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Clinical problems during pregnancy

T H Mina, M Lahti, A J Drake, K Räikkönen, H Minnis, F C Denison, J E Norman, R M Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. METHOD: We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Ana Gabriela Travassos, Eveline Xavier Pereira de Souza, Eduardo Netto, Eda Vinhaes Dantas, Maiara Timbó, Isabella Nóbrega, Tatiana Haguihara, Júlia Maria de Oliveira Neumeyer, Nathalia Araújo Lisboa, Maria Angela Soidan, Fábio Ferreira, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. These sexually transmitted infections are a growing problem in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, the presence of these agents in extra genital sites, remains poorly studied in our country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae anal and genital infection in people living with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference center in Salvador, Brazil...
October 17, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Fatemeh Tara, Marzieh Lotfalizadeh, Somayeh Moeindarbari
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of early abortion after amniocentesis is a serious problem in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, and it is always important to discover the factors influencing this phenomenon. The incidence rate has been reported in different studies, even up to about 10%. So far, no studies have been conducted in Iran on the effect of amniocentesis and related complications on early abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of amniocentesis and relevant complications on the incidence of early abortion in pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Briony Hill, Skye McPhie, Lisa J Moran, Paul Harrison, Terry T-K Huang, Helena Teede, Helen Skouteris
Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are significant contributors to the global obesity epidemic. However, isolated lifestyle interventions to address this in pregnancy appear to have only modest benefit and responses can be variable. This paper aims to address the question of why the success of lifestyle interventions to prevent excessive GWG is suboptimal and variable. We suggest that there are inherent barriers to lifestyle change within pregnancy as a life stage, including the short window available for habit formation; the choice for women not to prioritise their weight; competing demands including physiological, financial, relationship, and social situations; and lack of self-efficacy among healthcare professionals on this topic...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
Sansnee Jirojwong, Suzanne Brownhill, Hannah G Dahlen, Maree Johnson, Virginia Schmied
Issue addressed: In many developed countries the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for Asian-born women is higher than other groups. Studies suggest that some women have limited knowledge of the disease and poor self-management leading to health problems for themselves and their baby. Few studies report the experience of GDM among Southeast Asian migrant women living in Australia and factors that influence their management of the disease. Methods: A qualitative interpretive design was used to explore Southeast Asian migrant women's experience and management of GDM...
October 13, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Yves J R Menezo, Erica Silvestris, Brian Dale, Kay Elder
The negative effect of oxidative stress on the human reproductive process is no longer a matter for debate. Oxidative stress affects female and male gametes and the developmental capacity of embryos. Its effect can continue through late stages of pregnancy. Metabolic disorders and psychiatric problems can also be caued by DNA methylation and epigenetic errors. Age has a negative effect on oxidative stress and DNA methylation, and recent observations suggest that older men are at risk of transmitting epigenetic disorders to their offspring...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Gustaf Brander, Mina Rydell, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Paul Lichtenstein, Eva Serlachius, Christian Rück, Catarina Almqvist, Brian M D'Onofrio, Henrik Larsson, David Mataix-Cols
Importance: Perinatal complications may increase the risk of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous reports were based on small, retrospective, specialist clinic-based studies that were unable to rigorously control for unmeasured environmental and genetic confounding. Objective: To prospectively investigate a wide range of potential perinatal risk factors for OCD, controlling for unmeasured factors shared between siblings in the analyses. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based birth cohort study included all 2 421 284 children from singleton births in Sweden from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 1996, who were followed up through December 31, 2013...
October 5, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Lydia J Leon, Nita Solanky, Susanne E Stalman, Charalambos Demetriou, Sayeda Abu-Amero, Philip Stanier, Lesley Regan, Gudrun E Moore
About 20% of pregnancies are affected by some form of complication. Research has shown that anomalies in implantation, development, and growth of the fetus; ineffective nutrient exchange between mother and fetus due to placental dysfunction; and maternal problems such as hypertension or infection during pregnancy can all lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the molecular aetiology of such events remains poorly understood. Fetal growth restriction (FGR), recurrent miscarriage (RM), preterm birth (PTB), and pre-eclampsia (PE) are the most common pregnancy complications encountered in the UK and these outcomes can result in an array of morbidities in both mother and baby, and in the most severe cases in mortality...
October 2016: Placenta
C P Mboua, B A Nkoum, S P Abessouguié
In a setting such as Cameroon, where perinatal care offers few services for women with psychiatric problems during pregnancy, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, the development of the relational dimension of care may help prevent severe psychiatric disorders . This study evaluates the role of the relational dimension of perinatal and early postpartum care (providing perinatal counseling and a space to speak) on women with blues on the intermediate-term outcomes of decompensation, in view of the importance of the emotional issues occurring in the perinatal period...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Calan Savoy, Mark A Ferro, Louis A Schmidt, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J Van Lieshout
BACKGROUND: Mortality rates among extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants have declined since the advent of antenatal glucocorticoid use. However, the long term neuropsychiatric effects of exposure are not well understood. We utilized the world's oldest longitudinally followed cohort of ELBW survivors to compare psychopathology over two decades in adulthood in those exposed to prenatal betamethasone and those who were not. METHODS: ELBW survivors (n=179) and matched normal birth weight (NBW) controls (n=145) completed the Young Adult Self-Report questionnaire at 22-26 and 29-36 years, and the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories at 29-36 years...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Cath Jackson, Lisa Dyson, Helen Bedford, Francine M Cheater, Louise Condon, Annie Crocker, Carol Emslie, Lana Ireland, Philippa Kemsley, Susan Kerr, Helen J Lewis, Julie Mytton, Karen Overend, Sarah Redsell, Zoe Richardson, Christine Shepherd, Lesley Smith
BACKGROUND: Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. AIMS: (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Sari Lepistö, Noora Ellonen, Mika Helminen, Eija Paavilainen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. BACKGROUND: Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognized and helped before actual violent behaviour...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Anna L MacKinnon, Mariam Naguib, Helena J Barr, Anna Levinsson, Stephanie Robins, Nancy Feeley, Barbara Hayton, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Ian Gold
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of mental health problems during the perinatal period, little research has examined psychotic symptoms in a community sample across pregnancy and the postpartum. Exposure to environmental risk factors, and immigration in particular, are associated with increased risk for psychotic disorders. The current investigation examined whether psychosocial risk and immigrant status would predict levels of delusional ideation across the perinatal period when controlling for depression, anxiety, and demographic factors...
September 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Erling Thom
Postpartum effluvium is a well-known clinical fact. However, following some minor research activities in the 1960s, very little has happened on the research front of the subject. It was hypothesized that postpartum hair loss might be a manifestation of a change in the hair growth cycle occurring normally during pregnancy. Recently, new research has been published trying to explain the mechanism of action behind this frequently occurring hair growth disruption, and to develop a functional treatment schedule and regime...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
V Mishra Vineet, A Goyal Preeti, S Aggarwal Rohina, S Choudhary, Tanvir Tanvir, D Dharaiya Nisarg, A Gaddagi Rashmi
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to decreased excretion of nitrogenous waste products. It continues to be a common problem in developing countries. AIMS: The aim of this study was to understand AKI characteristics in pregnancy and identify the factors related to its unfavorable outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between January 2013 and May 2014...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Sara A Mohamed, Ayman Al-Hendy, Jay Schulkin, Michael L Power
Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is prevalent among pregnant women. Recommendations for adequate levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and appropriate vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy differ between the Institute of Medicine and the Endocrine Society. Obstetrician-gynecologists must make clinical decisions in this environment of uncertain guidance. An online questionnaire regarding physician practice patterns for screening and supplementing pregnant women was administered to 225 randomly selected practicing obstetrician-gynecologists of whom 101 (45%) completed the questionnaire...
2016: Journal of Pregnancy
Arnaud Chêne, Sophie Houard, Morten A Nielsen, Sophia Hundt, Flavia D'Alessio, Sodiomon B Sirima, Adrian J F Luty, Patrick Duffy, Odile Leroy, Benoit Gamain, Nicola K Viebig
Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection constitutes a major health problem manifesting as severe disease and anaemia in the mother, impaired fetal development, low birth weight or spontaneous abortion. Prevention of placental malaria currently relies on two key strategies that are losing efficacy due to spread of resistance: long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. A placental malaria vaccine would be an attractive, cost-effective complement to the existing control tools...
2016: Malaria Journal
Maria Gabriela Alvarado, David A Schwartz
Context .- The global epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has emerged as an important public health problem affecting pregnant women and their infants. Objectives .- To review the causal association between ZIKV infection during pregnancy and intrauterine fetal infection, microcephaly, brain damage, congenital malformation syndrome, and experimental laboratory models of fetal infection. Many questions remain regarding the risk factors, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and timing of maternal-fetal transmission and disease...
September 16, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
S Yasmeen, N Aktar, E Azim, S Siddique, S M Shah, M A Chaklader, S Khatun, R C Debnath, M M Rahman, M N Bari
Iron deficiency anaemia is a major public health problem in pregnancy. About 58% of pregnant women in developed countries are anaemic mainly due to iron deficiency resulting a serious negative consequences on children, mothers and eventually on the nation. This quasi-experimental multi centered study (Before after study) was done to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Iron Polymaltose Complex (IPC) in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia and it was performed at the OPD of Bangladesh Medical College and two other clinics of Dhaka city from August 2011 to September 2013...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Valerie A Benka, Emily McCobb
OBJECTIVE To determine characteristics of cats sterilized through a subsidized, reduced-cost spay-neuter program in Massachusetts and of owners who had their cats sterilized through this program. DESIGN Cross-sectional anonymous survey and telephone interviews. SAMPLE 1,188 (anonymous surveys) and 99 (telephone interviews) cat owners. PROCEDURES Owners who had a cat sterilized at clinics held between January 2006 and December 2008 were invited to complete anonymous surveys. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with owners who had a cat sterilized during clinics held in 2009...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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