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Multiple sclerosis biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913752/expression-and-bioactivity-of-human-alpha-fetoprotein-in-a-bac-to-bac-system
#1
Bo Lin, Kun Liu, Wenting Wang, Wei Li, Xu Dong, Yi Chen, Yan Lu, Junli Guo, Mingyue Zhu, Mengsen Li
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an early serum growth factor in fetal embryonic development and hepatic oncogenesis. A growing number of investigations of AFP as a tumor-specific biomarker have concluded that AFP is an important target for cancer treatment. AFP also plays an immunomodulatory role in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and thyroiditis. In an effort to support biochemical screening and drug design and discovery, we attempted to express and purify human AFP in a Bac-to-Bac system...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911122/an-update-on-the-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Matteo Gastaldi, Elisabetta Zardini, Diego Franciotta
Intrathecal B-lymphocyte activation is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a multi-factorial inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Such activation has a counterpart in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB), whose diagnostic role in MS has been downgraded within the current McDonald's criteria. With a theoretico-practical approach, the authors review the physiopathological basis of the CSF dynamics, and the state-of-the-art of routine CSF analysis and CSF biomarkers in MS...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908171/automated-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-all-sizes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#3
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Inge W M van Uden, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Tom Heskes, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are seen on FLAIR-MRI in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinsonism, stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). WMHs are often used as biomarkers for prognosis or disease progression in these diseases, and additionally longitudinal quantification of WMHs is used to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Human readers show considerable disagreement and inconsistency on detection of small lesions. A multitude of automated detection algorithms for WMHs exists, but since most of the current automated approaches are tuned to optimize segmentation performance according to Jaccard or Dice scores, smaller WMHs often go undetected in these approaches...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906756/optic-neuritis-the-eye-as-a-window-to-the-brain
#4
Thomas M Jenkins, Ahmed T Toosy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute optic neuritis is a common clinical problem, requiring a structured assessment to guide management and prevent visual loss. The optic nerve is the most accessible part of the central nervous system, so optic neuritis also represents an important paradigm to help decipher mechanisms of damage and recovery in the central nervous system. Important developments include the advent of optical coherence tomography as a biomarker of central nervous system axonal loss, the discovery of new pathological antibodies, notably against aquaporin-4 and, more recently, myelin oligodendrocyte protein, and emerging evidence for sodium channel blockade as a novel therapeutic approach to address energy failure in neuroinflammatory disease...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899053/cognitive-performance-in-subjects-with-multiple-sclerosis-is-robustly-influenced-by-gender-in-canonical-correlation-analysis
#5
Sue-Jin Lin, Janet Lam, Samantha Beveridge, Irene Vavasour, Anthony Traboulsee, David K B Li, Alex MacKay, Martin McKeown, Brenda Kosaka
The authors explored the relations between clinical/demographic characteristics and performance on a neuropsychological battery (eight tests) in a cohort (N=46) of multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects. Findings resulted from a secondary analysis of a study examining the relationships between imaging biomarkers in MS and cognitive tasks of executive functioning. The objective was to determine whether the overlapping test results could be judiciously combined and associated with clinical/demographic variables. Canonical-correlation analysis (CCA) was utilized, and it was found that differences between performance on untimed tests, and the sum of performance on timed Trail-Making Tests, Parts A and B, best matched clinical/demographic variables, and gender was the most important feature...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897360/central-atrophy-early-in-multiple-sclerosis-third-ventricle-volumetry-versus-planimetry
#6
Theodor Lutz, Barbara Bellenberg, Ruth Schneider, Florian Weiler, Odo Köster, Carsten Lukas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral atrophy has been suggested to be a reliable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) predictor of subsequent disability in all stages of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, no accepted methodology for routine clinical use exists to date. We sought an easy to apply and fast technique to evaluate cerebral ventricular volume in patients with MS with similar accuracy as a semiautomatic volumetric method. METHODS: The study included 104 patients, 61 diagnosed with MS and 43 with clinically isolated syndrome...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884750/methylprednisolone-improves-lactate-metabolism-through-reduction-of-elevated-serum-lactate-in-rat-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Majid Ghareghani, Amir Ghanbari, Shima Dokoohaki, Naser Farhadi, Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Reza Mohammadi, Heibatollah Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Some studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of lactate both in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients as a pathological condition. We designed an experimental study first to investigate the serum level of lactate as a biomarker of MS progression and also to investigate the effect of methylprednisolone on serum lactate. METHODS: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was inducted in Lewis rats, and then rats were treated intraperitoneally with methylprednisolone (30mg/kg/d), at the disease onset, and the clinical scores were recorded...
November 21, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882200/calcification-in-globus-pallidus-and-putamen-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-versus-healthy-subjects-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#8
Muhammad Arshad Javid, M Afzal Khan, Naima Amin, Azeem Nabi
BACKGROUND: Calcification has been well reported in basal ganglia and it grows rapidly in globus pallidus (GP) followed by putamen (PUT) and caudate nucleus because of their high metabolic rate and displays high susceptibility effects. Therefore, the current study focused on magnetic susceptibility effect of calcium content in normal and diseased tissue due to metabolic changes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate calcium content in GP and PUT structures of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients versus healthy subjects using quantitative susceptibility mapping...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872808/delineation-of-cortical-pathology-in-multiple-sclerosis-using-multi-surface-magnetization-transfer-ratio-imaging
#9
David A Rudko, Mishkin Derakhshan, Josefina Maranzano, Kunio Nakamura, Douglas L Arnold, Sridar Narayanan
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of measurements of cortical surface magnetization transfer ratio (csMTR) on the inner, mid and outer cortical boundaries as clinically accessible biomarkers of cortical gray matter pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-five MS patients and 12 matched controls were recruited from the MS Clinic of the Montreal Neurological Institute. Anatomical and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) images were acquired using 3 Tesla MRI at baseline and two-year time-points...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855220/disease-type-and-status-specific-alteration-of-csf-metabolome-coordinated-with-clinical-parameters-in-inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases-of-cns
#10
Soo Jin Park, In Hye Jeong, Byung Soo Kong, Jung-Eun Lee, Kyoung Heon Kim, Do Yup Lee, Ho Jin Kim
Central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDDs) are a group of disorders with different aetiologies, characterized by inflammatory lesions. These disorders include multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM). Differential diagnosis of the CNS IDDs still remains challenging due to frequent overlap of clinical and radiological manifestation, leading to increased demands for new biomarker discovery. Since cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect the status of CNS tissues and provide an interfacial linkage between blood and CNS tissues, we explored multi-component biomarker for different IDDs from CSF samples using gas chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling coupled to multiplex bioinformatics approach...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846891/cytokine-and-chemokine-alterations-in-tissue-csf-and-plasma-in-early-presymptomatic-phase-of-experimental-allergic-encephalomyelitis-eae-in-a-rat-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Nozha Borjini, Mercedes Fernández, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà
BACKGROUND: Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly used experimental animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS) that has been used so far to study the acute and remission-relapsing phases of the disease. Despite the vast literature on neuroinflammation onset and progression in EAE, important questions are still open regarding in particular the early asymptomatic phase between immunization and clinical onset. METHODS: In this study, we performed a time-course investigation of neuroinflammation and demyelination biomarkers in the spinal cord (SC), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood in EAE induced in dark agouti (DA) female rats compared to the controls and adjuvant-injected rats, using high-throughput technologies for gene expression and protein assays and focusing on the time-course between immunization, clinical onset (1, 5, 8 days post-immunization (DPI)), and progression (11 and 18 DPI)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836779/contribution-of-cholesterol-and-oxysterols-to-the-pathophysiology-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Margaux Doria, Lucie Maugest, Thibault Moreau, Gérard Lizard, Anne Vejux
Neurodegenerative diseases are a major public health issue worldwide. Some countries, including France, have engaged in research into the causes of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis and the management of these patients. It should lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to these diseases including the possible involvement of lipids in their pathogenesis. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the accumulation of α-synuclein (Lewy bodies)...
November 9, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836179/assessing-remyelination-metabolic-labeling-of-myelin-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Rina Aharoni, Chava Rosen, Elias Shezen, Dekel D Bar-Lev, Ofra Golani, Yair Reisner, Michael Sela, Ruth Arnon
The lack of biomarkers is a major obstacle for investigating myelin repair. We used metabolic incorporation of the choline analog - propargyl-choline (P-Cho) to label and visualize newly synthesized myelin in the CNS of mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We further developed unbiased colocalization analysis to quantify P-Cho incorporation specifically into the myelin. Our findings indicate that P-Cho injection to mice recovering from EAE, either spontaneously or following glatiramer acetate treatment, results in significant elevation of its incorporation into the myelin, offering a novel strategy for assessing remyelination in animal models and the remyelination potential of candidate drugs...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834394/the-central-vein-sign-and-its-clinical-evaluation-for-the-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-consensus-statement-from-the-north-american-imaging-in-multiple-sclerosis-cooperative
#14
Pascal Sati, Jiwon Oh, R Todd Constable, Nikos Evangelou, Charles R G Guttmann, Roland G Henry, Eric C Klawiter, Caterina Mainero, Luca Massacesi, Henry McFarland, Flavia Nelson, Daniel Ontaneda, Alexander Rauscher, William D Rooney, Amal P R Samaraweera, Russell T Shinohara, Raymond A Sobel, Andrew J Solomon, Constantina A Treaba, Jens Wuerfel, Robert Zivadinov, Nancy L Sicotte, Daniel Pelletier, Daniel S Reich
Over the past few years, MRI has become an indispensable tool for diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the current MRI criteria for MS diagnosis have imperfect sensitivity and specificity. The central vein sign (CVS) has recently been proposed as a novel MRI biomarker to improve the accuracy and speed of MS diagnosis. Evidence indicates that the presence of the CVS in individual lesions can accurately differentiate MS from other diseases that mimic this condition. However, the predictive value of the CVS for the development of clinical MS in patients with suspected demyelinating disease is still unknown...
November 11, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830115/reliability-of-measuring-regional-callosal-atrophy-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
Jeroen Van Schependom, Saurabh Jain, Melissa Cambron, Anne-Marie Vanbinst, Johan De Mey, Dirk Smeets, Guy Nagels
The Corpus Callosum (CC) is an important structure connecting the two brain hemispheres. As several neurodegenerative diseases are known to alter its shape, it is an interesting structure to assess as biomarker. Yet, currently, the CC-segmentation is often performed manually and is consequently an error prone and time-demanding procedure. In this paper, we present an accurate and automated method for corpus callosum segmentation based on T1-weighted MRI images. After the initial construction of a CC atlas based on healthy controls, a new image is subjected to a mid-sagittal plane (MSP) detection algorithm and a 3D affine registration in order to initialise the CC within the extracted MSP...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829982/new-insights-into-the-role-of-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Bożena Adamczyk, Monika Adamczyk-Sowa
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by an inflammatory process and demyelination. The etiology of the disease is still not fully understood. Therefore, finding new etiological factors is of such crucial importance. It is suspected that the development of MS may be affected by oxidative stress (OS). In the acute phase OS initiates inflammatory processes and in the chronic phase it sustains neurodegeneration. Redox processes in MS are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulation of axonal bioenergetics, iron accumulation in the brain, impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, and OS memory...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826747/serum-compounds-of-energy-metabolism-impairment-are-related-to-disability-disease-course-and-neuroimaging-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Giacomo Lazzarino, Angela M Amorini, Axel Petzold, Claudio Gasperini, Serena Ruggieri, Maria Esmeralda Quartuccio, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Enrico Di Stasio, Barbara Tavazzi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by primary inflammation, demyelination, and progressive neurodegeneration. A biochemical MS feature is neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction, compensated by anaerobic metabolism increase, likely aggravating progression of neurodegeneration. Here, we characterized a pragmatic serum profile of compounds related to mitochondrial energy metabolism of potential clinical use. Blood samples of 518 well characterized (disability, disease course) MS patients and 167 healthy controls were analyzed for serum purines, pyrimidines, creatinine, and lactate...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819517/polymorphisms-in-cd14-gene-may-modify-soluble-cd14-levels-and-represent-risk-factors-for-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Mehrdad Farrokhi, Pedram Moeini, Mohammad Fazilati, Habibollah Nazem, Shahla Faraji, Zahra Saadatpour, Elyas Fadaei, Leila Saadatpour, Ali Rezaei, Sadra Ansaripour, Ali Amani-Beni
BACKGROUND: Besides the central role of the adaptive immune system, a disturbance of innate immune system is also suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). CD14, a receptor upregulated in activated microglia, is known to be an essential mediator of inflammation in innate immune responses. Therefore, in this study we aimed to assess possible roles of CD14-159 and -260 gene polymorphisms in MS susceptibility and the effects of those polymorphisms to its protein producing capacity in Iranian population...
November 7, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813441/primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-current-therapeutic-strategies-and-future-perspectives
#19
Alberto Gajofatto, Marco Turatti, Maria Donata Benedetti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the central nervous system with heterogeneous features. Primary progressive (PP) MS is a rare disease subtype characterized by continuous disability worsening from onset. No disease-modifying therapy is currently approved for PP MS due to the negative or inconsistent results of clinical trials conducted on a wide range of interventions, which are reviewed in the present paper. Areas covered: The features and results of randomized trials of disease-modifying treatments for PP MS are discussed, including immunosuppressants, immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies, and putative neuroprotective agents...
November 4, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807185/gray-matter-mri-differentiates-neuromyelitis-optica-from-multiple-sclerosis-using-random-forest
#20
Arman Eshaghi, Viktor Wottschel, Rosa Cortese, Massimiliano Calabrese, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Alan J Thompson, Daniel C Alexander, Olga Ciccarelli
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether brain gray matter (GM) imaging measures can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) using random-forest classification. METHODS: Ninety participants (25 patients with MS, 30 patients with NMO, and 35 healthy controls [HCs]) were studied in Tehran, Iran, and 54 (24 patients with MS, 20 patients with NMO, and 10 HCs) in Padua, Italy. Participants underwent brain T1 and T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI...
November 2, 2016: Neurology
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