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Clinical problems during pregnancy

Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Reham Khresheh, Mona Almalik, Arwa Owies, Lesley Barclay
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and outcomes of introducing childbirth preparation programs in a sample of Maternal and Child Health centres in Jordan. DESIGN: An exploratory, descriptive design, and practice- research engagement was used to implement and evaluate the proposed childbirth preparation program. Face to face interviews and field notes were used to collect data. Outcomes of pregnancy and birth were collected from interviews with women using a structured format...
February 15, 2018: Midwifery
Abdullah H Alqahtani, Kholoud Al Khedair, Reem Al-Jeheiman, Haifa A Al-Turki, Nourah H Al Qahtani
Background: Anxiety and depression during the antenatal period is a growing problem with major effects on the mother, the developing fetus, and the neonate. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in women attending the hospital for antenatal care and assess the associated factors. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study conducted in the University Hospital of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Ashraf Talaat Youssef
INTRODUCTION: Many uncommon obstetric and gynecologic problems associated with pregnancy and the early postpartum period can lead to severe abdominal pain and be life-threatening. The patient will be in urgent need of a quick and accurate decision. The means of management will depend on the ability to differentiate between these problems to achieve an optimal diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 pregnant females attended a private obstetric ultrasound clinic with clinical picture of acute abdomen with pregnancy...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
Alexandra Miranda, Nuno Sousa
An adverse maternal hormonal environment during pregnancy can be associated with abnormal brain growth. Subtle changes in fetal brain development have been observed even for maternal hormone levels within the currently accepted physiologic ranges. In this review, we provide an update of the research data on maternal hormonal impact on fetal neurodevelopment, giving particular emphasis to thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids. Thyroid hormones are required for normal brain development. Despite serum TSH appearing to be the most accurate indicator of thyroid function in pregnancy, maternal serum free T4 levels in the first trimester of pregnancy are the major determinant of postnatal psychomotor development...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
R S Honjo, C B Mello, L S E Pimenta, E C Nuñes-Vaca, L M Benedetto, R B F Khoury, D M Befi-Lopes, C A Kim
BACKGROUND: Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic syndrome caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5. Although the main clinical features of CdCS are well known, the neurocognitive and behavioural characteristics of the phenotype are rarely described in detail in the literature. In this study, we analysed the main phenotypic features of CdCS from a parental perspective. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to 700 Brazilian families that were registered in the Brazilian Association of CdCS...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Sofia Strömmer, Wendy Lawrence, Taylor Rose, Christina Vogel, Daniella Watson, Joanne N Botell, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, Hazel Inskip, Janis Baird, Mary Barker
OBJECTIVE: To identify reasons underlying women's refusal to participate in a pregnancy trial and to identify ways of increasing recruitment. DESIGN: Mixed methods study using a questionnaire and qualitative interviews. SAMPLE: A questionnaire asking them to indicate reasons for their decision was completed by 296 pregnant women who declined to participate in one of two trials of nutritional supplementation in a large teaching hospital in southern England...
January 17, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Simuli L Wabuyele, Jennifer M Colby, Gwendolyn A McMillin
Maternal substance abuse during pregnancy is a growing problem with major public health and legal concerns. In utero substance exposure may adversely affect neonatal development, pregnancy outcome and the long term behavioral, cognitive and developmental abilities of the child. Also, serious legal implications are associated with substance abuse during pregnancy, including charges of child abuse and neglect which may result in removal of the neonate from parental care and loss of custodial rights. Timely detection of in utero drug exposure is necessary for early identification and effective management of exposed newborns...
February 5, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Laura J Miller, Nafisa Y Ghadiali
Introduction: Premenstrual, perinatal, and/or perimenopausal psychiatric problems require specific screening, assessment, and treatment strategies. The scope of these reproductive-linked psychiatric symptoms among women veterans is unknown. Due to high rates of sexual trauma among women veterans, it is also important to ascertain relationships between sexual trauma experiences and reproductive cycle mood problems. This pilot study investigates the prevalence of self-reported premenstrual, perinatal, and perimenopausal emotional problems and whether these correlate with pre-military sexual abuse, military sexual harassment, and/or military sexual assault, among veterans receiving psychiatric evaluations within a Veterans Administration Women's Health Clinic...
February 5, 2018: Military Medicine
Mònica Druguet, Laura Nuño, Carlota Rodó, Silvia Arévalo, Elena Carreras, Juana Gómez-Benito
OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychological effect on women of the loss of one or both fetuses during a monochorionic twin pregnancy and to identify associated protective and risk factors. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational study. SETTING: Maternity unit of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital in Barcelona, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight White Spanish women who lost one or both fetuses during a monochorionic twin pregnancy...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Mina Etminan-Bakhsh, Sima Tadi, Roksana Darabi
Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the common problems in pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with pyelonephritis, preterm labor and low birth weight infants. The physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy facilitate urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy. Several tests are available for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The urine culture is a gold standard diagnostic test for asymptomatic bacteriuria but it is expensive and time-consuming...
November 2017: Electronic Physician
L Vranken, P Emonts, O Bruyère, E Cavalier
Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem, also during pregnancy. Inadequate maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with poor fetal growth, impaired bone development and rickets in infants after birth. Furthermore, higher rates of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes are associated with low maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy. Toxicity of vitamin D is rare. Most countries recommend vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy but guidelines are controversial and inadequate compared to real mother's and child's needs...
January 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
Roch Appolinaire Houngnihin, Aphee Judith Sossou
INTRODUCTION: Since 2000, in the context of the Millennium development goals, Benin has reinforced its obstetric referral system in order to reduce maternal mortality. However, structural, sociocultural and economic problems continue to affect this strategy. The Cotonou University gynaecology and obstetrics clinic (CUGO), at the top of the health pyramid, is emblematic of this situation. This study was designed to elucidate the stakes involved in referral to this hospital based on analysis of the perceptions and experiences of referral personnel...
December 5, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Anna Heger, Michael Sator, Katharina Walch, Detlef Pietrowski
Introduction: Smoking is a serious problem for the health care system. Many of the compounds identified in cigarette smoke have toxic effects on the fertility of both females and males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether smoking affects clinical factors during IVF/ICSI therapy in a single-center reproductive unit. Material and Methods: In a retrospective study of 200 IVF/ICSI cycles, endometrial thickness and the outcome of IVF/ICSI therapy were analyzed...
January 2018: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Mozhgan Saffari, Zahra Khashavi, Mahboubeh Valiani
Background: Infertility means failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertile women may experience severe stress and depression. Numerous studies have indicated that auriculotherapy could reduce stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of auriculotherapy on the stress and the outcome assisted reproductive technology in infertile women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a clinical trial that was conducted on 56 infertile women aged 20-45, who were assigned into two groups of intervention and control, from November 2014 to November 2015...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Melissa Jane Cudmore, Eva Haeussner, Christoph Schmitz, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Esa Hämäläinen, Pia M Villa, Susanna Mehtälä, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori, Rebecca M Reynolds, Hans-Georg Frank, Katri Räikkönen
Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy predict increased psychiatric problems in children. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. Hence, we examined whether alterations in the morphology of 88 term placentas were associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and psychiatric problems in 1.9-3.1-years old (Mean = 2.1 years) toddlers. Maternal depressive symptoms were rated biweekly during pregnancy with the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (n = 86)...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
C Nilsson, E Hessman, H Sjöblom, A Dencker, E Jangsten, M Mollberg, H Patel, C Sparud-Lundin, H Wigert, C Begley
BACKGROUND: Fear of Childbirth (FOC) is a common problem affecting women's health and wellbeing, and a common reason for requesting caesarean section. The aims of this review were to summarise published research on prevalence of FOC in childbearing women and how it is defined and measured during pregnancy and postpartum, and to search for useful measures of FOC, for research as well as for clinical settings. METHODS: Five bibliographic databases in March 2015 were searched for published research on FOC, using a protocol agreed a priori...
January 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Rasmon Kalayasiri, Waranya Supcharoen, Pichanan Ouiyanukoon
PURPOSE: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is prevalent and could damage the health of non-smokers, especially that of pregnant women (PW) and postpartum women (PPW). Nevertheless, there is no study on the impact of SHS during pregnancy on the quality of life (QOL) of PW and PPW. The study's purpose is to study the effects of exposure to SHS on the QOL of pregnant and postpartum women and health of the newborns. METHODS: Self-reports and urine tests for cotinine were used to obtain data on SSH exposure in 296 women in the second trimester of pregnancy and 106 women in the postpartum period at the Obstetrics & Gynecology Clinic located in a university hospital...
January 11, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Kristen A Sullivan, Anne D Lyerly
Though many women in need of access to HIV preventive regimes are pregnant, there is a dearth of data to guide these care decisions. While oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to prevent HIV infection in numerous high-risk populations, pregnant women have been excluded from all major prospective trials. We propose for ethical examination a theoretical trial-a prospective, observational study of PrEP for pregnant women at risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-highlighting an ethical tradeoff that characterizes issues faced for advancing research in pregnancy...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
Şükran Köse, Ilker Ödemiş, Didem Çelik, Bengü Gireniz Tatar, Ilkay Akbulut, Dilek Yilmaz Çiftdoğan
Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of serious health problems such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leading to immunodeficiency disorders through different mechanisms, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes the development of severe secondary infections. Hepatitis A (HAV) is thought to spread by the faecal-oral route, while Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV are mostly transmitted vertically during childhood. In our study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV among Syrian refugee children who were admitted to outpatient clinics...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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