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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#1
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822236/synthesis-structural-studies-and-biological-activity-of-novel-cu-ii-complexes-with-thiourea-derivatives-of-4-azatricyclo-5-2-1-0-2-6-dec-8-ene-3-5-dione
#2
Aleksandra Drzewiecka-Antonik, Paweł Rejmak, Marcin T Klepka, Anna Wolska, Piotr Pietrzyk, Karolina Stępień, Giuseppina Sanna, Marta Struga
The new Cu(II) complexes of 1/2/3-(bromophenyl)-3-(1,7,8,9-tetramethyl-3,5-dioxo-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-en-4-yl)thiourea derivatives have been synthesized. The spectroscopic studies together with density functional theory calculations of Cu(II) complexes revealed that two parent ligands coordinate to the copper cation in bidentate fashion via thiocarbonyl S and deprotonated N atoms forming rarely observed four-membered chelate ring, with nearly planar [CuN2S2] moiety. In solid state, the mononuclear complex is formed for thiourea derivative with 3-bromophenyl, whereas for Cu(II) connection with 2- and 4-bromophenyl-thioureas the formation of dinuclear complexes is observed, the latter formed by the stacking of mononuclear complexes...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822229/vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-initiation-under-normoxic-conditions-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-gliomas
#3
Alexandre Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is up-regulated in gliomas and involved in proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation correlates with malignancy. Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which promotes glycolytic energy metabolism, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas HIF-1α is degraded by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase under normoxic conditions. We focus this review on the links between the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through HIF-1α under normoxic conditions in gliomas...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822225/altered-thymocyte-and-t-cell-development-in-neonatal-mice-with-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury
#4
Sowmya Angusamy, Tamer Mansour, Mohammed Abdulmageed, Rachel Han, Brian C Schutte, John LaPres, Jack R Harkema, Said A Omar
BACKGROUND: The adaptive immune system of neonates is relatively underdeveloped. The thymus is an essential organ for adaptive T cell development and might be affected during the natural course of oxygen induced lung injury. The effect of prolonged hyperoxia on the thymus, thymocyte and T cell development, and its proliferation has not been studied extensively. METHODS: Neonatal mice were exposed to 85% oxygen (hyperoxia) or room air (normoxia) up to 28 days. Flow cytometry using surface markers were used to assay for thymocyte development and proliferation...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822103/current-progress-in-innovative-engineered-antibodies
#5
REVIEW
William R Strohl
As of May 1, 2017, 74 antibody-based molecules have been approved by a regulatory authority in a major market. Additionally, there are 70 and 575 antibody-based molecules in phase III and phase I/II clinical trials, respectively. These total 719 antibody-based clinical stage molecules include 493 naked IgGs, 87 antibody-drug conjugates, 61 bispecific antibodies, 37 total Fc fusion proteins, 17 radioimmunoglobulins, 13 antibody fragments, and 11 immunocytokines. New uses for these antibodies are being discovered each year...
August 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822097/a-38-year-old-woman-with-necrotising-cervical-lymphadenitis-due-to-histoplasma-capsulatum
#6
Esther van de Vosse, Annelies van Wengen, Wendy F van der Meide, Leo G Visser, Jaap T van Dissel
CASE PRESENTATION: We analysed a 38-year-old woman with disseminated histoplasmosis for primary immunodeficiency. Her blood showed no IFN-γ response while her peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) did. We identified IFN-γ autoantibodies of the IgG class in her serum. CONCLUSION: IFN-γ autoantibodies leading to infections were so far mainly detected in people from Asian descent, where it was found to be associated with certain HLA types. This may be the first patient of African descent, and without the typical HLA types that predispose to this problem, that produces IFN-γ autoantibodies...
August 18, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822058/immune-dysfunction-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-avenues-for-new-immunotherapy-based-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Lorenzo Falchi
PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: The present review focuses on key aspects of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) evasion of immune surveillance and how these can be leveraged to devise effective immunotherapy strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, significant progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy. In particular, the remarkable clinical results of anti-programmed death (PD)-1/PD-ligand (L)1 antibodies are revolutionizing the treatment approach to multiple solid and hematologic tumors...
August 18, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822000/effects-of-fusariotoxin-co-exposure-on-thp-1-human-immune-cells
#8
Marie-Caroline Smith, Stéphanie Madec, Samuel Troadec, Emmanuel Coton, Nolwenn Hymery
Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA), and moniliformin (MON) mycotoxins are common food and feed contaminants produced by Fusarium spp. However, while they are usually found to co-occur in a large range of commodities, only few data are available on mycotoxin co-exposure effects and cellular response mechanisms. In this study, the individual and combined toxic effects of these fusariotoxins were evaluated on the THP-1 human immune cell line as major fusariotoxins are mostly potent immunomodulators...
August 18, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821990/upregulation-of-cd16-monocyte-subsets-in-systemic-lupus-erythematous-patients
#9
Ziyan Wu, Shulan Zhang, Lidan Zhao, Yunyun Fei, Li Wang, Jing Li, Xiaoting Wen, Xiaofeng Zeng, Fengchun Zhang, Yongzhe Li
Monocytes are an important component in the innate immune system. However, studies to date have failed to conclude whether their levels are altered in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We applied the cytodiff counting method and comprehensively measured the circulating levels of distinct white blood cell (WBC) subsets, including CD16+, CD16-, and total monocytes, in 61 SLE patients as well as in 203 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). The absolute number of CD16- monocytes, total monocytes, immature granulocytes, mature neutrophils, total neutrophils, and T cell blasts was significantly higher, that of non-cytotoxic T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T + NK lymphocytes, T + NK lymphocytes, total lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils significantly lower (all p < 0...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821957/co-culture-of-chondrons-and-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduces-the-loss-of-collagen-vi-and-improves-extracellular-matrix-production
#10
H A Owida, T De Las Heras Ruiz, A Dhillon, Y Yang, N J Kuiper
Adult articular chondrocytes are surrounded by a pericellular matrix (PCM) to form a chondron. The PCM is rich in hyaluronan, proteoglycans, and collagen II, and it is the exclusive location of collagen VI in articular cartilage. Collagen VI anchors the chondrocyte to the PCM. It has been suggested that co-culture of chondrons with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) might enhance extracellular matrix (ECM) production. This co-culture study investigates whether MSCs help to preserve the PCM and increase ECM production...
August 19, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821931/targeting-angiogenesis-for-radioimmunotherapy-with-a-177-lu-labeled-antibody
#11
Emily B Ehlerding, Saige Lacognata, Dawei Jiang, Carolina A Ferreira, Shreya Goel, Reinier Hernandez, Justin J Jeffery, Charles P Theuer, Weibo Cai
PURPOSE: Increased angiogenesis is a marker of aggressiveness in many cancers. Targeted radionuclide therapy of these cancers with angiogenesis-targeting agents may curtail this increased blood vessel formation and slow the growth of tumors, both primary and metastatic. CD105, or endoglin, has a primary role in angiogenesis in a number of cancers, making this a widely applicable target for targeted radioimmunotherapy. METHODS: The anti-CD105 antibody, TRC105 (TRACON Pharmaceuticals), was conjugated with DTPA for radiolabeling with (177)Lu (t 1/2 6...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821924/-89-zr-labeled-nivolumab-for-imaging-of-t-cell-infiltration-in-a-humanized-murine-model-of-lung-cancer
#12
Christopher G England, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Brian T Rekoske, Paul A Ellison, Reinier Hernandez, Todd E Barnhart, Douglas G McNeel, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
PURPOSE: Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody specific for programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), a negative regulator of T-cell activation and response. Acting as an immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab binds to PD-1 expressed on the surface of many immune cells and prevents ligation by its natural ligands. Nivolumab is only effective in a subset of patients, and there is limited evidence supporting its use for diagnostic, monitoring, or stratification purposes. METHODS: (89)Zr-Df-nivolumab was synthesized to map the biodistribution of PD-1-expressing tumor infiltrating T-cells in vivo using a humanized murine model of lung cancer...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821884/the-atopic-dermatitis-blood-signature-is-characterized-by-increases-in-inflammatory-and-cardiovascular-risk-proteins
#13
Patrick M Brunner, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, Helen He, Kunal Malik, Huei-Chi Wen, Juana Gonzalez, Tom Chih-Chieh Chan, Yeriel Estrada, Xiuzhong Zheng, Saakshi Khattri, Nancy Dattola, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
Beyond classic "allergic"/atopic comorbidities, atopic dermatitis (AD) emerges as systemic disease with increased cardiovascular risk. To better define serum inflammatory and cardiovascular risk proteins, we used an OLINK high-throughput proteomic assay to analyze moderate-to-severe AD (n = 59) compared to psoriasis (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 18). Compared to controls, 10 proteins were increased in serum of both diseases, including Th1 (IFN-γ, CXCL9, TNF-β) and Th17 (CCL20) markers. 48 proteins each were uniquely upregulated in AD and psoriasis...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821816/an-expandable-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-purkinje-neuron-progenitor-population-that-exhibits-in-vivo-maturation-in-the-adult-mouse-cerebellum
#14
Gustavo A Higuera, Grazia Iaffaldano, Meiwand Bedar, Guy Shpak, Robin Broersen, Shashini T Munshi, Catherine Dupont, Joost Gribnau, Femke M S de Vrij, Steven A Kushner, Chris I De Zeeuw
The directed differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into cell-type specific neurons has inspired the development of therapeutic discovery for neurodegenerative diseases. Many forms of ataxia result from degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, but thus far it has not been possible to efficiently generate Purkinje neuron (PN) progenitors from human or mouse pluripotent stem cells, let alone to develop a methodology for in vivo transplantation in the adult cerebellum. Here, we present a protocol to obtain an expandable population of cerebellar neuron progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821806/longitudinal-study-of-changes-in-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-cd4-t-cells-upon-asymptomatic-malaria-infection-in-indonesian-children
#15
Sanne E de Jong, Vera E R Asscher, Linda J Wammes, Aprilianto E Wiria, Firdaus Hamid, Erliyani Sartono, Taniawati Supali, Hermelijn H Smits, Adrian J F Luty, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Both γδ T cells and CD4(+) T cells have been implicated in immunity to malaria, but their association with natural gain or loss of infection has not been studied before. Therefore, we followed up asymptomatic children living in an area endemic for malaria in Indonesia for 21 months. The percentage of γδ T cells was related to both current and previous infection, with higher percentages in infected than uninfected children and declining after infections resolve. Infected children also had higher levels of Th1 and Th17 cells, lower levels of CD25(Hi) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), but similar levels of Th2 cells as compared to uninfected children...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821804/nos2-deficient-mice-with-hypoxic-necrotizing-lung-lesions-predict-outcomes-of-tuberculosis-chemotherapy-in-humans
#16
Martin Gengenbacher, Maria A Duque-Correa, Peggy Kaiser, Stefanie Schuerer, Doris Lazar, Ulrike Zedler, Stephen T Reece, Amit Nayyar, Stewart T Cole, Vadim Makarov, Clifton E Barry Iii, Véronique Dartois, Stefan H E Kaufmann
During active TB in humans a spectrum of pulmonary granulomas with central necrosis and hypoxia exists. BALB/c mice, predominantly used in TB drug development, do not reproduce this complex pathology thereby inaccurately predicting clinical outcome. We found that Nos2 (-/-) mice incapable of NO-production in immune cells as microbial defence uniformly develop hypoxic necrotizing lung lesions, widely observed in human TB. To study the impact of hypoxic necrosis on the efficacy of antimycobacterials and drug candidates, we subjected Nos2 (-/-) mice with TB to monotherapy before or after establishment of human-like pathology...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821752/hybrid-nitric-oxide-donor-and-its-carrier-for-the-treatment-of-peripheral-arterial-diseases
#17
Duong Q Le, Aneetta E Kuriakose, Dat X Nguyen, Kytai T Nguyen, Suchismita Acharya
Nitric oxide (NO) has been known to promote physiological angiogenesis to treat peripheral arterial diseases (PAD) by increasing the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in endothelial cells (ECs) and preventing platelet adherence and leukocyte chemotaxis. However, the ongoing ischemic event during peripheral ischemia produces superoxide and diminishes the NO bioavailability by forming toxic peroxynitrite anion. Here we disclose an efficacious hybrid molecule 4-(5-Amino-1,2,3-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinol (SA-2) containing both antioxidant and NO donor functionalities that provide a therapeutic level of NO necessary to promote angiogenesis and to protect ECs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821664/differential-desensitization-observed-at-multiple-effectors-of-somatic-mu-opioid-receptors-underlies-sustained-agonist-mediated-inhibition-of-proopiomelanocortin-neuron-activity
#18
Philip D Fox, Shane T Hentges
Activation of somatic mu opioid receptors (MORs) in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons leads to the activation of G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels and hyperpolarization, but in response to continued signaling, MORs undergo acute desensitization resulting in robust reduction in the peak GIRK current after minutes of agonist exposure. We hypothesized that the attenuation of the GIRK current would lead to a recovery of neuronal excitability whereby desensitization of the receptor would lead to a new steady-state of POMC neuron activity reflecting the sustained GIRK current observed after the initial decline from peak with continued agonist exposure...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821634/lipidomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-exosomes-from-mouse-cortical-collecting-duct-cells
#19
Viet D Dang, Kishore Kumar Jella, Ragy R T Ragheb, Nancy D Denslow, Abdel A Alli
Exosomes are endosome-derived nanovesicles that are involved in cellular communication and signaling. Exosomes are produced by epithelial cells and are found in biologic fluids including blood and urine. The packaged material within exosomes includes proteins and lipids, but the molecular comparison within exosome subtypes is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between exosomes derived from the apical plasma membrane and basolateral plasma membrane of polarized murine cortical collecting duct principal cells...
August 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821631/6-methoxyethylamino-numonafide-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinoma-xenograft-growth-as-a-single-agent-and-in-combination-with-sorafenib
#20
Yanning Liu, Guohua Lou, John T Norton, Chen Wang, Irawati Kandela, Shuai Tang, Nathaniel I Shank, Pankaj Gupta, Min Huang, Michael J Avram, Richard Green, Andrew Mazar, Daniel Appella, Zhi Chen, Sui Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading form of cancer worldwide, and its incidence is increasing rapidly in the United States, tripling over the past 3 decades. The current chemotherapeutic strategies against localized and metastatic HCC are ineffective. Here we report that 6-methoxyethylamino-numonafide (MEAN) is a potent growth inhibitor of murine xenografts of 2 human HCC cell lines. At the same dose and with the same treatment strategies, MEAN was more efficacious in inhibiting tumor growth in mice than sorafenib, the only approved drug for HCC...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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