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Laurence Britton, Lesley-Anne Jaskowski, Kim Bridle, Eriza Secondes, Daniel Wallace, Nishreen Santrampurwala, Janske Reiling, Gregory Miller, Salvatore Mangiafico, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, V Nathan Subramaniam, Darrell Crawford
Background & Aims: Iron has an increasingly recognized role in the regulation of adipose tissue function, including the expression of adipokines involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, has been proposed as being a key determinant of adipocyte iron homeostasis. Methods: We studied an adipocyte-specific ferroportin ( Fpn1 ) knockout mouse model, using an Adipoq -Cre recombinase driven Fpn1 deletion and fed mice according to the fast food diet model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Marilena Aiello, Elisabetta Ambron, Roberta Situlin, Francesco Foroni, Gianni Biolo, Raffaella I Rumiati
Impulsivity, conceptualized as impulsive personality trait, poor inhibitory control and enhanced reward sensitivity, has been strongly linked to obesity. In particular, a disequilibrium between cognitive control and reward sensitivity has been observed in obese individuals in both behavioural and imaging studies. While this issue has been widely investigated in children and adults, it has received little attention in older adults. Here, obese and non-obese participants aged between 40 and 70 years completed the Barratt Impulsiveness scale (assessing motor, non-planning and attentional impulsiveness), a Go/no-go task with foods and non-foods (assessing inhibitory control) and a reward sensitivity battery with high and low caloric foods (assessing liking, wanting, tastiness and frequency of consumption)...
March 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Leah J Mische, Ellen M Mowry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive...
March 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Noushin Mohammadifard, Awat Feizi, Sayyed Morteza Safavi
PURPOSE: There are epidemiologic studies indicating a positive correlation between high sodium and low potassium intake and body mass index. Therefore, this study was conducted in a cross-sectional sample of Iranian children and adolescents to evaluate the link between 24-h urinary Na:K ratio and risk of obesity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 374 participants aged 11-18 years were included. One 24-h urine sample was collected by each participant to estimate Na:K ratio...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Chaofan Zhang, Kwong Yuen Chiu, Boris Pok Man Chan, Teng Li, Chunyi Wen, Aimin Xu, Chun Hoi Yan
OBJECTIVES: Adipokines play roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a novel adipokine that is closely associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to discover the potential role of FABP4 in OA. METHODS: Seventy-two FABP4 knockout mice (KO) in C57BL/6N background and wild-type littermates (WT) (male, 6-week-old) were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% calorie) or standard diet (STD, 11...
March 13, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Diane L Rosenbaum, Jocelyn E Remmert, Evan M Forman, Meghan L Butryn
OBJECTIVES: Parenthood is a time marked by behaviors that may promote risk for weight gain, including decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating. Little is known about parents in the context of behavioral weight loss, such as whether they differ in weight losses, and related barriers, or behaviors. METHOD: We compared parents of children aged 18 and younger (n = 105) to other participants who did not have children, or whose children were in adulthood (n = 215) in a behavioral weight loss program to evaluate six-month weight losses, and weight loss barriers and behaviors...
March 1, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Danika Martyn, Maryse Darch, Ashley Roberts, Han Youl Lee, Tina Yaqiong Tian, Naoko Kaburagi, Pablo Belmar
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides-globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Yu-Ri Kang, Hwang-Yong Choi, Jung-Yun Lee, Soo In Jang, Hanna Kang, Jung-Bae Oh, Hae-Dong Jang, Young-In Kwon
Onion ( Allium cepa L.) is widely consumed as food or medicinal plant due to its well-defined health benefits. The antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of onion and its extracts have been reported well. However, very limited information on anti-hyperglycemic effect is available in processed onion extracts. In our previous study, we reported that Amadori rearrangement compounds (ARCs) produced by heat-processing in Korean ginseng can reduce carbohydrate absorption by inhibiting intestinal carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in both in vitro and in vivo animal models...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anne Munck, Rym Boulkedid, Laurence Weiss, Pierre Foucaud, Nathalie Wizla-Derambure, Philippe Reix, François Bremont, Jocelyne Derelle, Julien Schroedt, Corinne Alberti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutritional status and associated factors in a cystic fibrosis (CF) cohort diagnosed by newborn screening and followed up to month 24. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal multicenter study assessing nutritional status according to pancreatic status, feeding modalities, prescriptions, pulmonary outcome and biological nutritional parameters. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-five infants were recruited and 99 completed the study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jenifer E Clapp, Sarah A Niederman, Elizabeth Leonard, Christine J Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 60% of the American diet comes from processed foods, which makes improving their nutritional quality important for Americans' health. The objective of this study was to measure changes in serving sizes, calories, and sodium in top-selling processed foods that were on the market in 2009 and 2015. METHODS: We analyzed products in the top 80% of sales in the 54 processed food categories with consistent serving sizes and sales metrics that were on the market in both 2009 and 2015...
March 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Mads Rosenkilde, Lisbeth Rygaard, Pernille Nordby, Lars Bo Nielsen, Bente Stallknecht
Exercise training and weight loss both reduce cardiovascular risk, but the independent importance of the two strategies is unclear. We aimed to investigate independent and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on lipoproteins and dyslipidemia in overweight sedentary men. Sixty individuals were randomized to 12 weeks of endurance training (T), energy-reduced diet (D), training and energy increased diet (T-iD), or control (C). Equal energetic deficits (-600 kcal/day) were prescribed by exercise for T and caloric restriction for D...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Lotte F van Dillen, Henk van Steenbergen
The present research examined whether cognitive load modulates the neural processing of appetitive, high-calorie food stimuli. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants quickly categorized high-calorie and low-calorie food pictures versus object pictures as edible or inedible while they concurrently performed a digit-span task that varied between low and high cognitive load (memorizing six digits vs. one digit). In line with predictions, the digit-span task engaged the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when cognitive load was high compared to low...
March 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Adam H Lewis, Ankur Chugh, Sarah A Sobotka
A 7-year-old girl with 20q13.33 deletion and a history of generalized convulsive epilepsy presented to the Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic due to concerns about her behavioral outbursts in the context of overall delayed development. Evaluation by the Developmental and Behavioral and Gastroenterology teams revealed failure to thrive (FTT) as the primary cause of the behavioral outbursts and developed a high-calorie, high-fat, high-protein nutritional counseling plan. Children who have FTT and a genetic disorder are often thought to not thrive because of their underlying genetic disorder; however, feeding skills and nutritional intake need to be thoroughly investigated before determining an etiology for FTT...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Sanjay Kalra, Jubbin Jacob, Manash P Baruah
Salutogenesis is an accepted approach for chronic disease management. Calorie restriction and exercise are two evidence based salutogenic interventions in diabetes treatment. Calorie restriction mimetics and exercise mimetics may be used as pharmacological tools to help manage diabetes in a sulutogenic manner. This article discusses the biochemical basis and pharmacology of metformin and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. It describes how a combination of these drugs can be used as a calories restriction and exercise mimetic, to help improve diabetes control...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shuyi Wang, Cong Wang, Subat Turdi, Kacy L Richmond, Yingmei Zhang, Jun Ren
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Uncorrected obesity contributes to cardiac remodeling and contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme with some promises in a number of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of ALDH2 on cardiac remodeling and contractile property in high fat diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and ALDH2 transgenic mice were fed low (10% calorie from fat) or high (45% calorie from fat) fat diet for 5 months prior to the assessment of cardiac geometry and function using echocardiography, IonOptix system, Lectin, and Masson Trichrome staining...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Franziska Grundmann, Roman-Ulrich Müller, Annika Reppenhorst, Lennart Hülswitt, Martin R Späth, Torsten Kubacki, Maximilian Scherner, Michael Faust, Ingrid Becker, Thorsten Wahlers, Bernhard Schermer, Thomas Benzing, Volker Burst
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. Although short-term calorie restriction (CR) has proven protective in rodent models of acute kidney injury, similar effects have not yet been demonstrated in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: CR_KCH (Effect of a Preoperative Calorie Restriction on Renal Function After Cardiac Surgery) is a randomized controlled trial in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jane Feinmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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