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Laboratory diagnostic of multiple sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247071/evaluation-of-idiopathic-transverse-myelitis-revealing-specific-myelopathy-diagnoses
#1
Nicholas L Zalewski, Eoin P Flanagan, B Mark Keegan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate specific myelopathy diagnoses made in patients with suspected idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM). METHODS: A total of 226 patients 18 years and older were referred to Mayo Clinic Neurology for suspected ITM from December 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015. Electronic medical records were reviewed for detailed clinical presentation and course, laboratory and electrophysiologic investigations, and neuroimaging to determine the etiology. Current diagnostic criteria for ITM and alternative myelopathy diagnoses were applied...
December 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246096/pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis-a-single-center-study
#2
Erin Yamamoto, Matthew Ginsberg, Mary Rensel, Manikum Moodley
Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS), once thought to be rare, is now being diagnosed in increasing numbers in children. Despite improvements to diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis and management of POMS remains challenging. The aim of this study is to retrospectively describe a growing POMS patient population seen at a single center over a 13 year period. Epidemiologic, clinical, neuroimaging, laboratory features and therapeutic management and outcome data were collected and analyzed. These data support associations between MS and environmental triggers such as obesity and vitamin D deficiency...
January 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168666/diagnostic-methods-used-in-searching-for-markers-of-atrophy-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Przemyslaw Puz, Arkadiusz Steposz, Anetta Lasek-Bal, Karina Bartoszek, Patrycja Radecka, Aleksandra Karuga-Pierścieńska
The results of available studies on assessment of neurodegenerative lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients using different approaches have not been conclusive. Currently, clinical assessment is the most commonly used (involving primarily mobility assessment), along with magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological testing. In this review we describe available clinical, neuroimaging, electrophysiological and laboratory tests used to assess the neurodegeneration in MS. Laboratory markers to determine the risk of disease, its conversion and prognosis in MS patients are being constantly sought...
November 23, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143062/-intracranial-cystic-lesions
#4
REVIEW
F Ahlhelm, K Shariat, S Götschi, S Ulmer
CLINICAL PROBLEM: Intracerebral cysts are common findings in imaging of the neurocranium and are not always clinically significant. The pathological spectrum of intracerebral cysts is, however, very broad and in addition to incidental findings includes developmental disorders, malformation tumors, primary and secondary neoplasms and infectious etiologies, such as cerebral abscess formation, cysticercosis or residuals after congenital cytomegalovirus infections. Intracerebral cystic defects may be caused by inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as multiple sclerosis as well as by mitochondriopathies, leukodystrophy, electrolyte disturbances or osmotic demyelination syndrome or brain infarctions, e...
November 15, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141828/alternative-diagnoses-in-patients-referred-to-specialized-centers-for-suspected-ms
#5
B I Yamout, S J Khoury, N Ayyoubi, H Doumiati, M Fakhreddine, S F Ahmed, H Tamim, J Y Al-Hashel, R Behbehani, R Alroughani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore the frequency, type, and predictors of alternative diagnoses among patients referred with a recent diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) to two specialized MS centers in the Middle East. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of a prospectively followed cohort of MS patients at 2 University specialized MS centers. All patients referred for MS were included. The final diagnosis was recorded and demographic, clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological and radiological variables were collected...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667382/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-clinical-features-in-acute-and-subacute-myelopathies
#6
REVIEW
Stefan Weidauer, Marlies Wagner, Michael Nichtweiß
Differential diagnosis of acute and subacute transverse myelopathy includes inflammatory, infectious, vascular, metabolic and paraneoplastic etiologies. Information on the diagnostic approach to transverse myelopathy with regard to daily clinical practice is provided. The differentiation between five lesion patterns on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in myelitis may be helpful: (1) longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis, (2) short segment ovoid or peripherally located, (3) "polio-like", (4) granulomatous and (5) segmental with rash...
December 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665284/multiple-sclerosis-etiology-and-diagnostic-potential
#7
REVIEW
Joanna Kamińska, Olga M Koper, Kinga Piechal, Halina Kemona
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of autoimmune originate. The main agents responsible for the MS development include exogenous, environmental, and genetic factors. MS is characterized by multifocal and temporally scattered central nervous system (CNS) damage which lead to the axonal damage. Among clinical courses of MS it can be distinguish relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPSM), primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RPMS)...
June 30, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629398/anaplastic-astrocytoma-mimicking-progressive-multifocal-leucoencephalopathy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-overlapping-syndromes
#8
Ema Kantorová, Michal Bittšanský, Štefan Sivák, Eva Baranovičová, Petra Hnilicová, Vladimír Nosáľ, Daniel Čierny, Kamil Zeleňák, Wolfgang Brück, Egon Kurča
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and glial tumours (GT) is uncommon although occasionally reported in medical literature. Interpreting the overlapping radiologic and clinical characteristics of glial tumours, MS lesions, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) can be a significant diagnostic challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of anaplastic astrocytoma mimicking PML in a 27-year-old patient with a 15-year history of MS...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617363/-diagnostic-value-of-immunoglobulin-free-light-chains-at-the-debut-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
V D Nazarov, G S Makshakov, A V Mazing, E A Surkova, V S Krasnov, M V Shumilina, N A Totolyan, E P Evdoshenko, S V Lapin, V L Emanuel, A A Skoromets
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic value of determination of free immunoglobulin light chains (IgG) in the debut of multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 226 patients, including 111 patients with clinically isolated syndrome with conversion to multiple sclerosis within the first 2 years of the disease (group 1), 49 patients with clinically isolated syndrome who did not develop multiple sclerosis within the first 2 years of the disease (group 2), 20 patients with other inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (group 3) were analyzed...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550069/incidence-and-prevalence-of-nmosd-in-australia-and-new-zealand
#10
Wajih Bukhari, Kerri M Prain, Patrick Waters, Mark Woodhall, Cullen M O'Gorman, Laura Clarke, Roger A Silvestrini, Christine S Bundell, David Abernethy, Sandeep Bhuta, Stefan Blum, Mike Boggild, Karyn Boundy, Bruce J Brew, Matthew Brown, Wallace J Brownlee, Helmut Butzkueven, William M Carroll, Celia Chen, Alan Coulthard, Russell C Dale, Chandi Das, Keith Dear, Marzena J Fabis-Pedrini, David Fulcher, David Gillis, Simon Hawke, Robert Heard, Andrew P D Henderson, Saman Heshmat, Suzanne Hodgkinson, Sofia Jimenez-Sanchez, Trevor Killpatrick, John King, Christopher Kneebone, Andrew J Kornberg, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Ming-Wei Lin, Christpher Lynch, Richard Macdonell, Deborah F Mason, Pamela A McCombe, Michael P Pender, Jennifer A Pereira, John D Pollard, Stephen W Reddel, Cameron Shaw, Judith Spies, James Stankovich, Ian Sutton, Steve Vucic, Michael Walsh, Richard C Wong, Eppie M Yiu, Michael H Barnett, Allan G Kermode, Mark P Marriott, John D E Parratt, Mark Slee, Bruce V Taylor, Ernest Willoughby, Robert J Wilson, Angela Vincent, Simon A Broadley
OBJECTIVES: We have undertaken a clinic-based survey of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) in Australia and New Zealand to establish incidence and prevalence across the region and in populations of differing ancestry. BACKGROUND: NMOSD is a recently defined demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The incidence and prevalence of NMOSD in Australia and New Zealand has not been established. METHODS: Centres managing patients with demyelinating disease of the CNS across Australia and New Zealand reported patients with clinical and laboratory features that were suspicious for NMOSD...
August 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391782/brain-and-spinal-cord-mr-imaging-features-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-variants
#11
REVIEW
Iris Dekker, Mike P Wattjes
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling disease, with the first symptoms mostly appearing early in life. In addition to the clinical and laboratory findings, imaging has become increasingly important for diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring. Because of its importance for these purposes, a high level of knowledge of imaging MS pathology and a standardization of the imaging acquisition, interpretation, and reporting is necessary. Here we will describe the MR imaging characteristics of MS pathology, the current imaging protocols, diagnostic criteria, and the differential diagnosis of MS...
May 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005176/the-mrz-reaction-as-a-highly-specific-marker-of-multiple-sclerosis-re-evaluation-and-structured-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
S Jarius, P Eichhorn, D Franciotta, H F Petereit, G Akman-Demir, M Wick, B Wildemann
BACKGROUND: It has long been known that the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) display an intrathecal, polyspecific humoral immune response to a broad panel of neurotropic viruses. This response has measles virus, rubella virus and varicella zoster virus as its most frequent constituents and is thus referred to as the MRZ reaction (MRZR). OBJECTIVE: Re-evaluation of the specificity of MRZR as a marker of MS. METHODS: Structured review of the existing English-, German- and Spanish-language literature on MRZR testing, with evaluation of MRZR in a cohort of 43 unselected patients with MS and other neurological diseases as a proof of principle...
March 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911122/an-update-on-the-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Matteo Gastaldi, Elisabetta Zardini, Diego Franciotta
Intrathecal B-lymphocyte activation is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a multi-factorial inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Such activation has a counterpart in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB), whose diagnostic role in MS has been downgraded within the current McDonald's criteria. With a theoretico-practical approach, the authors review the physiopathological basis of the CSF dynamics, and the state-of-the-art of routine CSF analysis and CSF biomarkers in MS...
January 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613121/decreased-soluble-ifn-%C3%AE-receptor-sifnar2-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-potential-serum-diagnostic-biomarker
#14
Teresa Órpez-Zafra, Jose Pavía, Isaac Hurtado-Guerrero, Maria J Pinto-Medel, Jose Luis Rodriguez Bada, Patricia Urbaneja, Margarita Suardíaz, Luisa M Villar, Manuel Comabella, Xavier Montalban, Jose C Alvarez-Cermeño, Laura Leyva, Óscar Fernández, Begoña Oliver-Martos
BACKGROUND: The soluble isoform of the interferon-β (IFN-β) receptor (sIFNAR2) could modulate the activity of both endogenous and systemically administered IFN-β. Previously, we described lower serum sIFNAR2 levels in untreated multiple sclerosis (MS) than in healthy controls (HCs). OBJECTIVE: To assess sIFNAR2 levels in a new cohort of MS patients and HCs, as well as in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and to assess its ability as a diagnostic biomarker...
June 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412016/-optic-neuritis-in-childhood-a-pediatric-series-literature-review-and-treatment-approach
#15
D Lopez-Martin, J Martinez-Anton
INTRODUCTION: In children, the most common form of optic neuritis usually occurs after an infectious disease with papilledema, usually bilateral and has a good prognosis. Conversion to multiple sclerosis is low. AIM: To present clinical and laboratory case of optic neuritis in pediatrics features. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen clinical cases of optic neuritis in children and young people aged 4-14 years, referred from 2000 to 2015 were analyzed...
August 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097008/cerebrospinal-fluid-data-compilation-and-knowledge-based-interpretation-of-bacterial-viral-parasitic-oncological-chronic-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-diseases-diagnostic-patterns-not-to-be-missed-in-neurology-and-psychiatry
#16
REVIEW
Hansotto Reiber
The analysis of intrathecal IgG, IgA and IgM synthesis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and evaluation in combined quotient diagrams provides disease-related patterns. The compilation with complementary parameters (barrier function, i.e., CSF flow rate, cytology, lactate, antibodies) in a cumulative CSF data report allows a knowledge-based interpretation and provides analytical and medical plausibility for the quality assessment in CSF laboratories. The diagnostic relevance is described for neurological and psychiatric diseases, for which CSF analysis can't be replaced by other diagnostic methods without loss of information...
April 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070356/-current-concepts-on-intrathecal-humoral-immune-response-and-diagnostic-importance-of-oligoclonal-immunoglobulins-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
G S Makshakov, S V Lapin, E P Evdoshenko
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of probable autoimmune origin. In this review of literature, the authors present a constantly broadening list of potential antigens, including myelin and non-myelin structures, that cause the autoimmune reaction. Determination of antibodies to any antigen has not sufficient specificity and sensitivity for the use in routine laboratory practice. Oligoclonal immunoglobulins determined with isoelectric focusing (IEF) technique are currently considered as the main immunological MS markers...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26888994/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-type-1-autoimmunity-clinical-features-and-treatment-outcomes
#18
A Sebastian Lopez-Chiriboga, Lars Komorowski, Tania Kümpfel, Christian Probst, Shannon R Hinson, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To describe retrospectively the clinical associations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1-IgG). METHODS: Specimens of 9 patients evaluated on a service basis in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory by tissue-based immunofluorescence assay (IFA) yielded a robust, synaptic immunostaining pattern consistent with mGluR1-IgG (serum, 9; CSF, 2 available). Transfected HEK293 cell-based assay (CBA) confirmed mGluR1 specificity in all 11 specimens...
March 15, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847675/peculiar-cytological-cerebrospinal-fluid-pattern-in-a-case-of-encephalomyelitis-during-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-therapy
#19
Yana Motuzova, Alessia Di Sapio, Marco Capobianco, Arianna Sala, Fabiana Marnetto, Simona Malucchi, Antonio Bertolotto
INTRODUCTION: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocking agents may be associated with neurological adverse events, including demyelinating syndromes, that can be difficult to differentiate from multiple sclerosis (MS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) as neither the clinical nor laboratory distinctive features have been reported. Usually clinicians mainly examine the diagnostic value of immunoglobulin G oligoclonal bands underestimating the value of other cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters (such as CSF cytology)...
June 2015: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26530512/status-of-diagnostic-approaches-to-aqp4-igg-seronegative-nmo-and-nmo-ms-overlap-syndromes
#20
Maciej Juryńczyk, Brian Weinshenker, Gulsen Akman-Demir, Nasrin Asgari, David Barnes, Mike Boggild, Abhijit Chaudhuri, Marie D'hooghe, Nikos Evangelou, Ruth Geraldes, Zsolt Illes, Anu Jacob, Ho Jin Kim, Ingo Kleiter, Michael Levy, Romain Marignier, Christopher McGuigan, Katy Murray, Ichiro Nakashima, Lekha Pandit, Friedemann Paul, Sean Pittock, Krzysztof Selmaj, Jérôme de Sèze, Aksel Siva, Radu Tanasescu, Sandra Vukusic, Dean Wingerchuk, Damian Wren, Isabel Leite, Jacqueline Palace
Distinguishing aquaporin-4 IgG(AQP4-IgG)-negative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) from opticospinal predominant multiple sclerosis (MS) is a clinical challenge with important treatment implications. The objective of the study was to examine whether expert clinicians diagnose and treat NMO/MS overlapping patients in a similar way. 12 AQP4-IgG-negative patients were selected to cover the range of clinical scenarios encountered in an NMO clinic. 27 NMO and MS experts reviewed their clinical vignettes, including relevant imaging and laboratory tests...
January 2016: Journal of Neurology
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