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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336784/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-fingolimod-treatment-on-microglial-activation-using-serial-pet-imaging-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Marcus Sucksdorff, Eero Rissanen, Jouni Tuisku, Salla Nuutinen, Teemu Paavilainen, Johanna Rokka, Juha Rinne, Laura Airas
Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) has been considered a white matter (WM) disease with focal inflammatory lesions. It is, however, becoming clear that significant pathology, such as microglial activation, also takes place outside the plaque areas, i.e. in areas of normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (GM). Microglial activation can be detected in vivo using an 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) binding radioligands and positron emission tomography (PET). It is unknown whether fingolimod affects microglial activation in MS...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334875/white-matter-changes-in-paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-monophasic-demyelinating-disorders
#2
Giulia Longoni, Robert A Brown, Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Colm Elliott, Sridar Narayanan, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Ann Marrie, E Ann Yeh, Massimo Filippi, Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold
Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332093/pathogenic-implications-of-distinct-patterns-of-iron-and-zinc-in-chronic-ms-lesions
#3
Bogdan F Popescu, Josa M Frischer, Samuel M Webb, Mylyne Tham, Reginald C Adiele, Christopher A Robinson, Patrick D Fitz-Gibbon, Stephen D Weigand, Imke Metz, Susan Nehzati, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering, Wolfgang Brück, Simon Hametner, Hans Lassmann, Joseph E Parisi, Guo Yong, Claudia F Lucchinetti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oligodendrocytes, the CNS cells that stain most robustly for iron and myelin are the targets of injury. Metals are essential for normal CNS functioning, and metal imbalances have been linked to demyelination and neurodegeneration. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving synchrotron techniques, iron histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we compared the distribution and quantification of iron and zinc in MS lesions to the surrounding normal appearing and periplaque white matter, and assessed the involvement of these metals in MS lesion pathogenesis...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327087/nt5c2-novel-splicing-variant-expands-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-spastic-paraplegia-spg45-case-report-of-a-new-member-of-thin-corpus-callosum-spg-subgroup
#4
Mahmoud F Elsaid, Khalid Ibrahim, Nader Chalhoub, Ahmed Elsotouhy, Noora El Mudehki, Alice Abdel Aleem
BACKGROUND: Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases. Thin Corpus Callosum (TCC) associated HSP is a distinguished subgroup of complex forms. Purines and pyrimidine, the basic DNA and RNA components, are regulating the cell metabolism, having roles in signal transduction, energy preservation and cellular repair. Genetic defects in nucleotide metabolism related genes have been only recently implicated in brain and neurodegenerative diseases' pathogenesis...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319253/heat-shock-protein-expression-in-cerebral-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-reveals-astrocyte-stress-prior-to-myelin-loss
#5
Anna Lena Görtz, Laura A N Peferoen, Wouter H Gerritsen, Johannes M van Noort, Marianna Bugiani, Sandra Amor
AIMS: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic white matter disorder in which demyelination occurs due to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Inflammation in the brain white matter is a hallmark of the pathology of cerebral X-ALD, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still largely unknown. In other inflammatory demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis, the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in combination with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been suggested to play a prominent role in the initiation of demyelination and inflammation...
March 20, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302760/-11-c-pbr28-or-18-f-pbr111-detect-white-matter-inflammatory-heterogeneity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Gourab Datta, Alessandro Colasanti, Nicola Kalk, David R Owen, Gregory Scott, Eugenii Ilan A Rabiner, Roger Gunn, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Lei Nie, Marco Battaglini, Nicola De Stefano, Paul Matthews
Objective: To assess microglial activation in lesions and in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: 34 MS patients (7 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), 27 with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS)) and 30 healthy volunteers, genetically stratified for translocator protein (TSPO), binding status underwent PET scanning with TSPO radioligands ((11)C-PBR28 or (18)F-PBR111). Regional TSPO availability was measured as a distribution volume ratio (DVR) relative to the caudate (a pseudo-reference region)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293774/hiv-associated-neurodegeneration-and-neuroimmunity-multivoxel-mr-spectroscopy-study-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-and-treated-patients
#7
Jasmina Boban, Dusko Kozic, Vesna Turkulov, Jelena Ostojic, Robert Semnic, Dajana Lendak, Snezana Brkic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test neurobiochemical changes in normal appearing brain tissue in HIV+ patients receiving and not receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and healthy controls, using multivoxel MR spectroscopy (mvMRS). METHODS: We performed long- and short-echo 3D mvMRS in 110 neuroasymptomatic subjects (32 HIV+ subjects on cART, 28 HIV+ therapy-naïve subjects and 50 healthy controls) on a 3T MR scanner, targeting frontal and parietal supracallosal subcortical and deep white matter and cingulate gyrus (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and mI/Cr ratios were analysed)...
March 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273722/a-theoretical-framework-for-determining-cerebral-vascular-function-and-heterogeneity-from-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri
#8
Ingrid Digernes, Atle Bjørnerud, Svein Are S Vatnehol, Grete Løvland, Frédéric Courivaud, Einar Vik-Mo, Torstein R Meling, Kyrre E Emblem
Mapping the complex heterogeneity of vascular tissue in the brain is important for understanding cerebrovascular disease. In this translational study, we build on previous work using vessel architectural imaging (VAI) and present a theoretical framework for determining cerebral vascular function and heterogeneity from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our tissue model covers realistic structural architectures for vessel branching and orientations, as well as a range of hemodynamic scenarios for blood flow, capillary transit times and oxygenation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255864/hyperinsulinemia-and-elevated-systolic-blood-pressure-independently-predict-white-matter-hyperintensities-with-associated-cognitive-decrement-in-the-middle-aged-offspring-of-dementia-patients
#9
Keith A Hawkins, Nazli Emadi, Godfrey D Pearlson, Anderson M Winkler, Beth Taylor, Latha Dulipsingh, Diana King, Brian Pittman, Karen Blank
Cerebrovascular disease is an independent risk factor for dementia that may also be synergistic with Alzheimer's disease. In recent years attention has switched from cerebral infarcts to microvascular disease as the primary cause of cerebrovascular cognitive decline, with damage to the white matter the primary mechanism. Uncertainties remain regarding the risks posed by different types vascular threat, the extent to which cerebrovascular damage occurs in middle age, and whether relatively "normal" amounts of white matter damage are accompanied by meaningful degrees of cognitive decline...
March 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249729/both-hemorrhagic-and-non-hemorrhagic-traumatic-mri-lesions-are-associated-with-the-microstructural-damage-of-the-normal-appearing-white-matter
#10
Arnold Toth, Balint Kornyei, Noemi Kovacs, Tamas Rostas, Andras Buki, Tamas Doczi, Peter Bogner, Attila Schwarcz
Traumatic microbleeds (TMBs) and non-hemorrhagic lesions (NHLs) on MRI are regarded as surrogate markers of diffuse axonal injury. However, the actual relation between lesional and diffuse pathology remained unclear, since lesions were related to clinical parameters, largely influenced by extracranial factors. The aim of this study is to directly compare TMBs, NHLs and their regional features with the co-existing diffuse injury of the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
February 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240563/multiparametric-mr-imaging-of-diffusion-and-perfusion-in-contrast-enhancing-and-nonenhancing-components-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#11
Natalie R Boonzaier, Timothy J Larkin, Tomasz Matys, Anouk van der Hoorn, Jiun-Lin Yan, Stephen J Price
Purpose To determine whether regions of low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with high relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) represented elevated choline (Cho)-to-N-acetylaspartate (NAA) ratio (hereafter, Cho/NAA ratio) and whether their volumes correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Materials and Methods This retrospective analysis was approved by the local research ethics committee. Volumetric analysis of imaging data from 43 patients with histologically confirmed GBM was performed...
February 27, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239545/new-rapid-accurate-t2-quantification-detects-pathology-in-normal-appearing-brain-regions-of-relapsing-remitting-ms-patients
#12
Timothy M Shepherd, Ivan I Kirov, Erik Charlson, Mary Bruno, James Babb, Daniel K Sodickson, Noam Ben-Eliezer
INTRODUCTION: Quantitative T2 mapping may provide an objective biomarker for occult nervous tissue pathology in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We applied a novel echo modulation curve (EMC) algorithm to identify T2 changes in normal-appearing brain regions of subjects with RRMS (N = 27) compared to age-matched controls (N = 38). METHODS: The EMC algorithm uses Bloch simulations to model T2 decay curves in multi-spin-echo MRI sequences, independent of scanner, and scan-settings...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220365/binding-of-11-c-pittsburgh-compound-b-correlated-with-white-matter-injury-in-hypertensive-small-vessel-disease
#13
Tetsuya Hashimoto, Chiaki Yokota, Kazuhiro Koshino, Takashi Temma, Makoto Yamazaki, Satoshi Iguchi, Ryo Shimomura, Toshiyuki Uehara, Naoko Funatsu, Tenyu Hino, Kazuo Minematsu, Hidehiro Iida, Kazunori Toyoda
OBJECTIVE: (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B ((11)C-PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to visualize and quantify amyloid deposition in the brain cortex in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intense (11)C-PIB retention is also observed in the white matter (WM) of both healthy individuals and AD patients. However, the clinical implications of this retention in brain WM have not been clarified. We investigated the relationship between the extent of white matter lesions (WMLs) and the binding potential of (11)C-PIB (BPND) in the WM in patients with hypertensive small vessel disease...
April 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196940/intravoxel-incoherent-motion-imaging-in-small-vessel-disease-microstructural-integrity-and-microvascular-perfusion-related-to-cognition
#14
C Eleana Zhang, Sau May Wong, Renske Uiterwijk, Julie Staals, Walter H Backes, Erik I Hoff, Tobien Schreuder, Cécile R L P N Jeukens, Jacobus F A Jansen, Robert J van Oostenbrugge
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with cognitive impairment. This may be because of decreased microstructural integrity and microvascular perfusion, but data on these relationships are scarce. We determined the relationship between cognition and microvascular perfusion and microstructural integrity in SVD patients, using intravoxel incoherent motion imaging-a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique designed to determine microvascular perfusion and microstructural integrity simultaneously...
February 14, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188915/machine-learning-based-compartment-models-with-permeability-for-white-matter-microstructure-imaging
#15
Gemma L Nedjati-Gilani, Torben Schneider, Matt G Hall, Niamh Cawley, Ioana Hill, Olga Ciccarelli, Ivana Drobnjak, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Daniel C Alexander
Some microstructure parameters, such as permeability, remain elusive because mathematical models that express their relationship to the MR signal accurately are intractable. Here, we propose to use computational models learned from simulations to estimate these parameters. We demonstrate the approach in an example which estimates water residence time in brain white matter. The residence time τi of water inside axons is a potentially important biomarker for white matter pathologies of the human central nervous system, as myelin damage is hypothesised to affect axonal permeability, and thus τi...
February 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180080/simultaneous-investigation-of-microvasculature-and-parenchyma-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-using-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-imaging
#16
Sau May Wong, C Eleana Zhang, Frank C G van Bussel, Julie Staals, Cécile R L P N Jeukens, Paul A M Hofman, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Walter H Backes, Jacobus F A Jansen
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) is associated with microvascular and parenchymal alterations. Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI has been proposed to simultaneously measure both the microvascular perfusion and parenchymal diffusivity. This study aimed to evaluate the application of IVIM in cSVD to assess the microvasculature and parenchymal microstructure. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with cSVD (age 70 ± 11 y) and thirty-nine controls (age 69 ± 12 y) underwent IVIM imaging (3T)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178867/the-relationship-between-white-matter-fiber-damage-and-gray-matter-perfusion-in-large-scale-functionally-defined-networks-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Ashley Y Ma, Rita C Vitorino, Seyed-Parsa Hojjat, Alannah D Mulholland, Liying Zhang, Liesly Lee, Timothy J Carroll, Charles G Cantrell, Chase R Figley, Richard I Aviv
BACKGROUND: Recent studies utilizing perfusion as a surrogate of cortical integrity show promise for overall cognition, but the association between white matter (WM) damage and gray matter (GM) integrity in specific functional networks is not previously studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between WM fiber integrity and GM node perfusion within six functional networks of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173728/metabolic-changes-in-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-comparative-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#18
Yunyun Duan, Zheng Liu, Yaou Liu, Jing Huang, Zhuoqiong Ren, Zheng Sun, Hai Chen, Huiqing Dong, Jing Ye, Kuncheng Li
Background Previous studies with a small sample size have not reported metabolic changes in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Metabolic changes, such as decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA), are well-established in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It remains unknown whether different patterns of metabolic changes occur in NMO and MS. Purpose To investigate the metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in NMO, compared with MS patients and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these changes with clinical disability...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168372/high-b-value-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-hiv-patients
#19
Claudia Godi, Enrico De Vita, Enrico Tombetti, Indran Davagnanam, Lewis Haddow, Hans Rolf Jäger
OBJECTIVES: An ill-defined hyperintense edge and hypointense core on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is typical of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We aimed to investigate whether a b-value of 3,000 s/mm(2) (b3000) can improve visualisation of PML, or provide different structural information compared to 1,000 s/mm(2) (b1000). METHODS: We retrospectively identified HIV-positive patients with confirmed PML studied under a clinical protocol including both b1000 and b3000 DWI...
February 6, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123474/magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-occult-lesion-detection-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Jiafeng Chen, Chunkui Zhou, Lijun Zhu, Xiuli Yan, Yonghong Wang, Xin Chen, Shaokuan Fang
It remains challenging to locate occult lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been demonstrated to have the potential to identify occult changes in MS lesions. The present study used 3.0T magnetic resonance DTI to investigate the characteristics of different stages of MS lesions. DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), λ// and λ┴ values of lesions were compared at the different stages of 10 patients with MS with 10 normal controls...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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