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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872216/perilesional-and-contralateral-white-matter-evolution-and-integrity-in-patients-with-periventricular-nodular-heterotopia-and-epilepsy-a-longitudinal-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#1
Wenyu Liu, Bo Yan, Dongmei An, Running Niu, Yingying Tang, Xin Tong, Qiyong Gong, Dong Zhou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the evolution of perinodular and contralateral white matter abnormalities in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) and epilepsy. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (64 direction) and 3T structural MRIs were performed in 29 PNH patients (mean age 27.3 years), and 16 patients underwent a second scan (average time between two scans 1.1 years). Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were measured within the perilesional and contralateral white matter...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869176/-11-c-pib-retention-patterns-in-white-and-grey-cerebral-matter-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-patients-a-visual-analysis
#2
J F Jiménez-Bonilla, R Quirce, M De Arcocha-Torres, I Martínez-Rodríguez, N Martínez-Amador, P Sánchez-Juan, A Pozueta, R Martín-Láez, I Banzo, E Rodríguez-Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: Cortical cerebral amyloid disease, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, has also been observed in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The aim of this study was to compare the (11)C-PIB PET/CT retention pattern in iNPH patients and healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comparison was made of the (11)C-PIB PET/CT retention pattern in 13 iNPH patients selected for surgical deviation, compared to a normal control population. Images were visually analyzed and scored for gray matter and white matter (WM) from 1 to 4 (slight to very high PIB retention)...
August 28, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861929/myelin-content-changes-in-probable-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-associations-with-age-and-severity-of-neuropsychiatric-impairment
#3
Eleftherios Kavroulakis, Panagiotis G Simos, Georgios Kalaitzakis, Thomas G Maris, Dimitra Karageorgou, Ioannis Zaganas, Simeon Panagiotakis, Maria Basta, Alexandros Vgontzas, Efrosini Papadaki
BACKGROUND: Existing indices of white matter integrity such as fractional anisotropy and magnetization transfer ratio may not provide optimal specificity to myelin content. In contrast, myelin water fraction (MWF) derived from the multiecho T2 relaxation time technique may serve as a more direct measure of myelin content. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The goal of the present study was to identify markers of regional demyelination in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in relation to age and severity of neuropsychiatric impairment...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860608/fmiso-pet-derived-brain-oxygen-tension-maps-application-to-glioblastoma-and-less-aggressive-gliomas
#4
Ararat Chakhoyan, Jean-Sebastien Guillamo, Solène Collet, François Kauffmann, Nicolas Delcroix, Emmanuèle Lechapt-Zalcman, Jean-Marc Constans, Edwige Petit, Eric T MacKenzie, Louisa Barré, Myriam Bernaudin, Omar Touzani, Samuel Valable
Quantitative imaging modalities for the analysis of hypoxia in brain tumors are lacking. The objective of this study was to generate absolute maps of tissue ptO2 from [(18)F]-FMISO images in glioblastoma and less aggressive glioma patients in order to quantitatively assess tumor hypoxia. An ancillary objective was to compare estimated ptO2 values to other biomarkers: perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and tumor metabolism obtained from (1)H-MR mono-voxel spectroscopy (MRS). Ten patients with glioblastoma (GBM) and three patients with less aggressive glioma (nGBM) were enrolled...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859332/biology-of-microglia-in-the-developing-brain
#5
Charanjit Kaur, Gurugirijha Rathnasamy, Eng-Ang Ling
Microglia exist in different morphological forms in the developing brain. They show a small cell body with scanty cytoplasm with many branching processes in the grey matter of the developing brain. However, in the white matter such as the corpus callosum where the unmyelinated axons are loosely organized, they appear in an amoeboid form having a round cell body endowed with copious cytoplasm rich in organelles. The amoeboid cells eventually transform into ramified microglia in the second postnatal week when the tissue becomes more compact with the onset of myelination...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855392/neuropathology-of-white-matter-lesions-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-and-dementia
#6
Atticus H Hainsworth, Thais Minett, Joycelyn Andoh, Gillian Forster, Ishaan Bhide, Thomas R Barrick, Kay Elderfield, Jamuna Jeevahan, Hugh S Markus, Leslie R Bridges
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We tested whether blood-brain barrier dysfunction in subcortical white matter is associated with white matter abnormalities or risk of clinical dementia in older people (n=126; mean age 86.4, SD: 7.7 years) in the MRC CFAS (Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study). METHODS: Using digital pathology, we quantified blood-brain barrier dysfunction (defined by immunohistochemical labeling for the plasma marker fibrinogen)...
August 30, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818116/distinct-white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-and-extracellular-water-increases-relate-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-and-without-cerebrovascular-disease
#7
Fang Ji, Ofer Pasternak, Siwei Liu, Yng Miin Loke, Boon Linn Choo, Saima Hilal, Xin Xu, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) with concomitant cerebrovascular disease, has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. The brain white matter (WM) microstructural changes in neurodegeneration well-documented by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can originate from brain tissue or extracellular free water changes. The differential microstructural and free water changes in AD with and without cerebrovascular disease, especially in normal-appearing WM, remain largely unknown...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815362/metric-to-quantify-white-matter-damage-on-brain-magnetic-resonance-images
#8
Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Francesca M Chappell, Susana Muñoz Maniega, David Alexander Dickie, Natalie A Royle, Zoe Morris, Devasuda Anblagan, Eleni Sakka, Paul A Armitage, Mark E Bastin, Ian J Deary, Joanna M Wardlaw
PURPOSE: Quantitative assessment of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is challenging. It is important to harmonise results from different software tools considering not only the volume but also the signal intensity. Here we propose and evaluate a metric of white matter (WM) damage that addresses this need. METHODS: We obtained WMH and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) volumes from brain structural MRI from community dwelling older individuals and stroke patients enrolled in three different studies, using two automatic methods followed by manual editing by two to four observers blind to each other...
August 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794971/the-relationship-between-cortical-lesions-and-periventricular-nawm-abnormalities-suggests-a-shared-mechanism-of-injury-in-primary-progressive-ms
#9
Matteo Pardini, Maria Petracca, Asaff Harel, Lazar Fleysher, Niels Oesingmann, Giulia Bommarito, Michelle Fabian, Declan Chard, Fred Lublin, Matilde Inglese
In subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS), pathology is more frequent near the inner and outer surfaces of the brain. Here, we sought to explore if in subjects with primary progressive MS (PPMS) cortical lesion load is selectively associated with the severity of periventricular normal appearing white matter (NAWM) damage, as assessed with diffusion weighted imaging. To this aim, twenty-four subjects with PPMS and twenty healthy controls were included in the study. Using diffusion data, skeletonized mean diffusivity (MD) NAWM maps were computed excluding WM lesions and a 2 mm-thick peri-lesional rim...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794252/white-matter-hyperintensity-reduction-and-outcomes-after-minor-stroke
#10
Joanna M Wardlaw, Francesca M Chappell, Maria Del Carmen Valdés Hernández, Stephen D J Makin, Julie Staals, Kirsten Shuler, Michael J Thrippleton, Paul A Armitage, Susana Muñoz-Maniega, Anna K Heye, Eleni Sakka, Martin S Dennis
OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) change in a large cohort after observing obvious WMH shrinkage 1 year after minor stroke in several participants in a longitudinal study. METHODS: We recruited participants with minor ischemic stroke and performed clinical assessments and brain MRI. At 1 year, we assessed recurrent cerebrovascular events and dependency and repeated the MRI. We assessed change in WMH volume from baseline to 1 year (normalized to percent intracranial volume [ICV]) and associations with baseline variables, clinical outcomes, and imaging parameters using multivariable analysis of covariance, model of changes, and multinomial logistic regression...
September 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782447/global-loss-of-myelin-water-over-5-years-in-multiple-sclerosis-normal-appearing-white-matter
#11
Irene M Vavasour, Sophie C Huijskens, David Kb Li, Anthony L Traboulsee, Burkhard Mädler, Shannon H Kolind, Alexander Rauscher, Gr Wayne Moore, Alex L MacKay, Cornelia Laule
BACKGROUND: Reduced myelin water fraction (MWF, a marker for myelin), increased geometric mean T2 (ieGMT2, reflecting intra/extracellular water properties), and increased T1 (related to total water content) have been observed in cross-sectional studies of multiple sclerosis (MS) normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinal changes of magnetic resonance (MR) measures in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) brain NAWM. METHODS: A total of 11 subjects with RRMS and 4 controls were scanned on a 3T MRI at baseline and long-term follow-up (LTFU; 3...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775058/analysis-of-white-matter-damage-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-via-a-novel-in-vivo-mr-method-for-measuring-myelin-axons-and-g-ratio
#12
A Hagiwara, M Hori, K Yokoyama, M Nakazawa, R Ueda, M Horita, C Andica, O Abe, S Aoki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myelin and axon volume fractions can now be estimated via MR imaging in vivo, as can the g-ratio, which equals the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of a nerve fiber. The purpose of this study was to evaluate WM damage in patients with MS via this novel MR imaging technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a combined total of 149 chronic plaques were analyzed. Myelin volume fraction was calculated based on simultaneous tissue relaxometry...
August 3, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764938/neuroimaging-techniques-to-assess-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Silvia Tommasin, Costanza Giannì, Laura De Giglio, Patrizia Pantano
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that represents a leading cause of disability in young adults and is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of both white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM). Defining the presence or absence of inflammation on individual basis is a key point in choosing the therapy and monitoring the treatment response. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the most sensitive non-invasive tool to monitor inflammation in the clinical practice. Indeed, in the early phase of inflammation MRI detects new lesions as extrusion of gadolinium contrast agents across the altered blood-brain-barrier (BBB)...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761809/evaluating-single-point-quantitative-magnetization-transfer-in-the-cervical-spinal-cord-application-to-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Alex K Smith, Samantha By, Bailey D Lyttle, Richard D Dortch, Bailey A Box, Lydia J Mckeithan, Saakshi Thukral, Francesca Bagnato, Siddharama Pawate, Seth A Smith
Spinal cord (SC) damage is linked to clinical deficits in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), however, conventional MRI methods are not specific to the underlying macromolecular tissue changes that may precede overt lesion detection. Single-point quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) is a method that can provide high-resolution indices sensitive to underlying macromolecular composition in a clinically feasible scan time by reducing the number of MT-weighted acquisitions and utilizing a two-pool model constrained by empirically determined constants...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740446/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-of-gliomas-grades-ii-and-iii-a-study-of-perilesional-tumor-infiltration-tumor-grades-and-subtypes-at-clinical-presentation
#15
Anna F Delgado, Markus Fahlström, Markus Nilsson, Shala G Berntsson, Maria Zetterling, Sylwia Libard, Irina Alafuzoff, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Anja Smits, Elna-Marie Larsson
BACKGROUND: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) allows for assessment of diffusion influenced by microcellular structures. We analyzed DKI in suspected low-grade gliomas prior to histopathological diagnosis. The aim was to investigate if diffusion parameters in the perilesional normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) differed from contralesional white matter, and to investigate differences between glioma malignancy grades II and III and glioma subtypes (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas)...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723885/term-versus-preterm-cord-blood-cells-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-brain-injury
#16
Jingang Li, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Jan Loose, Ilias Nitsos, Beth J Allison, Robert Bischof, Courtney A McDonald, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: White matter brain injury in preterm infants can induce neurodevelopmental deficits. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells demonstrate neuroprotective properties, but it is unknown whether cells obtained from preterm versus term cord blood have similar efficacy. This study compared the ability of term cord blood (TCB) versus preterm cord blood (PCB) cells to reduce white matter injury in preterm fetal sheep. METHODS: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in fetal sheep (0...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719854/clinically-silent-alzheimer-s-and-vascular-pathologies-influence-brain-networks-supporting-executive-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#17
Brian T Gold, Christopher A Brown, Jonathan G Hakun, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Charles D Smith
Aging is associated with declines in executive function. We examined how executive functional brain systems are influenced by clinically silent Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Twenty-nine younger adults and 34 cognitively normal older adults completed a working memory paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Older adults further underwent lumbar cerebrospinal fluid draw for the assessment of AD pathology and FLAIR imaging for the assessment of WMHs...
October 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715431/colony-collapse-disorder-ccd-and-bee-age-impact-honey-bee-pathophysiology
#18
Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Kirsten S Traynor, Michael Andree, Elinor M Lichtenberg, Yanping Chen, Claude Saegerman, Diana L Cox-Foster
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713238/targeting-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-road-toward-an-imaging-based-biomarker
#19
Jeroen Van Schependom, Guy Nagels
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuro-degenerative and -inflammatory disease leading to physical and cognitive impairment, pathological fatigue and depression, and affecting patients' quality of life and employment status. The combination of inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration leads to the emergence of MS lesions, reduced white and gray matter brain volumes, a reduced conduction velocity and microstructural changes in the so-called Normal Appearing White Matter (NAWM). Currently, there are very limited options to treat cognitive impairment and its origin is only poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707765/tissue-microarray-methodology-identifies-complement-pathway-activation-and-dysregulation-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Sam Loveless, James W Neal, Owain W Howell, Katharine E Harding, Patrick Sarkies, Rhian Evans, Ryan J Bevan, Svetlana Hakobyan, Claire L Harris, Neil P Robertson, B Paul Morgan
BACKGROUND: The complement pathway has potential contributions to both white (WM) and grey matter (GM) pathology in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A quantitative assessment of complement involvement is lacking. OBJECTIVE: Tissue MicroArray methodology was used in conjunction with immunohistochemistry to investigate the localization of complement pathway proteins in progressive MS cortical GM and subcortical WM. METHODS: Antibodies targeting complement proteins C1q, C3b, regulatory proteins C1 inhibitor (C1INH), complement receptor 1 (CR1), clusterin, factor H (FH) and the C5a anaphylatoxin receptor (C5aR) were utilised alongside standard markers of tissue pathology...
July 14, 2017: Brain Pathology
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