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Pavlina Sasheva, Ueli Grossniklaus
Over the last years, it has become increasingly clear that environmental influences can affect the epigenomic landscape and that some epigenetic variants can have heritable, phenotypic effects. While there are a variety of methods to perform genome-wide analyses of DNA methylation in model organisms, this is still a challenging task for non-model organisms without a reference genome. Differentially methylated region-representational difference analysis (DMR-RDA) is a sensitive and powerful PCR-based technique that isolates DNA fragments that are differentially methylated between two otherwise identical genomes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Liyan Song, Shu Yang, Hongjie Liu, Jing Xu
Little is known regarding how bacterial communities assemble at landfill, as well as how the environment shapes the composition of bacterial community. In this study, up to 42 refuse samples from a large-scale landfill in China were physicochemically and phylogenetically investigated. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing (nine samples) revealed that representatives of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant in the refuse samples, which was similar to a previous study on landfill leachate by using 454 pyrosequencing...
October 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Damianos Chatzievangelou, Carolina Doya, Laurenz Thomsen, Autun Purser, Jacopo Aguzzi
Three benthic megafaunal species (i.e. sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria; pacific hagfish Eptatretus stoutii and a group of juvenile crabs) were tested for diel behavioral patterns at the methane hydrates site of Barkley Canyon (890 m depth), off Vancouver Island (BC, Canada). Fluctuations of animal counts in linear video-transects conducted with the Internet Operated Deep-Sea Crawler "Wally" in June, July and December of 2013, were used as proxy of population activity rhythms. Count time series and environmental parameters were analyzed under the hypothesis that the environmental conditioning of activity rhythms depends on the life habits of particular species (i...
2016: PloS One
J M Beasley, A L Deierlein, K B Morland, E C Granieri, A Spark
OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest protein intake may be associated with lower body weight, but protein has also been associated with preservation of lean body mass. Understanding the role of protein in maintaining health for older adults is important for disease prevention among this population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of dietary protein on body composition. SETTING: New York City community centers. PARTICIPANTS: 1,011 Black, White, and Latino urban men and women 60-99 years of age...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Jie Fu, Wan-Ning Lee, Clark Coleman, Melissa Meyer, Jason Carter, Kirk Nowack, Ching-Hua Huang
A pilot study employing two parallel trains of two-stage biofiltration, i.e., a sand/anthracite (SA) biofilter followed by a biologically-active granular activated carbon (GAC) contactor, was conducted to test the efficiency, feasibility and stability of biofiltration for removing natural organic matter (NOM) after coagulation in a drinking water treatment plant. Results showed the biofiltration process could effectively remove turbidity (<0.1 NTU in all effluents) and NOM (>24% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), >57% of UV254, and >44% of SUVA254), where the SA biofilters showed a strong capacity for turbidity removal, while the GAC contactors played the dominant role in NOM removal...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Faustino Sánchez-Garduño, Judith Pérez-Velázquez
This paper deals with the analysis of existence of traveling wave solutions (TWS) for a diffusion-degenerate (at D(0) = 0) and advection-degenerate (at h'(0) = 0) reaction-diffusion-advection (RDA) equation. Diffusion is a strictly increasing function and the reaction term generalizes the kinetic part of the Fisher-KPP equation. We consider different forms of the convection term h(u): (1)  h'(u) is constant k, (2)  h'(u) = ku with k > 0, and (3) it is a quite general form which guarantees the degeneracy in the advective term...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
August 12, 2016: Neurocase
Anupam Das, Sagarika Nag, Anne B Mason, Margarida M Barroso
Transient "kiss and run" interactions between endosomes containing iron-bound transferrin (Tf) and mitochondria have been shown to facilitate direct iron transfer in erythroid cells. In this study, we used superresolution three-dimensional (3D) direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy to show that Tf-containing endosomes directly interact with mitochondria in epithelial cells. We used live-cell time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, followed by 3D rendering, object tracking, and a distance transformation algorithm, to track Tf-endosomes and characterize the dynamics of their interactions with mitochondria...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Haroun Chenchouni
This study aims to characterize soil properties and to investigate how these parameters, including soil salinity, are related to zonation and distributional patterns of halophytic plants occurring at edges of the Djendli Sabkha (northeastern Algeria). Soil samples were collected from four stations at Sabkha edges with seven samples for each station. Physicochemical soil parameters were analysed in each vegetation belt of halophytes. Relationships between soil traits were tested to determine spatial variation and their effects on vegetation cover of the principal halophyte species...
September 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Arash Salmaninejad, Mohammad Reza Zamani, Mehrnaz Pourvahedi, Zahra Golchehre, Ali Hosseini Bereshneh, Nima Rezaei
UNLABELLED: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are named based on their expression pattern that is restricted in a number of normal and abnormal tissues. Tumor cells frequently express antigens whose expression is typically restricted to germ cells. Their unique expression pattern is guaranteed by precise epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Because of their tumor-limited, high immunogenicity, and biased expression, discovery of these molecules provides unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development in the field of cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy...
October 2016: Immunological Investigations
Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye, Mahmood Abdulai Seidu, Banga Benoit N'guessan, Samuel Frimpong-Manso, Joseph Edusei Sarkodie, Samuel Adjei, Schevadnazy Kutu, Joseph Osei-Little, Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko, Philip Debrah
BACKGROUND: Unsweetened natural cocoa has antimalarial properties. Unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), obtained as a result of the removal of cocoa butter from a cocoa bean protects against malaria episodes. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9 % theobromine and 0.21 % caffeine. Concomitant consumption of cocoa and artemether/lumefantrine (A/L) is a common practice in Ghana, West Africa. This study seeks to determine the elemental composition of UNCP and its protective effect on the heart and kidney against (A/L) administration...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Meng Wu, Mengya Song, Ming Liu, Chunyu Jiang, Zhongpei Li
In the background of rapid expansion of plastic greenhouse vegetable production in China, many environmental risks have emerged in recent years. In this study, the soils with a chronosequence in greenhouse vegetable fields were collected and the soil humic acids (HAs) and fluvic acids (FAs) were extracted and purified. The soil HAs and FAs were found to show inhibition activities against phytopathogenic fungi for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed to investigate the chemical structures of HAs and FAs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshiyuki Okano, Toshikazu Hattori, Hiroki Fujimoto, Kaori Noi, Miki Okamoto, Toshiaki Watanabe, Ryoko Watanabe, Rika Fujii, Tomoko Tamaoki
Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU) can cause neuropsychological and psychosocial problems in diet-off adult patients, and that such symptoms improve after resumption of phenylalanine-restricted diet, indicating the need for lifetime low-phenylalanine diet. While limiting protein intake, dietary therapy should provide adequate daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, and microelements. We evaluated nutrient balance in 14 patients with classical PKU aged 4-38 years...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Yaoning Chen, Shuang Ma, Yuanping Li, Ming Yan, Guangming Zeng, Jiachao Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xuebin Tan
This paper studied the degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in contaminated soil under composting and natural conditions, respectively. BDE-47 residue in agricultural waste-composting pile was determined during 45-day composting. The microbial communities were determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the relationships between the DGGE results and physico-chemical parameters were evaluated by redundancy analysis (RDA) and heatmap-clustering analysis...
August 30, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jill A Parnell, Kristin P Wiens, Kelly A Erdman
Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males...
2016: Nutrients
Y M Abdulrazzaq, N Nagelkerke, S Abdulla, G Belhaj
This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810...
May 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Lu Gong, Mei-ling Zhu, Zeng-yuan Liu, Xue-ni Zhang, Li-na Xie
We analyzed the differentiation among the environmental factors and soil organic/inorganic carbon contents of irrigated desert soil, brown desert soil, saline soil and aeolian sandy soil by classical statistics methods, and studied the correlation between soil carbon contents and the environmental factor by redundancy analysis (RDA) in a typical oasis of Yutian in the southern edge of the Tarim Basin. The results showed that the average contents of soil organic carbon and soil inorganic carbon were 2.51 g · kg⁻¹ and 25...
April 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Jia Feng, Yu-ning Guo, Fei Wang, Jun-ping Lü, Qi Liu, Shu-lian Xie, Ge Cheng, Zhang Jian-min
In order to explore the structural characteristics of phytoplankton community and the water quality and the water quality of the Fenhe scenic spot in Taiyuan, the species composition and the biomass of phytoplankton as well as their correlation with the environmental factors were monitored. The survey selected 9 sampling sites along the up and lower reaches in Fenhe scenic spot of Taiyuan, from Chaicun Bridge to Xiangyun Bridge. During the wet season (June-Octoher) in 2014, specimens were collected, qualitative and quantitative investigation on the algae and monitoring on physicochemical indexes of the water were studied...
April 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Laura Benestan, Brady K Quinn, Halim Maaroufi, Martin Laporte, Fraser K Clark, Spencer J Greenwood, Rémy Rochette, Louis Bernatchez
Investigating how environmental features shape the genetic structure of populations is crucial for understanding how they are potentially adapted to their habitats, as well as for sound management. In this study, we assessed the relative importance of spatial distribution, ocean currents and sea surface temperature (SST) on patterns of putatively neutral and adaptive genetic variation among American lobster from 19 locations using population differentiation (PD) approaches combined with environmental association (EA) analyses...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
Sarita Singhal, Robert D Baker, Susan S Baker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-dairy beverages are advertised as a healthy alternative to cow's milk. There is an increased availability and consumption of non-dairy beverages and a decrease in consumption of cow's milk. The aim of this study is to review and compare the contents and nutritional value of non-dairy beverages to cow's milk. METHODS: Information about the non-dairy beverages on the shelves at stores in Buffalo, New York was collected. The web pages of several manufacturers were assessed for product contents...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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