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Multiple sclerosis biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933672/cognitive-impairment-and-the-regional-distribution-of-cerebellar-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Sean M Tobyne, Wilson B Ochoa, J Daniel Bireley, Victoria Mj Smith, Jeroen Jg Geurts, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Eric C Klawiter
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar lesions are often reported in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and have been associated with impaired motor function and cognitive status. However, prior research has primarily focused on summary measures of cerebellar involvement (e.g. total lesion load, gray/white matter volume) and not on the effect of lesion load within specific regions of cerebellar white matter. OBJECTIVE: Spatially map the probability of cerebellar white matter lesion (CWML) occurrence in RRMS and explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and lesion (CWML) location within the cerebellum...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932409/serum-retinol-levels-are-associated-with-brain-volume-loss-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#2
H Yokote, T Kamata, S Toru, N Sanjo, T Yokota
BACKGROUND: Although predicting future brain volume loss (BVL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is important, studies have shown only a few biomarkers that can predict BVL. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to elucidate the association between longitudinal BVL and serum biomarker candidates. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective, observational study intended to cover MS patients during January 2008 to March 2016. Patients who underwent brain MRI two times at intervals of >24 months and had a blood test to measure biomarker candidates at the time or within three months of the MRI scan were included...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920886/retinal-layer-segmentation-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Axel Petzold, Laura J Balcer, Peter A Calabresi, Fiona Costello, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Ari J Green, Randy Kardon, Olivier Outteryck, Friedemann Paul, Sven Schippling, Patrik Vermersch, Pablo Villoslada, Lisanne J Balk
BACKGROUND: Structural retinal imaging biomarkers are important for early recognition and monitoring of inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. With the introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), supervised automated segmentation of individual retinal layers is possible. We aimed to investigate which retinal layers show atrophy associated with neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis when measured with SD-OCT. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for studies in which SD-OCT was used to look at the retina in people with multiple sclerosis with or without optic neuritis in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar between Nov 22, 1991, and April 19, 2016...
October 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912672/maximizing-the-potential-of-longitudinal-cohorts-for-research-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-community-perspective
#4
Catherine J Moody, Derick Mitchell, Grace Kiser, Dag Aarsland, Daniela Berg, Carol Brayne, Alberto Costa, Mohammad A Ikram, Gail Mountain, Jonathan D Rohrer, Charlotte E Teunissen, Leonard H van den Berg, Joanna M Wardlaw
Despite a wealth of activity across the globe in the area of longitudinal population cohorts, surprisingly little information is available on the natural biomedical history of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (ND), and the scope for intervention studies based on these cohorts is only just beginning to be explored. The Joint Programming Initiative on Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) recently developed a novel funding mechanism to rapidly mobilize scientists to address these issues from a broad, international community perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904988/neurite-dispersion-a-new-marker-of-multiple-sclerosis-spinal-cord-pathology
#5
Francesco Grussu, Torben Schneider, Carmen Tur, Richard L Yates, Mohamed Tachrount, Andrada Ianuş, Marios C Yiannakas, Jia Newcombe, Hui Zhang, Daniel C Alexander, Gabriele C DeLuca, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
OBJECTIVE: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the multiple sclerosis spinal cord is limited by low specificity regarding the underlying pathological processes, and new MRI metrics assessing microscopic damage are required. We aim to show for the first time that neurite orientation dispersion (i.e., variability in axon/dendrite orientations) is a new biomarker that uncovers previously undetected layers of complexity of multiple sclerosis spinal cord pathology. Also, we validate against histology a clinically viable MRI technique for dispersion measurement (neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, NODDI), to demonstrate the strong potential of the new marker...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879451/prognostic-factors-and-disease-course-in-aquaporin-4-antibody-positive-chinese-patients-with-acute-optic-neuritis
#6
Hao Kang, Tingjun Chen, Hongyang Li, Quangang Xu, Shanshan Cao, Shihui Wei
The objective is to assess the frequency of AQP4-Ab in Chinese patients with optic neuritis (ON) and to investigate the prognostic implications of AQP4-Ab seropositivity in such patients. The presence of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies in human AQP4-transfected cells was determined by indirect immunofluorescence, and the diagnostic and prognostic relevance of AQP4 antibodies in 215 Chinese patients with optic neuritis was evaluated. The patients were enrolled from the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (PLAGH) and followed up to 1-228 months...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875862/an-update-on-the-role-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Marina Boziki, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-containing endopeptidases, proteins essential to the degradation of various tissue extracellular matrix proteins. Under normal conditions MMPs participate in several physiological processes, both in the developing organism and the adult. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting primarily young adults. Inflammatory infiltrations of the CNS parenchyma by autoreactive immune cells, that mediate myelin degradation in the form of the demyelination "plaque", are the pathological hallmark of the disease...
September 6, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865413/correlation-of-serum-levels-of-il-33-il-37-soluble-form-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-2-vegfr2-and-circulatory-frequency-of-vegfr2-expressing-cells-with-multiple-sclerosis-severity
#8
Ebrahim Kouchaki, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Ehsan Dadgostar, Mohammad Karami, Hassan Nikoueinejad, Hossein Akbari
IL-33 and IL-37 (new cytokines of IL-1 family), soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (sVEGFR2) as well as membranous expression of VEGFR2 have some key roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to correlate circulatory changes of these factors with the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) as an autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Our case-control study was performed on 84 patients with MS and 75 healthy subjects. The serum levels of IL-33, IL-37 and sVEGFR2 in the peripheral blood samples of all participants were measured by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA)...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831853/defining-active-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Finn Sellebjerg, Lars Börnsen, Cecilie Ammitzbøll, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Tua Vinther-Jensen, Lena Elisabeth Hjermind, Marina von Essen, Rikke Lenhard Ratzer, Per Soelberg Sørensen, Jeppe Romme Christensen
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive progressive MS according to consensus criteria. METHODS: Neurofilament light chain (NFL), myelin basic protein (MBP), IgG-index, chitinase-3-like-1 (CHI3L1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), chemokine CXCL13, terminal complement complex, leukocyte counts and nitric oxide metabolites were measured in primary ( n = 26) and secondary progressive MS ( n = 26) and healthy controls ( n = 24)...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831768/jcpyv-microrna-in-plasma-inversely-correlates-with-jcpyv-seropositivity-among-long-term-natalizumab-treated-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#10
Pabitra Basnyat, Elina Virtanen, Irina Elovaara, Sanna Hagman, Eeva Auvinen
Sensitive biomarkers are needed to better manage multiple sclerosis (MS) patients for natalizumab (NTZ)-associated risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). A currently used risk stratification algorithm, mainly based on JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) serology, has not led to a reduction of PML incidence. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the presence and prevalence of JCPyV miRNAs in plasma of NTZ-treated MS patients, and to explore their biomarker potential for NTZ-associated PML risk assessment...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830236/testing-many-treatments-within-a-single-protocol-over-10%C3%A2-years-at-mrc-clinical-trials-unit-at-ucl-multi-arm-multi-stage-platform-umbrella-and-basket-protocols
#11
Mahesh Kb Parmar, Fay H Cafferty, Matthew R Sydes, Babak Choodari-Oskooei, Ruth E Langley, Louise Brown, Patrick Pj Phillips, Melissa R Spears, Sam Rowley, Richard Kaplan, Nicholas D James, Timothy Maughan, Nicholas Paton, Patrick J Royston
BACKGROUND: There is real need to change how we do some of our clinical trials, as currently the testing and development process is too slow, too costly and too failure-prone - often we find that a new treatment is no better than the current standard. PURPOSE AND METHODS: Much of the focus on the development and testing pathway has been in improving the design of phase I and II trials. In this paper we present examples of new methods for improving the design of phase III trials (and the necessary lead up to them) as they are the most time-consuming and expensive part of the pathway...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829212/targeting-methionine-cycle-as-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-for-immune-disorders
#12
Heng Li, Huimin Lu, Wei Tang, Jianping Zuo
Methionine cycle plays an essential role in regulating many cellular events, especially transmethylation reactions, incorporating the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). The transmethylations and substances involved in the cycle have shown complicated effects and mechanisms on immunocytes developments and activations, and exert crucial impacts on the pathological processes in immune disorders. Areas covered: Methionine cycle has been considered as an effective means of drug developments. This review discussed the role of methionine cycle in immune responses and summarized the potential therapeutic strategies based on the cycle, including SAM analogs, methyltransferase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) inhibitors, adenosine receptors specific agonists or antagonists and homocysteine (Hcy)-lowering reagents, in treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and other immune disorders...
August 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821874/global-methylation-correlates-with-clinical-status-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-in-the-first-year-of-ifnbeta-treatment
#13
María Jesús Pinto-Medel, Begoña Oliver-Martos, Patricia Urbaneja-Romero, Isaac Hurtado-Guerrero, Jesús Ortega-Pinazo, Pedro Serrano-Castro, Óscar Fernández, Laura Leyva
The alteration of DNA methylation patterns are a key component of disease onset and/or progression. Our objective was to evaluate the differences in Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) methylation levels, as a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation, between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls. In addition, we assessed the association of LINE-1 methylation with clinical disease activity in patients treated with IFNbeta (IFNβ). We found that individuals with high levels of LINE-1 methylation showed 6-fold increased risk of suffering MS...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811529/disturbance-of-plasma-lipid-metabolic-profile-in-guillain-barre-syndrome
#14
Hsiang-Yu Tang, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu, Jui-Fen Lin, Cheng-Yu Huang, Kuo-Hsuan Chang, Rong-Kuo Lyu, Long-Sun Ro, Hung-Chou Kuo, Mei-Ling Cheng, Chiung-Mei Chen
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system. Given that plasma metabolic profiles in GBS patients have never been explored, plasma samples of 38 GBS patients, 22 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and 40 healthy controls were analyzed by using untargeted and targeted metabolomics analysis. The untargeted analysis showed that levels of a set of plasma lipid metabolites were significantly decreased in GBS patients compared to the controls. Furthermore, the targeted analysis demonstrated that levels of 41 metabolites in GBS patients were significantly changed compared to either the controls or MS patients...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811143/nadph-oxidases-as-drug-targets-and-biomarkers-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-what-is-the-evidence
#15
REVIEW
Silvia Sorce, Roland Stocker, Tamara Seredenina, Rikard Holmdahl, Adriano Aguzzi, Adriano Chio, Antoine Depaulis, Freddy Heitz, Peter Olofsson, Tomas Olsson, Venceslas Duveau, Despina Sanoudou, Sara Skosgater, Antonia Vlahou, Dominique Wasquel, Karl-Heinz Krause, Vincent Jaquet
Neurodegenerative disease are frequently characterized by microglia activation and/or leukocyte infiltration in the parenchyma of the central nervous system and at the molecular level by increased oxidative modifications of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) emerged as a novel promising class of pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegeneration due to their role in oxidant generation and presumably in regulating microglia activation. The unique function of NOX is the generation of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
August 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804651/pharmacogenetic-biomarkers-to-predict-treatment-response-in-multiple-sclerosis-current-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Patricia K Coyle
Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) have significantly advanced the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), decreasing the frequency of relapses, disability, and magnetic resonance imaging lesion formation. However, patients' responses to and tolerability of DMTs vary considerably, creating an unmet need for biomarkers to identify likely responders and/or those who may have treatment-limiting adverse reactions. Most studies in MS have focused on the identification of pharmacogenetic markers, using either the candidate-gene approach, which requires prior knowledge of the genetic marker and its role in the target disease, or genome-wide association, which examines multiple genetic variants, typically single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
2017: Multiple Sclerosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802830/gfap-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-a-biomarker-for-inflammation
#17
Rebecca Kassubek, Martin Gorges, Michael Schocke, Viktoria A M Hagenston, André Huss, Albert C Ludolph, Jan Kassubek, Hayrettin Tumani
OBJECTIVE: The role of Glial Fibrillic Acidic Protein (GFAP) as a potential biomarker for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) has been controversially discussed. The aim was to characterize the added value of GFAP levels in the CSF of RRMS and CIS patients in correlation with MRI lesion load. MATERIALS & METHODS: GFAP levels in the CSF from 18 patients with RRMS, 8 patients with CIS and 35 controls were analyzed together with MRI data for acute and chronic inflammatory lesion load...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797088/csf-profile-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-re-exploring-the-basics
#18
Ahmed Abdelhak, Tilman Hottenrott, Christoph Mayer, Gudrun Hintereder, Uwe K Zettl, Oliver Stich, Hayrettin Tumani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the basic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). METHODS: The results of CSF analysis from 254 patients with PPMS were collected at four university hospitals in Germany. Routine CSF parameters and different indices of intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis were evaluated. We assessed possible correlations between the various CSF parameters and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) both at the time of lumbar puncture and during the course of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797086/epigenetic-differences-between-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-provide-clues-to-disease-pathogenesis
#19
Paul E Young, Stephen Kum Jew, Michael E Buckland, Roger Pamphlett, Catherine M Suter
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating late-onset neurodegenerative disorder in which only a small proportion of patients carry an identifiable causative genetic lesion. Despite high heritability estimates, a genetic etiology for most sporadic ALS remains elusive. Here we report the epigenetic profiling of five monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ALS, four with classic ALS and one with the progressive muscular atrophy ALS variant, in whom previous whole genome sequencing failed to uncover a genetic basis for their disease discordance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792504/common-gene-network-signature-of-different-neurological-disorders-and-their-potential-implications-to-neuroaids
#20
Vidya Sagar, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Paola C Martinez, V S R Atluri, M Nair
The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s) for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration...
2017: PloS One
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