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Multiple sclerosis biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338134/retinal-oximetry-is-affected-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Haukur Hjaltason, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson
PURPOSE: Structural and physiological abnormalities have been reported in the retina in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Retinal oximetry has recently detected changes in retinal oxygen metabolism in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Our goal was to determine whether oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels of patients with patients is different from that of a healthy population. METHODS: Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin was measured in retinal blood vessels, using imaging with spectrophotometric noninvasive retinal oximeter...
January 16, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334156/the-retinal-ganglion-cell-layer-predicts-normal-appearing-white-matter-tract-integrity-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-combined-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-optical-coherence-tomography-approach
#2
Carolina Alves, Sónia Batista, Otília C d'Almeida, Lívia Sousa, Luís Cunha, Rui Bernardes, Miguel Castelo-Branco
We investigated the relationship between retinal layers and normal-appearing white matter (WM) integrity in the brain of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), using a combined diffusion tensor imaging and high resolution optical coherence tomography approach. Fifty patients and 62 controls were recruited. The patients were divided into two groups according to presence (n = 18) or absence (n = 32) of optic neuritis. Diffusion tensor data were analyzed with a voxel-wise whole brain analysis of diffusion metrics in WM with tract-based spatial statistics...
January 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331073/cerebrospinal-fluid-macrophage-biomarkers-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
A G Thompson, E Gray, M-L Thézénas, P D Charles, S Evetts, M T Hu, K Talbot, R Fischer, B M Kessler, M R Turner
Objective The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome involving multiple molecular pathways. The development of biomarkers for use in therapeutic trials is a priority. We sought to use a high-throughput proteomic method to identify novel biomarkers in individual cerebrospinal fluid samples. Methods Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with label-free quantification was used to identify cerebrospinal fluid proteins using samples from a well-characterised longitudinal cohort comprising patients with ALS (n=43), the upper motor neuron variant primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, n=6), cross-sectional healthy (n=20) and disease controls (Parkinsons's n=20, ALS mimic disorders n=12)...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328521/the-central-vein-sign-differentiates-ms-from-cns-inflammatory-vasculopathies
#4
Pietro Maggi, Martina Absinta, Matteo Grammatico, Luisa Vuolo, Giacomo Emmi, Giovanna Carlucci, Gregorio Spagni, Alessandro Barilaro, Anna Maria Repice, Lorenzo Emmi, Domenico Prisco, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Niloufar Sadeghi, Gaetano Perrotta, Pascal Sati, Bernard Dachy, Daniel S Reich, Massimo Filippi, Luca Massacesi
OBJECTIVES: In multiple sclerosis (MS), MRI is a sensitive tool for detecting white matter lesions, but its diagnostic specificity is still suboptimal; ambiguous cases are frequent in clinical practice. Detection of perivenular lesions in the brain (the "central vein sign") improves the pathological specificity of MS diagnosis, but comprehensive evaluation of this MRI biomarker in MS-mimicking inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases, such as CNS inflammatory vasculopathies, is missing...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321142/differentiating-primary-genetic-and-secondary-fsgs-in-adults-a-clinicopathologic-approach
#5
An S De Vriese, Sanjeev Sethi, Karl A Nath, Richard J Glassock, Fernando C Fervenza
FSGS describes a renal histologic lesion with diverse causes and pathogenicities that are linked by podocyte injury and depletion. Subclasses of FSGS include primary, genetic, and secondary forms, the latter comprising maladaptive, viral, and drug-induced FSGS. Despite sharing certain clinical and histologic features, these subclasses differ noticeably in management and prognosis. Without an accepted nongenetic biomarker that discriminates among these FSGS types, classification of patients is often challenging...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307303/hormones-and-ms-risk-factors-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#6
Riley Bove, Wendy Gilmore
Sex differences in epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been observed for decades, establishing a foundation for more recent progress in our understanding of their overall impact on the disease. In the ACTRIMS session on Hormones, Sex Chromosomes, and MS: Risk Factors, Biomarkers, and Therapeutic Targets, this progress was summarized in three presentations by pioneers in the field, revealing evidence that sex chromosomes, epigenetic factors, and sex hormones function as interactive determinants of disease risk and phenotype in a fashion dependent upon life stage, from prenatal development, childhood, and adolescence to adulthood and aging...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307283/modulation-of-the-ogf-ogfr-pathway-alters-cytokine-profiles-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Michael D Ludwig, Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
The endogenous neuropeptide opioid growth factor, chemically termed [Met5]-enkephalin, has growth inhibitory and immunomodulatory properties. Opioid growth factor is distributed widely throughout most tissues, is autocrine and paracrine produced, and interacts at the nuclear-associated receptor, OGFr. Serum levels of opioid growth factor are decreased in patients with multiple sclerosis and in animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis suggesting that the OGF-OGFr pathway becomes dysregulated in this disease...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305855/microglia-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-double-edged-sword
#8
REVIEW
Teresa Trotta, Maria Antonietta Panaro, Antonia Cianciulli, Giorgio Mori, Adriana Di Benedetto, Chiara Porro
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), based on their origin or size, can be classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs)/microparticles (MPs), and exosomes. EVs are one of the new emerging modes of communication between cells that are providing new insights into the pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs released from activated or apoptotic cells contain specific proteins (signaling molecules, receptors, integrins, cytokines), bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, small non coding RNAs, DNA) from their progenitor cells...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286058/european-and-americas-committees-for-treatment-and-research-in-multiple-sclerosis-ectrims-actrims-7th-joint-triennial-congress-october-25-28-2017-paris-france
#9
N Díaz
The 7th Triennial Joint conference of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and Americas Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ACTRIMS) was held in Paris, France. The meeting brought together attendees from a wide range of disciplines involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) research to explore an extensive program of teaching courses, plenary lectures, oral and poster sessions from approximately 2,000 abstracts submitted, and hot topic and young investigator presentations...
October 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249380/high-resolution-retinal-scanning-reveals-regional-structural-differences-between-ms-and-nmosd-optic-neuritis-regardless-of-antibody-status
#10
Marcel Bertsch-Gout, Richard Loeb, Ashley K Finch, Adil Javed, Jacqueline Bernard
BACKGROUND: There is a need for biomarkers that can classify optic neuritis (ON) attacks as belonging to either neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with optic neuritis (NMOSD-ON) or relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis with optic neuritis (MS-ON). This study uses spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) data to perform a preliminary contrast between NMOSD-ON and MS-ON by analyzing peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and intra-macular layer patterns of injury. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used SD-OCT to obtain peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and intra-macular layer data for 26 NMOSD-ON, 25 MS-ON, and 26 healthy control (HC) age-matched eyes...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246612/extracellular-mir-145-mir-223-and-mir-326-expression-signature-allow-for-differential-diagnosis-of-immune-mediated-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#11
Wessam E Sharaf-Eldin, Nirmeen A Kishk, Yehia Z Gad, Heba Hassan, Mohamed A M Ali, Maha S Zaki, Mohamed R Mohamed, Mona L Essawi
BACKGROUND: Although misdiagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) or multiple sclerosis (MS) is not infrequent, reliable biomarkers remains an unmet need. Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) represent a worthy avenue to identify biomarkers for differential diagnosis. We aimed to explore the potential role of some selected circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for the differential diagnosis in immune-mediated neuroinflammatory diseases...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241378/equivalence-of-glatiramer-acetate-products-challenges-in-assessing-pharmaceutical-equivalence-and-critical-clinical-performance-attributes
#12
G Borchard, D J A Crommelin
This review discusses the challenges to characterize and evaluate the peptide based drug glatiramer acetate (GA) and its follow-on products used for treatment of multiple sclerosis patients. Areas covered: GA is a highly complex mixture of peptides consisting of four amino acids. The various (physico)-chemical approaches and bioassays used for characterizing this complex drug product are described. It is not possible to link data from preclinical performance to outcomes observed in clinical trials as no critical attributes suitable for predicting the clinical performance in MS patients have been identified yet...
December 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234597/a-supervised-framework-with-intensity-subtraction-and-deformation-field-features-for-the-detection-of-new-t2-w-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Mostafa Salem, Mariano Cabezas, Sergi Valverde, Deborah Pareto, Arnau Oliver, Joaquim Salvi, Àlex Rovira, Xavier Lladó
Introduction: Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis has an important role in multiple sclerosis diagnosis and follow-up. The presence of new T2-w lesions on brain MRI scans is considered a prognostic and predictive biomarker for the disease. In this study, we propose a supervised approach for detecting new T2-w lesions using features from image intensities, subtraction values, and deformation fields (DF). Methods: One year apart multi-channel brain MRI scans were obtained for 60 patients, 36 of them with new T2-w lesions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233794/relevance-of-4-f4t-neuroprostane-and-10-f4t-neuroprostane-to-neurological-diseases
#14
Cinzia Signorini, Claudio De Felice, Thierry Durand, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Silvia Leoncini, Lucia Ciccoli, Marisa Carone, Monica Ulivelli, Caterina Manna, Alessio Cortelazzo, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Joussef Hayek
F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NeuroPs) are non-enzymatic oxidized products derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are suggested to be oxidative damage biomarkers of neurological diseases. However, 128 isomers can be formed from DHA oxidation and among them, 4(RS)-4-F4t-NeuroP (4-F4t-NeuroP) and 10(RS)-10-F4t-NeuroP (10-F4t-NeuroP) are the most studied. Here, we report the identification and the clinical relevance of 4-F4t-NeuroP and 10-F4t-NeuroP in plasma of four different neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), autism spectrum disorders, (ASD) Rett syndrome (RTT), and Down syndrome (DS)...
December 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208041/metabolomics-reveals-distinct-antibody-independent-molecular-signatures-of-ms-aqp4-antibody-and-mog-antibody-disease
#15
Maciej Jurynczyk, Fay Probert, Tianrong Yeo, George Tackley, Tim D W Claridge, Ana Cavey, Mark R Woodhall, Siddharth Arora, Torsten Winkler, Eric Schiffer, Angela Vincent, Gabriele DeLuca, Nicola R Sibson, M Isabel Leite, Patrick Waters, Daniel C Anthony, Jacqueline Palace
The overlapping clinical features of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-antibody (Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-Ab disease mean that detection of disease specific serum antibodies is the gold standard in diagnostics. However, antibody levels are not prognostic and may become undetectable after treatment or during remission. Therefore, there is still a need to discover antibody-independent biomarkers. We sought to discover whether plasma metabolic profiling could provide biomarkers of these three diseases and explore if the metabolic differences are independent of antibody titre...
December 6, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204291/antibody-response-against-herv-w-env-surface-peptides-differentiates-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#16
Giannina Arru, Elia Sechi, Sara Mariotto, Alessia Farinazzo, Chiara Mancinelli, Daniela Alberti, Sergio Ferrari, Alberto Gajofatto, Ruggero Capra, Salvatore Monaco, Giovanni A Deiana, Elisa Caggiu, Giuseppe Mameli, Leonardo A Sechi, Gian Pietro Sechi
Background: A specific humoral immune response against HERV-W envelope surface (env-su) glycoprotein antigens has been reported in serum of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it has not been evaluated to date in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate whether antibody (Ab) response against HERV-W env-su antigenic peptides differs between NMOSD and MS. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 36 patients with NMOSD, 36 patients with MS and 36 healthy control individuals (HCs)...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202778/regulator-of-oligodendrocyte-maturation-mir-219-a-potential-biomarker-for-ms
#17
Ilona B Bruinsma, Marie van Dijk, Claire Bridel, Timothy van de Lisdonk, Sanne Q Haverkort, Tessel F Runia, Lawrence Steinman, Rogier Q Hintzen, Joep Killestein, Marcel M Verbeek, Charlotte E Teunissen, Brigit A de Jong
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Normally, demyelination is followed by remyelination, which requires repopulation of a demyelinated area by oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Although large numbers of precursor cells are present in MS lesions, remyelination often fails, in part by the inability of precursor cells to differentiate into mature myelin-forming cells. In mouse and rat, miR-219 is required for this differentiation...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193274/melatonin-therapy-reduces-the-risk-of-osteoporosis-and-normalizes-bone-formation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Majid Ghareghani, Linda Scavo, Damien Arnoult, Kazem Zibara, Naser Farhadi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Serum levels of melatonin decrease in MS patients who are also at risk of osteoporosis. Procalcitonin (proCT) has been reported as a biomarker of systemic inflammation and autoimmune disease; however, its changes in MS patients have not been well explored. This study investigated, using ELISA, the clinical correlation between serum melatonin and proCT in MS patients. We then assessed the effect of melatonin (10 mg/kg) therapy on bone metabolism and osteoporosis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS and in MS patients...
November 28, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191793/combined-therapies-to-treat-complex-diseases-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Laura Calvo-Barreiro, Herena Eixarch, Xavier Montalban, Carmen Espejo
The commensal microbiota has emerged as an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models have shown that the commensal microbiota is an essential player in triggering autoimmune demyelination. Likewise, the commensal microbiota modulates the host immune system, alters the integrity and function of biological barriers and has a direct effect on several types of central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Moreover, a characteristic gut dysbiosis has been recognized as a consistent feature during the clinical course of MS, and the MS-related microbiota is gradually being elucidated...
November 27, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186501/the-amygdala-as-a-locus-of-pathologic-misfolding-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Peter T Nelson, Erin L Abner, Ela Patel, Sonya Anderson, Donna M Wilcock, Richard J Kryscio, Linda J Van Eldik, Gregory A Jicha, Zsombor Gal, Ruth S Nelson, Bela G Nelson, Jozsef Gal, Md Tofial Azam, David W Fardo, Matthew D Cykowski
Over the course of most common neurodegenerative diseases the amygdala accumulates pathologically misfolded proteins. Misfolding of 1 protein in aged brains often is accompanied by the misfolding of other proteins, suggesting synergistic mechanisms. The multiplicity of pathogenic processes in human amygdalae has potentially important implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body diseases, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, primary age-related tauopathy, and hippocampal sclerosis, and for the biomarkers used to diagnose those diseases...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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