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Clinical outcome prediction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927174/has-invasive-management-for-acute-coronary-syndromes-become-more-risk-appropriate-pooled-results-of-five-australian-registries
#1
Amera Halabi, Derek P Chew, Matthew Horsfall, Karice Huyn, Andrew MacIsaac, Craig Juergens, John Amerena, Jamie Rankin, John French, David Brieger
Background: Despite being recommended in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) guidelines, the use of invasive management within specific risk groups continues to be debated. This study examines the change in the use of invasive management in ACS by patient risk and the associated change in mortality within Australia over the last 17 years. Methods: Pooled cohorts derived from five ACS registries (ACACIA, CONCORDANCE, GRACE, Snapshot-ACS, and Predict) spanned from 1999 to 2015...
April 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927083/expression-of-thymidylate-synthase-predicts-clinical-outcomes-of-s-1-based-chemotherapy-in-squamous-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Yuichiro Honma, Shinsaku Togo, Kazue Shimizu, Miniwan Tulafu, Takuo Hayashi, Toshimasa Uekusa, Shigeru Tominaga, Kenji Kido, Yuichi Fujimoto, Yukiko Nanba, Kazuya Takamochi, Shiaki Oh, Kenji Suzuki, Kazuhisa Takahashi
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histology have limited chemotherapeutic options. Treatment with S-1 combined with carboplatin (CBDCA) has been shown to provide a significant survival benefit in SCC patients compared with treatment with combined CBDCA and paclitaxel. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the expression of molecular markers related to the pharmacological action of S-1, including thymidylate synthase (TS), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), and the clinical efficacy of S-1-based chemotherapy in SCC patients...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927036/urotensin-ii-receptor-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-the-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients
#3
Hongtao Wei, Xiaotong Yu, Xiaowei Xue, Hui Liu, Menglong Wang, Yingying Li, Xuejiang Wang, Huiguo Ding
Urotensin II and the associated urotensin II receptor (UTR) are important in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the clinical significance of UTR remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate if UTR exhibits the potential to act as a biomarker to predict the prognosis of HCC patients. The effects of UTR on motility and invasion of HCC cells were additionally investigated. UTR expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry, in 83 HCC patients that previously underwent curative liver resection...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926971/mini-review-the-contribution-of-intermediate-phenotypes-to-gxe-effects-on-disorders-of-body-composition-in-the-new-omics-era
#4
REVIEW
Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Esther C Gallegos-Cabriales, Irene Leal-Berumen, Raul A Bastarrachea
Studies of gene-environment (GxE) interactions describe how genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of developing disease. Intermediate (molecular or clinical) phenotypes (IPs) are traits or metabolic biomarkers that mediate the effects of gene-environment influences on risk behaviors. Functional systems genomics discovery offers mechanistic insights into how DNA variations affect IPs in order to detect genetic causality for a given disease. Disorders of body composition include obesity (OB), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and osteoporosis (OSTP)...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926755/neochordoplasty-versus-leaflet-resection-for-ruptured-mitral-chordae-treatment-virtual-mitral-valve-repair
#5
Ahnryul Choi, David D McPherson, Hyunggun Kim
Degenerative mitral valve (MV) disease involving mitral prolapse is one of the most prevalent MV pathologies. Quadrangular leaflet resection and neochordoplasty demonstrate excellent clinical outcomes for the treatment of posterior leaflet prolapse. We evaluated the functional and biomechanical characteristics of a virtual pathologic MV model suffering from chordal rupture, performed virtual neochordoplasty and quadrangular leaflet resection, and compared the two post-repair MV functions. The pre-repair MV demonstrated severe posterior leaflet prolapse due to the ruptured P2 chordae and excessive stress concentration...
September 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926579/cervical-screening-with-primary-hpv-testing-or-cytology-in-a-population-of-women-in-which-those-aged-33-years-or-younger-had-previously-been-offered-hpv-vaccination-results-of-the-compass-pilot-randomised-trial
#6
Karen Canfell, Michael Caruana, Val Gebski, Jessica Darlington-Brown, Stella Heley, Julia Brotherton, Dorota Gertig, Chloe J Jennett, Annabelle Farnsworth, Jeffrey Tan, C David Wrede, Philip E Castle, Marion Saville
BACKGROUND: Using primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical screening increases detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and invasive cancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ [CIN2+]) compared to cytology, but no evaluation has been conducted in a population previously offered HPV vaccination. We aimed to assess colposcopy referral and CIN2+ detection rates for HPV-screened versus cytology-screened women in Australia's HPV-vaccinated population (by 2014, resident women ≤33 years had been age-eligible for HPV vaccination, with 3-dose uptake across age cohorts being about 50%-77%)...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926500/occipital-lobe-and-posterior-cingulate-perfusion-in-the-prediction-of-dementia-with-lewy-body-pathology-in-a-clinical-sample
#7
Angus M J Prosser, Livia Tossici-Bolt, Christopher M Kipps
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of occipital lobe and posterior cingulate perfusion in predicting dopamine transporter imaging outcome using a quantitative measure of analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 99 patients with cognitive complaints who had undergone both technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (Tc-HMPAO SPECT) and I ioflupane (I-FP-CIT also called DaTSCAN) imaging in a dementia diagnostic center were analyzed...
September 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926399/natural-killer-cells-in-hiv-1-infection-and-therapy
#8
Joanna Mikulak, Ferdinando Oriolo, Elisa Zaghi, Clara Di Vito, Domenico Mavilio
: Natural killer (NK) cells are important effectors of innate immunity playing a key role in the eradication and clearance of viral infections. Over the recent years, several studies have shown that HIV-1 pathologically changes NK cell homeostasis and hampers their antiviral effector functions. Moreover, high levels of chronic HIV-1 viremia markedly impair those NK cell regulatory features that normally regulate the cross-talks between innate and adaptive immune responses. These pathogenic events take place early in the infection and are associated with a pathologic redistribution of NK cell subsets that includes the expansion of anergic CD56 NK cells with an aberrant repertoire of activating and inhibitory receptors...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926307/predictive-utility-of-personality-disorder-in-depression-comparison-of-outcomes-and-taxonomic-approach
#9
Giles Newton-Howes, Roger Mulder, Pete M Ellis, Joseph M Boden, Peter Joyce
There is debate around the best model for diagnosing personality disorder, both in terms of its relationship to the empirical data and clinical utility. Four randomized controlled trials examining various treatments for depression were analyzed at an individual patient level. Three different approaches to the diagnosis of personality disorder were analyzed in these patients. A total of 578 depressed patients were included in the analysis. Personality disorder, however measured, was of little predictive utility in the short term but added significantly to predictive modelling of medium-term outcomes, accounting for more than twice as much of the variance in social functioning outcome as depression psychopathology...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926197/epiretinal-membrane-surgery-an-analysis-of-2-step-sequential-or-combined-phacovitrectomy-surgery-on-refraction-and-macular-anatomy-in-a-prospective-trial
#10
Hassan Hamoudi, Ulrik Correll Christensen, Morten La Cour
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of combined phacoemulsification-vitrectomy and sequential surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) on refractive error (RE) and macular morphology. METHODS: In this prospective clinical trial, we allocated phakic eyes with ERM to (1) cataract surgery and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (CAT group), (2) PPV and subsequent cataract surgery (VIT group) or (3) phaco-vitrectomy (COMBI group). Examinations were at baseline, one month after each surgery, and at 3 months and 12 months of follow-up...
September 19, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926095/model-based-assessment-using-conventional-bioequivalence-limits-to-ensure-safety-and-efficacy-of-rivaroxaban-in-patients-undergoing-hip-or-knee-replacement
#11
Mario González-Sales, Lanyan Fang, Myong-Jin Kim, Liang Zhao
We evaluated whether the current bioequivalence limit is adequate to ensure safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban in patients under total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty based on its model informed benefit/risk profile. Clinical data from a total of 7145 patients from 3 phase 2 and 4 phase 3 clinical trials were included in the current model-based exposure-response analysis. The relationships between rivaroxaban exposure measurements (ie, minimum or trough, maximum, average concentration, and area under the concentration-time curve [AUC] at steady state) and clinical outcomes (ie, the probabilities of major bleeding [MB] and venous thromboembolism [VTE]) were modeled using NONMEM 7...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926003/age-of-first-exposure-to-american-football-and-long-term-neuropsychiatric-and-cognitive-outcomes
#12
M L Alosco, A B Kasimis, J M Stamm, A S Chua, C M Baugh, D H Daneshvar, C A Robbins, M Mariani, J Hayden, S Conneely, R Au, A Torres, M D McClean, A C McKee, R C Cantu, J Mez, C J Nowinski, B M Martin, C E Chaisson, Y Tripodis, R A Stern
Previous research suggests that age of first exposure (AFE) to football before age 12 may have long-term clinical implications; however, this relationship has only been examined in small samples of former professional football players. We examined the association between AFE to football and behavior, mood and cognition in a large cohort of former amateur and professional football players. The sample included 214 former football players without other contact sport history. Participants completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT), and self-reported measures of executive function and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Metacognition Index (MI), Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI)), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) and apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES))...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925935/technical-advances-in-the-measurement-of-residual-disease-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
REVIEW
Gregory W Roloff, Catherine Lai, Christopher S Hourigan, Laura W Dillon
Outcomes for those diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poor. It has been widely established that persistent residual leukemic burden, often referred to as measurable or minimal residual disease (MRD), after induction therapy or at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is highly predictive for adverse clinical outcomes and can be used to identify patients likely to experience clinically evident relapse. As a result of inherent genetic and molecular heterogeneity in AML, there is no uniform method or protocol for MRD measurement to encompass all cases...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925871/biomarkers-associated-with-atrial-fibrosis-and-remodeling
#14
Polychronis Dilaveris, Christos-Konstantinos Antoniou, Panagiota Manolakou, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Konstantinos Gatzoulis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disturbance encountered in clinical practice. Although often considered as solely arrhythmic in nature, current evidence has established that atrial myopathy constitutes both the substrate and the outcome of atrial fibrillation, thus initiating a vicious, self-perpetuating cycle. This myopathy is triggered by stress-induced (including pressure/volume overload, inflammation, oxidative stress) responses of atrial tissue, which in the long term become maladaptive, and combines elements of both structural, especially fibrosis, and electrical remodeling, with contemporary approaches yielding potentially useful biomarkers of these processes...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925538/maternal-intelligence-quotient-iq-predicts-iq-and-language-in-very-preterm-children-at-age-5%C3%A2-years
#15
Rachel E Lean, Rachel A Paul, Christopher D Smyser, Cynthia E Rogers
BACKGROUND: Sociodemographic factors are linked to cognitive outcomes in children born very preterm (VPT; ≤30 weeks gestation). The influence of maternal intellectual ability, a heritable trait, is unknown. Also undetermined is the extent to which associations between maternal and child intellectual ability vary according to parenting behaviors that target cognitive stimulation in the home. METHODS: At age 5 years, 84 VPT and 38 demographically matched full-term (FT) children underwent neurodevelopmental assessment...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924874/predictive-parameters-for-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-critical-limb-ischemia-who-underwent-percutaneous-transluminal-angioplasty-pta-a-systematic-review
#16
Sanne M Schreuder, Yvette M G A Hendrix, Jim A Reekers, Shandra Bipat
PURPOSE: To identify possible risk factors in predicting clinical outcome in critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies analyzing CLI and clinical outcome after PTA from January 2006 to April 2017. Outcome measures were ulcer healing, amputation free survival (AFS)/limb salvage and overall survival. Data on predictive factors for ulcer healing, AFS/limb salvage and survival were extracted...
September 18, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924814/the-prognostic-value-of-heart-rate-response-during-vasodilator-stress-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-undergoing-renal-transplantation
#17
Wael AlJaroudi, Chiedozie Anokwute, Ibtihaj Fughhi, Tania Campagnoli, Marwan Wassouf, Aviral Vij, Michael Kharouta, Andrew Appis, Amjad Ali, Rami Doukky
BACKGROUND: In asymptomatic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing vasodilator stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) prior to renal transplantation (RT), the impact of pre-transplant heart rate response (HRR) to vasodilator stress on post-RT outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of asymptomatic patients with ESRD who underwent a vasodilator stress SPECT-MPI and subsequently received RT. Blunted HRR was defined as HRR <28% for regadenoson stress and <20% for adenosine stress...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924803/patient-derived-xenografts-as-preclinical-neuroblastoma-models
#18
REVIEW
Noémie Braekeveldt, Daniel Bexell
The prognosis for children with high-risk neuroblastoma is often poor and survivors can suffer from severe side effects. Predictive preclinical models and novel therapeutic strategies for high-risk disease are therefore a clinical imperative. However, conventional cancer cell line-derived xenografts can deviate substantially from patient tumors in terms of their molecular and phenotypic features. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) recapitulate many biologically and clinically relevant features of human cancers...
September 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923933/longitudinal-identification-of-clinically-distinct-neurophenotypes-in-young-children-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#19
Jennifer L Bruno, David Romano, Paul Mazaika, Amy A Lightbody, Heather Cody Hazlett, Joseph Piven, Allan L Reiss
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), due to mutations of the FMR1 gene, is the most common known inherited cause of developmental disability. The cognitive, behavioral, and neurological phenotypes observed in affected individuals can vary considerably, making it difficult to predict outcomes and determine the need for interventions. We sought to examine early structural brain growth as a potential marker for identification of clinically meaningful subgroups. Participants included 42 very young boys with FXS who completed a T1-weighted anatomical MRI and cognitive/behavioral assessment at two longitudinal time points, with mean ages of 2...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923760/commonly-used-patient-reported-outcomes-do-not-improve-prediction-of-copd-exacerbations-a-multicenter-4-5-year-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Alexandra Strassmann, Anja Frei, Sarah R Haile, Gerben Ter Riet, Milo A Puhan
BACKGROUND: Several cross-sectional and short-term studies suggest that patient-reported outcomes (PROs) may be useful to (help) predict COPD exacerbations but evidence from long-term prospective cohort studies is missing. Our aim was to assess if PROs add to the prediction of exacerbations. METHODS: 408 primary care COPD patients participated in the multicenter prospective ICE COLD ERIC cohort. PROs included the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Feeling Thermometer and the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire (LAPAQ)...
September 15, 2017: Chest
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