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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090343/amylin-leptin-synergy-is-absent-in-extreme-obesity-and-not-restored-by-calorie-restriction-induced-weight-loss-in-rats
#1
J L Trevaskis, C Wittmer, J Athanacio, P S Griffin, D G Parkes, J D Roth
OBJECTIVE: Co-administration of amylin and leptin induces synergistic and clinically meaningful (>10%) weight loss that is attenuated as the degree of obesity increases. We explored whether calorie restriction (CR) could restore amylin/leptin synergy in very obese rats. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats on high-fat diet (696 ± 8 g, n = 72) were randomized to three cohorts (C1-C3). Rats in C1 were administered vehicle, rat amylin (50 µg kg(-1) d(-1)), murine leptin (125 µg kg(-1) d(-1)) or amylin and leptin for 28 days (n = 6 per group) via subcutaneous minipump...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090338/executive-functions-predict-weight-loss-in-a-medically-supervised-weight-loss-programme
#2
R Galioto, D Bond, J Gunstad, V Pera, L Rathier, G Tremont
BACKGROUND: Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. METHODS: Twenty-three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089130/trends-in-nutrient-content-of-children-s-menu-items-in-u-s-chain-restaurants
#3
Alyssa J Moran, Jason P Block, Simo G Goshev, Sara N Bleich, Christina A Roberto
INTRODUCTION: Restaurant food is widely consumed by children and is associated with poor diet quality. Although many restaurants have made voluntary commitments to improve the nutritional quality of children's menus, it is unclear whether this has led to meaningful changes. METHODS: Nutrients in children's menu items (n=4,016) from 45 chain restaurants were extracted from the nutrition information database MenuStat. Bootstrapped mixed linear models estimated changes in mean calories, saturated fat, and sodium in children's menu items between 2012 and 2013, 2014, and 2015...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089080/salba-chia-salvia-hispanica-l-in-the-treatment-of-overweight-and-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
V Vuksan, A L Jenkins, C Brissette, L Choleva, E Jovanovski, A L Gibbs, R P Bazinet, F Au-Yeung, A Zurbau, H V T Ho, L Duvnjak, J L Sievenpiper, R G Josse, A Hanna
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Preliminary findings indicate that consumption of Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.), an ancient seed, improves management of type 2 diabetes and suppresses appetite. The aim of this study was to assesse the effect of Salba-chia on body weight, visceral obesity and obesity-related risk factors in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel groups involved 77 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c: 6...
December 9, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087862/is-the-rx-to-blame-for-the-patient-s-weight-gain
#5
EDITORIAL
John Hickner
Avoid prescribing medications that can cause weight gain in overweight and obese patients when possible, use the lowest effective dose when such agents are necessary, and warn patients of this adverse effect so that they can take precautions, such as walking an extra mile a day or giving up that high-calorie latte in the morning.
November 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087414/consumption-of-low-calorie-sweeteners-among-children-and-adults-in-the-united-states
#6
Allison C Sylvetsky, Yichen Jin, Elena J Clark, Jean A Welsh, Kristina I Rother, Sameera A Talegawkar
BACKGROUND: Consumption of low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) has increased markedly during the past several decades, yet the prevalence of LCS consumption in recent years is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe LCS consumption in the United States and to characterize consumption by sociodemographic subgroups, source, frequency, eating occasion, and location. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2009 to 2012...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086850/the-prevalence-trend-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-and-risk-factors-in-korean-adults-results-from-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2013
#7
Binh Thang Tran, Bo Yoon Jeong, Jin-Kyoung Oh
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the clinical markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. MS prevalence in Korea increased between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s; however, no data on the recent trends of MS prevalence are available. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MS, the five components of MS, and the related risk factors in Korean adults by using recent data. METHODS: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 were used...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080990/food-system-consequences-of-a-fungal-disease-epidemic-in-a-major-crop
#8
H Charles J Godfray, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Sherman Robinson
Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078576/feeding-problems-and-nutrient-intake-in-children-with-and-without-autism-a-comparative-study
#9
Prahbhjot Malhi, Lolam Venkatesh, Bhavneet Bharti, Pratibha Singhi
OBJECTIVE: To compare parent reported feeding difficulties and nutritional adequacy of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to an age and socio-economically matched group of typically developing children. METHODS: The scores on Children's Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI), three-day food records, anthropometric measures and adequacy of micro- and macro- nutrients were compared for 63 children diagnosed with ASD and 50 typically developing children enrolled from the department of pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital from North India...
January 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077307/impulsivity-and-test-meal-intake-among-women-with-bulimia-nervosa
#10
Robyn Sysko, Rachel Ojserkis, Janet Schebendach, Suzette M Evans, Tom Hildebrandt, B Timothy Walsh
Many patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) also meet criteria for a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD). In order to understand possible mechanisms contributing to the co-occurrence and perpetuation of these disorders, this study investigated the importance of impulsivity and test meal intake among patients with BN by comparing women with BN only (n = 18), BN and current/past AUDs (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 12). All participants completed assessments of eating disorder symptoms, frequency of alcohol use, binge eating, and purging via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews over two sessions...
January 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076259/almond-appetizer-effect-on-glucose-tolerance-test-gtt-results
#11
Michael A Crouch, Robert T Slater
BACKGROUND: The extent to which glucose intolerance can be acutely improved with dietary modification is unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ingesting a low-calorie almond preload ("appetizer") 30 minutes before oral glucose tolerance testing in glucose-intolerant individuals without diabetes. METHODS: Twenty adults with prediabetes or isolated 1-hour glucose ≥160 mg/dL underwent 2 fasting oral glucose tolerance tests (GTTs)-1 standard GTT and 1 GTT 30 minutes after eating a half ounce (12) of dry-roasted almonds...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075492/a-thematic-content-analysis-of-cheatmeal-images-on-social-media-characterizing-an-emerging-dietary-trend
#12
Eva Pila, Jonathan M Mond, Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Stuart B Murray
Despite the pervasive social endorsement of "cheat meals" within pro-muscularity online communities, there is an absence of empirical work examining this dietary phenomenon. The present study aimed to characterize cheat meals, and explore the meaning ascribed to engagement in this practice. Thematic content analysis was employed to code the photographic and textual elements of a sample (n = 600) that was extracted from over 1.6 million images marked with the #cheatmeal tag on the social networking site, Instagram...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074747/liraglutide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonist-for-chronic-weight-management
#13
Kendra R Manigault, Maria Miller Thurston
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight loss. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE from 2000 to 2016. The following key terms were used alone or in combination: glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, liraglutide, obesity, overweight, and weight loss. Additional supporting literature was identified utilizing the reference lists of the preceding articles. STUDY SELECTION: Analyzed studies were published in English and investigated use of liraglutide and its impact on weight loss...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073315/metabolically-active-3-dimensional-brown-adipose-tissue-engineered-from-white-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#14
Jessica P Yang, Amy Elizabeth Anderson, Annemarie McCartney, Xavier Ory, Garret Ma, Elisa Pappalardo, Joel Bader, Jennifer Elisseeff
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a unique capacity to expend calories by decoupling energy expenditure from ATP production, therefore BAT could realize therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated markers and function of native BAT, however, successful therapies will rely on methods that supplement the small existing pool of brown adipocytes in adult humans. In this study, we engineered BAT from both human and rat adipose precursors and determined whether these ex vivo constructs could mimic in vivo tissue form and metabolic function...
January 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072447/randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-standard-diet-with-perioperative-oral-immunonutrition-in-total-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer
#15
S Ida, N Hiki, H Cho, K Sakamaki, S Ito, K Fujitani, N Takiguchi, Y Kawashima, K Nishikawa, M Sasako, T Aoyama, M Honda, T Sato, S Nunobe, T Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Total gastrectomy for gastric cancer is associated with excessive weight loss and decreased calorie intake. Nutritional support using eicosapentaenoic acid modulates immune function and limits catabolism in patients with advanced cancer, but its impact in the perioperative period is unclear. METHODS: This was a randomized phase III clinical trial of addition of eicosapentaenoic acid-rich nutrition to a standard diet in patients having total gastrectomy for gastric cancer...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072397/agrp-neuron-activity-is-required-for-alcohol-induced-overeating
#16
Sarah Cains, Craig Blomeley, Mihaly Kollo, Romeo Rácz, Denis Burdakov
Alcohol intake associates with overeating in humans. This overeating is a clinical concern, but its causes are puzzling, because alcohol (ethanol) is a calorie-dense nutrient, and calorie intake usually suppresses brain appetite signals. The biological factors necessary for ethanol-induced overeating remain unclear, and societal causes have been proposed. Here we show that core elements of the brain's feeding circuits-the hypothalamic Agrp neurons that are normally activated by starvation and evoke intense hunger-display electrical and biochemical hyperactivity on exposure to dietary doses of ethanol in brain slices...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071030/the-effect-of-replacing-pork-fat-of-inulin-on-the-physicochemical-and-sensory-quality-of-guinea-fowl-pate
#17
Agnieszka Latoch, Paweł Glibowski, Justyna Libera
BACKGROUND: Potentially, pâtés could be a functional food and are an important source of proteins, vitamin A, B complex vitamins and iron. Unfortunately, one problem in pâtés is the high level of animal fat, about 30%. Pâté with low-fat guinea fowl meat and animal fat replaced with inulin can result in this product being classified as a pro-health food. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect on pâté with guinea fowl meat of reducing its pork back fat content (about 1/3, 2/3 and 100%) and the adding inulin as a partial fat substitute...
July 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071023/effect-of-food-processing-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-dietary-fibre
#18
Vasfiye Hazal Ozyurt, Semih Ötles
Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fibre. Diets high in dietary fibre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre...
July 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071011/the-effects-of-a-low-calorie-diet-or-an-isocaloric-diet-combined-with-metformin-on-sex-hormones-in-obese-women-of-child-bearing-age
#19
Ewelina Swora-Cwynar, Magdalena Kujawska-Łuczak, Joanna Suliburska, Julita Reguła, Angelika Kargulewicz, Matylda Kręgielska-Narożna, Emilia Marcinkowska, Alina Kanikowska, Marzena Bielas, Marian Grzymisławski, Paweł Bogdański
BACKGROUND: The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. METHODS: 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years) were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC) and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM), for 12 weeks...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071006/sensory-qualities-of-pastry-products-enriched-with-dietary-fiber-and-polyphenolic-substances
#20
Patrycja Komolka, Danuta Górecka, Krystyna Szymandera-Buszka, Anna Jędrusek-Golińska, Krzysztof Dziedzic, Katarzyna Waszkowiak
BACKGROUND: Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. METHODS: The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
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