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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917965/the-development-of-a-butyrylcholinesterase-porous-pellet-for-innovative-detection-of-cholinesterase-inhibitors
#1
Jiří Zeman, David Vetchý, Aleš Franc, Sylvie Pavloková, Vladimír Pitschmann, Lukáš Matějovský
The aim of the presented research was the preparation of an innovative carrier with significantly improved properties for the fast and sensitive detection of cholinesterase inhibitors such as nerve agents. This innovative carrier was in the form of spherical pellets containing different amounts of Neusilin. Neusilin is a synthetic and amorphous form of magnesium aluminometasilicate with a high specific surface area, and the immobilized enzyme butyrylcholinesterase with an activity of 50nkat·g(-1). Pellets were prepared by the extrusion-spheronization method and dried in a hot air oven under two conditions - at 30°C for 72h and at 60°C for 24h...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917913/microparticle-embedded-fibroin-alginate-beads-for-prolonged-local-release-of-simvastatin-hydroxyacid-to-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
F Ungaro, O Catanzano, I d'Angelo, L Diaz-Gomez, A Concheiro, A Miro, C Alvarez-Lorenzo, F Quaglia
In the present work, we propose silk fibroin/alginate (SF/Alg) beads embedding simvastatin-loaded biodegradable microparticles as a versatile platform capable of tuning SVA release and in so doing osteogenic effects. In a first part of the study, microparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid incorporating simvastatin either as lactone (SVL) or as hydroxyacid form (SVA) were prepared by spray-drying. While SVA-loaded microparticles released the drug in three days, long-term release of SVA could be obtained from SVL-loaded microparticles...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917907/microencapsulation-of-eugenia-uniflora-l-juice-by-spray-drying-using-fructans-with-different-degrees-of-polymerisation
#3
R I Ortiz-Basurto, M E Rubio-Ibarra, J A Ragazzo-Sanchez, C I Beristain, M Jiménez-Fernández
The objective of this work was to microencapsulate pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) juice by spray drying, using High Performance Agave Fructans (HPAF) and High Degree of Polymerisation Agave Fructans (HDPAF) and maltodextrin (MD), respectively, as the wall materials. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the capsules during storage at various temperatures were evaluated. The microparticles developed using fructans HPAF and HDPAF, exhibited similar physicochemical and flow properties to those presented by the microparticles prepared with MD...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917880/intercalated-chitosan-hydroxyapatite-nanocomposites-promising-materials-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#4
Muhammad Anwaar Nazeer, Emel Yilgör, Iskender Yilgör
Preparation and characterization of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (CS/HA) nanocomposites displaying an intercalated structure is reported. Hydroxyapatite was synthesized through sol-gel process. Formic acid was introduced as a new solvent to obtain stable dispersions of nano-sized HA particles in polymer solution. CS/HA dispersions with HA contents of 5, 10 and 20% by weight were prepared. Self-assembling of HA nanoparticles during the drying of the solvent cast films led to the formation of homogeneous CS/HA nanocomposites...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917867/nanocrystalline-cellulose-isolated-from-discarded-cigarette-filters
#5
Segun A Ogundare, Vashen Moodley, Werner E van Zyl
We report the isolation of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) produced from discarded cigarette filters (DCF). The DCF were processed into cellulose via ethanolic extraction, hypochlorite bleaching, alkaline deacetylation, and then converted into NCC by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The morphological structures of the isolated NCC established with TEM showed that the nanocrystals were needle-like with a mean length of 143nm. FEGSEM showed the morphological transition of the micro-sized DCF to self-assembled NCC while EDX revealed the presence of Ti (as TiO2) in DCF, which was retained in the NCC...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917762/full-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-non-mineralized-dental-biofilm-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-application-to-postmortem-samples
#6
Kerstin Henkel, Markus J Altenburger, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Alternative matrices play a major role in postmortem forensic toxicology, especially if common matrices (like body fluids or hair) are not available. Incorporation of illicit and medicinal drugs into non-mineralized dental biofilm (plaque) seems likely but has not been investigated so far. Analysis of plaque could therefore extend the spectrum of potentially used matrices in postmortem toxicology. For this reason, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the extraction, determination and quantification of ten drugs of abuse from plaque using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916963/effects-of-different-irrigation-practices-using-treated-wastewater-on-tomato-yields-quality-water-productivity-and-soil-and-fruit-mineral-contents
#7
Azize Dogan Demir, Ustun Sahin
Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916460/the-effect-of-viroid-infection-of-citrus-trees-on-the-amoebicidal-activity-of-maltese-half-blood-citrus-sinensis-against-trophozoite-stage-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff
#8
Ghaya Zouaghi, Asma Najar, Olfa Chiboub, Ines Sifaoui, Manef Abderrabba, Jacob Lorenzo Morales
In order to promote a local Tunisian product, this study was designed to examine, for the first time, the anti-Acanthamoeba activity (Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff) of the essential oils of Tunisian Citrus sinensis peels (Maltese half-blood) and the effect of viroid plant infection on this activity. To do so, three samples of peels' essential oils were studied: from a healthy plant (Control), a plant inoculated with Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and one inoculated with hot stunt cachexia viroid (HSVd). The samples were extracted by hydrodistillation from dried peels and characterized by GC-MS...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916302/high-pressure-tolerance-of-earthworm-fibrinolytic-and-digestive-enzymes
#9
Shin-Ichi Akazawa, Haruka Tokuyama, Shunsuke Sato, Toshinori Watanabe, Yosuke Shida, Wataru Ogasawara
Earthworms contain several digestive and therapeutic enzymes that are beneficial to our health and useful for biomass utilization. Specifically, earthworms contain potent fibrinolytic enzymes called lumbrokinases, which are highly stable even at room temperature and remain active in dried earthworm powder. However, the high-temperature sterilization method leads to the inactivation of enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high-pressure treatment (HPT) (from 0.1 MPa to 500 MPa at 25°C and 50°C) on the enzymatic activity of lumbrokinase (LK), α-amylase (AMY), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), and lipase (LP) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Waki strain, and its sterilization ability in producing dietary supplement...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916042/urinary-intermediates-of-tryptophan-as-indicators-of-the-gut-microbial-metabolism
#10
Tereza Pavlova, Veronika Vidova, Julie Bienertova-Vasku, Petr Janku, Martina Almasi, Jana Klanova, Zdenek Spacil
While over 10% of the human metabolome is directly associated with the gut microbial metabolism, specific metabolites are largely uncharacterized. Therefore, methods for the identification and quantification of microbiota-associated metabolites in biological fluids such as urine or plasma are necessary in order to elucidate the molecular basis of host-microbiota interaction. In this study, we focused on the tryptophan metabolism, employing quantitative assays by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry, specifically selected reaction monitoring (SRM)...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915420/determination-of-eight-quinolones-in-milk-using-immunoaffinity-microextraction-in-a-packed-syringe-and-liquid-chromatography-with-fluorescence-detection
#11
Xinda Zhang, Cuicui Wang, Linyan Yang, Wei Zhang, Jing Lin, Cun Li
We have established a new, highly selective, and sensitive method for the determination of eight quinolones (QNs) in milk: danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, fleroxacin, and ciprofloxacin. The method uses immunoaffinity microextraction in a packed syringe and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (IA-MEPS-LC-FLD). Traditionally, QN residues are determined by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) sample preparation techniques; however, these methods are time-consuming and require large quantities of organic solvents...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915261/simultaneous-determination-of-3-hydroxypropionic-acid-methylmalonic-acid-and-methylcitric-acid-in-dried-blood-spots-second-tier-lc-ms-ms-assay-for-newborn-screening-of-propionic-acidemia-methylmalonic-acidemias-and-combined-remethylation-disorders
#12
Péter Monostori, Glynis Klinke, Sylvia Richter, Ákos Baráth, Ralph Fingerhut, Matthias R Baumgartner, Stefan Kölker, Georg F Hoffmann, Gwendolyn Gramer, Jürgen G Okun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA), methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL). This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS) as in primary screening (second-tier test)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914489/responses-of-microbial-decomposers-to-drought-in-streams-may-depend-on-the-environmental-context
#13
Sofia Duarte, Juanita Mora-Gómez, Anna M Romaní, Fernanda Cássio, Cláudia Pascoal
A consequence of drought in streams is the emersion of decomposing leaf litter, which may alter organic matter recycling. We assessed the effects of emersion on decomposition of black poplar leaves and associated microbes (microbial biomass, extracellular enzyme activities and microbial diversity) in two streams with distinct characteristics, in particular nutrients, temperature and oxygen levels. Leaf decomposition rates, fungal biomass and extracellular enzyme activities were lower in the most impacted stream (high nutrients and temperature, low oxygen)...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914410/c21-steroid-derivatives-from-the-dai-herbal-medicine-dai-bai-jie-the-dried-roots-of-marsdenia-tenacissima-and-their-screening-for-anti-hiv-activity
#14
Xu Pang, Li-Ping Kang, Xiao-Mei Fang, He-Shui Yu, Li-Feng Han, Yang Zhao, Li-Xia Zhang, Li-Yan Yu, Bai-Ping Ma
Twenty-three new C21 steroidal glycosides, marstenacissides C1-C10 (1-10), D1-D7 (11-17) and E1-E6 (18-23), and four new C21 steroids, 11α,12β-O-ditigloyl-tenacigenin C (24), 11α-O-benzoyl-12β-O-tigloyl-tenacigenin C (25), 11α-O-tigloyl-12β-O-benzoyl-tenacigenin C (26) and 11α-O-tigloyl-12β-O-benzoyl-marsdenin (27), were isolated from the Dai herbal medicine Dai-Bai-Jie, derived from the roots of Marsdenia tenacissima. The chemical structures of all compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques, including high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, as well as by comparison with reported spectral data...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914075/the-temperature-of-storage-of-a-batch-of-wheat-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-samples-on-their-nutritive-value-for-broilers
#15
I Whiting, V Pirgozliev, S P Rose, F Karadas, M W Mirza, A Sharpe
1. A batch of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) was obtained immediately after production and was separated into 5 equal parts and placed in woven polypropylene sacks. The samples were stored under 5 different temperature conditions for one year as follows: kept at a constant -20ºC; kept at -20ºC for 24 h period and after that kept at a constant +4ºC; kept at a constant +4ºC only; kept at a constant +15ºC; stored at ambient temperature (range of weekly mean temperatures was from +4 to +22ºC)...
September 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912965/medically-important-parasites-carried-by-cockroaches-in-melong-subdivision-littoral-cameroon
#16
R J Atiokeng Tatang, H G Tsila, J Wabo Poné
Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females) were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%), Trichuris (11.97%), Capillaria (6.16%), Toxocara (4...
2017: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912875/inhibitory-effect-of-burdock-leaves-on-elastase-and-tyrosinase-activity
#17
Chi-Ting Horng, Hsing-Chen Wu, Ni-Na Chiang, Chiu-Fang Lee, Yu-Syuan Huang, Hui-Yun Wang, Jai-Sing Yang, Fu-An Chen
Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaves generate a considerable amount of waste following burdock root harvest in Taiwan. To increase the use of burdock leaves, the present study investigated the optimal methods for producing burdock leaf extract (BLE) with high antioxidant polyphenolic content, including drying methods and solvent extraction concentration. In addition, the elastase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of BLE was examined. Burdock leaves were dried by four methods: Shadow drying, oven drying, sun drying and freeze-drying...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912796/a-low-cost-imaging-method-for-the-temporal-and-spatial-colorimetric-detection-of-free-amines-on-maize-root-surfaces
#18
Truc H Doan, Tu A Doan, Michael J Kangas, AdreAnna E Ernest, Danny Tran, Christina L Wilson, Andrea E Holmes, Erin L Doyle, Tessa L Durham Brooks
Plant root exudates are important mediators in the interactions that occur between plants and microorganisms in the soil, yet much remains to be learned about spatial and temporal variation in their production. This work outlines a method utilizing a novel colorimetric paper to detect spatial and temporal changes in the production of nitrogen-containing compounds on the root surface. While existing methods have made it possible to conduct detailed analysis of root exudate composition, relatively less is known about where in the root system exudates are produced and how this localization changes as the root grows...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912714/anti-inflammatory-and-analgesic-effects-of-polygonum-orientale-l-extracts
#19
Kai-Jun Gou, Rui Zeng, Yan Dong, Qi-Qi Hu, Huang-Wan-Yin Hu, Katherine G Maffucci, Qi-Ling Dou, Qing-Bo Yang, Xu-Hua Qin, Yan Qu
Background and Purpose:Polygonum orientale L. (family: Polygonaceae), named Hongcao in China, is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal and has long been used for rheumatic arthralgia and rheumatoid arthritis. However, no pharmacological and mechanism study to confirm these clinic effects have been published. In this investigation, the anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects and representative active ingredient compounds of P. orientale have been studied. Methods: Dried small pieces of the stems and leaves of P. orientale were decocted with water and partitioned successively to obtain ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extract of P...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911615/investigation-of-aluminum-content-of-imported-candies-and-snack-foods-in-taiwan
#20
Tai Sheng Yeh, Yeng-Ting Liu, Pei-Jyun Liou, Hong-Ping Li, Ching-Chuan Chen
Candies, chewing gums, dried fruits, jellies, chocolate, and shredded squid pieces imported from 17 countries were surveyed for their aluminum content. The samples were bought from candy shops, supermarkets, and convenience stores, and through online shopping. Sample selection focused on imported candies and snacks. A total of 67 samples, including five chewing gums, seven dried fruits, 13 chocolates, two jellies, two dried squid pieces, and 38 candies, were analyzed. The content of aluminum was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES)...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
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