrami-Nezhad, Zhila Maghbooli, Banafshe Hosseini, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Khadijeh Mirzaei
Osteoporosis and fragility fractures have been regarded as important public health concerns. We investigated their possible association with vitamin D receptor (VDR) FOK1 polymorphisms (rs10735810) and dietary parameters such as calcium and vitamin D intake. A total of 264 Iranian obese women (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) were categorized based on the FOK1 genotype and divided into two groups: group one with the FF genotype (n=184) and the f allele carrier group with the Ff or ff genotype (n=80). The body composition, dietary intake and bone mineral density were assessed for all cases...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
K A Harrisson, S J Amish, A Pavlova, S Narum, M Telonis-Scott, M L Rourke, J Lyon, Z Tonkin, D M Gilligan, B A Ingram, M Lintermans, H M Gan, C M Austin, G Luikart, P Sunnucks
Adaptive differences across species' ranges can have important implications for population persistence and conservation management decisions. Despite advances in genomic technologies, detecting adaptive variation in natural populations remains challenging. Key challenges in gene-environment association studies involve distinguishing the effects of drift from those of selection, and identifying subtle signatures of polygenic adaptation. We used paired-end restriction-site associated-DNA sequencing data (6605 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) to examine population structure and test for signatures of adaptation across the geographic range of an iconic Australian endemic freshwater fish species, the Murray cod Maccullochella peelii...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Xiaomei Su, Alan D Steinman, Xiangming Tang, Qingju Xue, Yanyan Zhao, Liqiang Xie
Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms are prevalent around the world, influencing aquatic organisms and altering the physico-chemical properties in freshwater systems. However, the response of bacterial communities to toxic cyanobacterial blooms and associated microcystins (MC) remain poorly understood even though global concentrations of MC have increased dramatically in the past few decades. To address this issue, the dynamics of bacterial community composition (BCC) in the water column and how BCC is influenced by both harmful cyanobacterial blooms and environmental factors were investigated on a monthly basis from August 2013 to July 2014 in Lake Taihu, China...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
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