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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031206/inhibitory-effect-of-triperygium-wilfordii-polyglucoside-on-dipeptidyl-peptidase-i-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#1
Jingjing Wang, Yi Chu, Xiaoying Zhou
BACKGROUD: Dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI), a lysosomal cysteine protease is derived from granule immune cells including mast cell, neutrophils, and toxicity T cells. DPPI can activate serine proteases by removal of dipeptides from N-termini of the pro-proteases, resulting in granule immune cells activation which involved in physiological or pathological responses. Triperygium Wilfordii Polyglucoside (TWP) is one of the traditional Chinese medicines, and commonly used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031195/ginsenoside-rg3-attenuates-cisplatin-resistance-in-lung-cancer-by-downregulating-pd-l1-and-resuming-immune
#2
Zhansheng Jiang, Yanfang Yang, Yinli Yang, Yu Zhang, Zhensong Yue, Zhanyu Pan, Xiubao Ren
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) as one the most important immune checkpoint was verified to involve in chemotherapy resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Ginsenoside Rg3 is isolated from Chinese herb-Panax ginseng which is recognized to boost immune and has anti-cancer activity against a majority of carcinomas including NSCLC. In this study, we aim to identify whether Rg3 could attenuate the PD-L1 expression induced by resistance to cisplatin and draw out the underlying mechanisms of PD-L1 in this process...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031145/small-molecule-mediated-upregulation-of-ccr7-ameliorates-murine-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-accelerating-t-cell-homing
#3
Xin Li, Tingting Lu, Wenwen Xue, Yixuan Wang, Qiong Luo, Huiming Ge, Renxiang Tan, Yan Shen, Qiang Xu
Impairing the infiltration of immune cells into the CNS is a promising target for suppressing the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we found that oral administration of a synthetic small molecular compound Fc24 showed potential preventive effects on the development of EAE, including the reduction in EAE severity and a delay in the onset of the disease. Fc24 facilitated the accumulation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells within spleen and lymph nodes, while having no effect on MOG-specific T cell responses...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031088/probing-the-correlation-of-neuronal-loss-neurofibrillary-tangles-and-cell-death-markers-across-the-alzheimer-s-disease-braak-stages-a-quantitative-study-in-humans
#4
Panos Theofilas, Alexander J Ehrenberg, Austin Nguy, Julia M Thackrey, Sara Dunlop, Maria B Mejia, Ana T Alho, Renata Elaine Paraizo Leite, Roberta Diehl Rodriguez, Claudia K Suemoto, Camila F Nascimento, Marcus Chin, Daniel Medina-Cleghorn, Ana Maria Cuervo, Michelle Arkin, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Ricardo Nitrini, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Wilson Jacob Filho, Udo Rueb, John Neuhaus, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg
Clarifying the mechanisms connecting neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) neurotoxicity to neuronal dysfunction in humans is likely to be pivotal for developing effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To model the temporal progression of AD in humans, we used a collection of brains with controls and individuals from each Braak stage to quantitatively investigate the correlation between intraneuronal caspase activation or macroautophagy markers, NFT burden, and neuronal loss, in the dorsal raphe nucleus and locus coeruleus, the earliest vulnerable areas to NFT accumulation...
September 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031078/structural-design-synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-thiazoles-against-trypanosoma-cruzi
#5
Gevanio Bezerra de Oliveira Filho, Marcos Veríssimo de Oliveira Cardoso, José Wanderlan Pontes Espíndola, Dayane Albuquerque Oliveira E Silva, Rafaela Salgado Ferreira, Pollyanne Lacerda Coelho, Pâmela Silva Dos Anjos, Emanuelle de Souza Santos, Cássio Santana Meira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes Moreira, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares, Ana Cristina Lima Leite
Chagas disease is one of the most significant health problems in the American continent. benznidazole (BDZ) and nifurtimox (NFX) are the only drugs approved for treatment and exhibit strong side effects and ineffectiveness in the chronic stage, besides different susceptibility among T. cruzi DTUs (Discrete Typing Units). Therefore, new drugs to treat this disease are necessary. Thiazole compounds have been described as potent trypanocidal agents. Here we report the structural planning, synthesis and anti-T...
September 22, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031069/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-platinum-ii-c-rgdyk-conjugate-for-integrin-targeted-photodynamic-therapy
#6
T Chatzisideri, S Thysiadis, S Katsamakas, P Dalezis, I Sigala, T Lazarides, E Nikolakaki, D Trafalis, O A Gederaas, M Lindgren, V Sarli
A cancer-targeting conjugate 4 of a cyclometalated [N,C,N-Pt(II)] complex bearing a NˆCˆN 1,3-di(2-pyridyl)-benzene with c(RGDyK) peptide as guiding molecule was designed and synthesized for real-time drug delivery monitoring in cancer cells and photodynamic therapy (PDT). This conjugate demonstrates a mild cytostatic effect to six cancer cell lines expressing integrins at different extent, while possessing promising features for PDT. Conjugate 4 demonstrated rapid cell uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis and efficient generation of (1)O2 upon irradiation...
September 28, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031042/humoral-and-cellular-immune-response-of-mice-challenged-with-yersinia-pestis-antigenic-preparations
#7
Elida A Leal, Josimar D Moreira, Fernanda F Nunes, Larissa R Souza, Janaina M Martins, Vicente P C Toledo, Alzira M P Almeida, Tania M P Guimarães
OBJECTIVES: The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response...
October 11, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031033/an-arabidopsis-divergent-pumilio-protein-apum24-is-essential-for-embryogenesis-and-required-for-faithful-pre-rrna-processing
#8
Thiruvenkadam Shanmugam, Nazia Abbasi, Hyung-Sae Kim, Ho Bang Kim, Nam-Il Park, Guen Tae Park, Sung Aeong Oh, Soon Ki Park, Douglas G Muench, Yeonhee Choi, Youn-Il Park, Sang-Bong Choi
Pumilio RNA-binding proteins are largely involved in mRNA degradation and translation repression. However, a few evolutionarily divergent Pumilios are also responsible for proper pre-rRNA processing in human and yeast. Here, we describe an essential Arabidopsis nucleolar Pumilio, APUM24, that is expressed in tissues undergoing rapid proliferation and cell division. A T-DNA insertion for APUM24 did not affect the male and female gametogenesis, but instead resulted in a negative female gametophytic effect on zygotic cell division immediately after fertilization...
October 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029332/identification-of-a-novel-subset-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-during-chronic-staphylococcal-infection-that-resembles-immature-eosinophils
#9
Oliver Goldmann, Andreas Beineke, Eva Medina
We have previously reported that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which are a heterogeneous population of immunosuppressive immature myeloid cells, expanded during chronic Staphylococcus aureus infection and promoted bacterial persistence by inhibiting effector T cells. Two major MDSC subsets including monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSC) and granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSC) have been described to date. Here, we identified a new subset of MDSC (Eo-MDSC) in S. aureus-infected mice that phenotypically resembles eosinophils...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029297/cytomegalovirus-specific-t-cell-transfer-for-refractory-cytomegalovirus-infection-after-haploidentical-stem-cell-transplantation-the-quantitative-and-qualitative-immune-recovery-for-cytomegalovirus
#10
Xu-Ying Pei, Xiang-Yu Zhao, Ying-Jun Chang, Jing Liu, Lan-Ping Xu, Yu Wang, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Wei Han, Yu-Hong Chen, Xiao-Jun Huang
Background: The efficiency and mechanisms of adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus (CMV)specific T cells for refractory CMV infection after haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) remain largely unknown. Methods: Thirty-two patients with refractory CMV infection who accepted treatment with adoptive CMV-specific T-cell infusion following haplo-SCT were prospectively enrolled. Another 32 patients with nonrefractory CMV infection after haplo-SCT were selected as control subjects...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029245/host-transcription-profile-in-nasal-epithelium-and-whole-blood-of-hospitalised-children-under-two-years-of-age-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#11
Lien Anh Ha Do, Johann Pellet, H Rogier van Doorn, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Huu Mai Khanh Nguyen, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Bertrand De Meulder, Charles Auffray, Jorrit-Jan Hofstra, Jeremy Farrar, Juliet E Bryant, Menno de Jong, Martin L Hibberd
Most insights into the cascade of immune events following acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been obtained from animal experiments or in vitro models. Here we investigated host gene expression profiles in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and whole blood samples during natural RSV and rhinovirus (hRV) infection (acute versus early recovery phase) in 83 hospitalised patients <2 years old with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). RSV infection induced strong and persistent innate immune responses including interferon signaling and pathways related to chemokine/cytokine signaling in both compartments...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029206/dissecting-hiv-virulence-heritability-of-setpoint-viral-load-cd4-t-cell-decline-and-per-parasite-pathogenicity
#12
Frederic Bertels, Alex Marzel, Gabriel Leventhal, Venelin Mitov, Jacques Fellay, Huldrych F Günthard, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Vincent Aubert, Manuel Battegay, Andri Rauch, Matthias Cavassini, Alexandra Calmy, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra U Scherrer, Viktor Müller, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Roger Kouyos, Roland R Regoes
Pathogen strains may differ in virulence because they attain different loads in their hosts, or because they induce different disease-causing mechanisms independent of their load. In evolutionary ecology, the latter is referred to as" per-parasite pathogenicity". Using viral load and CD4+ T cell measures from 2014 HIV-1 subtype B infected individuals enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if virulence - measured as the rate of decline of CD4+ T cells - and per-parasite pathogenicity are heritable from donor to recipient...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029200/lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-stimulation-has-selective-effects-on-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-perilesional-neurogenesis-after-cortical-ischemia-in-the-rodent-model
#13
Hugh H Chan, Jessica Cooperrider, Zhihong Chen, John T Gale, Kenneth B Baker, Connor A Wathen, Claire R Modic, Hyun-Joo Park, Andre G Machado
BACKGROUND: Chronic deep brain stimulation of the rodent lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) has been demonstrated to enhance motor recovery following cortical ischemia. This effect is concurrent with synaptogenesis and expression of long-term potentiation markers in the perilesional cerebral cortex. OBJECTIVE: To further investigate the cellular changes associated with chronic LCN stimulation in the ischemic rodent by examining neurogenesis along the cerebellothalamocortical pathway...
September 27, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029192/paracoccidioidomycosis-associated-with-a-heterozygous-stat4-mutation-and-impaired-ifn-%C3%AE-immunity
#14
Lena F Schimke, James Hibbard, Ruben Martinez-Barricarte, Taj Ali Khan, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Edgar Borges de Oliveira Junior, Tabata Takahashi França, Asif Iqbal, Guilherme Yamamoto, Christina Arslanian, Claudia Feriotti, Tania Alves da Costa, Jacinta Bustamante, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Jean-Laurent Casanova, José Alexandre Marzagao Barbuto, Mayana Zatz, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Vera Lucia Garcia Calich, Hans D Ochs, Troy R Torgerson, Otávio Cabral-Marques, Antonio Condino-Neto
Background: Mutations in genes affecting interferon (IFN)-γ immunity have contributed to understand the essential role of IFN-γ in the protection against intracellular pathogens. However, inborn errors in STAT4, which controls IL-12 responses, have not yet been reported. Objective: To determine the underlying genetic defect in a family with a history of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) disease. Methods: Genetic analysis was performed by whole-exome sequencing and sanger sequencing...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029171/effect-of-hiv-on-the-frequency-and-number-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-t-cells-in-blood-and-the-airways-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Rubina Bunjun, Catherine Riou, Andreia P Soares, Narjis Thawer, Tracey L Müller, Agano Kiravu, Zekarias Ginbot, Tolu Oni, Rene Goliath, Barbara Kalsdorf, Florian von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Willem Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers
HIV-1 infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). There is extensive depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ T cells in blood in early HIV infection, but little is known about responses in the lungs at this stage. Given that mucosal organs are a principal target for HIV-mediated CD4 destruction, we investigated M.tuberculosis-specific responses in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), in persons with latent TB infection and untreated HIV-1 co-infection with preserved CD4 counts...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029143/genome-wide-analysis-of-genetic-risk-factors-for-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-aboriginal-australians-provides-support-for-pathogenic-molecular-mimicry
#16
Lesley-Ann Gray, Heather A D'Antoine, Steven Y C Tong, Melita McKinnon, Dawn Bessarab, Ngaire Brown, Bo Reményi, Andrew Steer, Genevieve Syn, Jenefer M Blackwell, Michael Inouye, Jonathan R Carapetis
Background: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) following Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections is heritable and prevalent in Indigenous populations. Molecular mimicry between human and GAS proteins triggers pro-inflammatory cardiac valve-reactive T-cells. Methods: Genome-wide genetic analysis was undertaken in 1263 Aboriginal Australians (398 RHD cases; 865 controls). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Illumina HumanCoreExome BeadChips. Direct typing and imputation was used to fine-map the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029133/rapid-determination-of-ebolavirus-infectivity-in-clinical-samples-using-a-novel-reporter-cell-line
#17
Markus H Kainulainen, Stuart T Nichol, César G Albariño, Christina F Spiropoulou
Modern ebolavirus diagnostics rely primarily on qRT-PCR, a sensitive method to detect viral genetic material in the acute phase of the disease. However, qRT-PCR does not confirm presence of infectious virus, presenting limitations in patient and outbreak management. Attempts to isolate infectious virus rely on in vivo or basic cell culture approaches, which prohibit rapid results and screening. Here we present a novel reporter cell line capable of detecting live ebolaviruses. These cells permit sensitive large-scale screening and titration of infectious virus in experimental and clinical samples, independent of ebolavirus species and variant...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028973/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-newborn-mva85a-vaccination-and-selective-delayed-bacille-calmette-guerin-bcg-for-infants-of-hiv-infected-mothers-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Elisa Nemes, Anneke C Hesseling, Michele Tameris, Katya Mauff, Katrina Downing, Humphrey Mulenga, Penelope Rose, Marieke van der Zalm, Sharon Mbaba, Danelle Van As, Willem A Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Thomas J Scriba, Helen McShane, Mark Hatherill
Background: Vaccination of HIV-infected infants with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is contraindicated. HIV-exposed newborns need a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccination strategy that protects against TB early in life; and avoids the potential risk of BCG disease until after HIV infection has been excluded. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial compared newborn MVA85A prime vaccination (1 x10 8 PFU) vs. Candin® control, followed by selective deferred BCG vaccination at 8 weeks of age for HIV-uninfected infants, and 12 months follow-up for safety and immunogenicity...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028923/detecting-presence-of-mutational-signatures-in-cancer-with-confidence
#19
Xiaoqing Huang, Damian Wojtowicz, Teresa M Przytycka
Motivation: Cancers arise as the result of somatically acquired changes in the DNA of cancer cells. However, in addition to the mutations that confer a growth advantage, cancer genomes accumulate a large number of somatic mutations resulting from normal DNA damage and repair processes as well as carcinogenic exposures or cancer related aberrations of DNA maintenance machinery. These mutagenic processes often produce characteristic mutational patterns called mutational signatures. The decomposition of a cancer genome's mutation catalog into mutations consistent with such signatures can provide valuable information about cancer etiology...
September 22, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028876/systematic-comparative-study-of-computational-methods-for-t-cell-receptor-sequencing-data-analysis
#20
Saira Afzal, Irene Gil-Farina, Richard Gabriel, Shahzad Ahmad, Christof von Kalle, Manfred Schmidt, Raffaele Fronza
High-throughput sequencing technologies have exposed the possibilities for the in-depth evaluation of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. These studies are highly relevant to gain insights into human adaptive immunity and to decipher the composition and diversity of antigen receptors in physiological and disease conditions. The major objective of TCR sequencing data analysis is the identification of V, D and J gene segments, complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequence extraction and clonality analysis...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
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