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Normal appearing white matter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133891/decreased-oxygen-saturation-levels-in-neonates-with-transposition-of-great-arteries-impact-on-appearance-of-cerebral-veins-in-susceptibility-weighted-imaging
#1
Rajeev Kumar Verma, Desislava Keller, Sebastian Grunt, Sandra Bigi, Christian Weisstanner, Roland Wiest, Jan Gralla, Damian Hutter, Bendicht Wagner
Purpose of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between the pattern of cerebral veins (CV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and blood oxygen saturation, as well as preoperative brain injury, in neonates with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Eleven neonates with TGA underwent MRI preoperatively, including SWI, T1- and T2-weighted scans. Images were retrospectively evaluated and appearance of CV was graded from 0 (normal appearance) to 3 (severe prominent appearance). White matter injuries (WMI) and strokes were analysed...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127272/structural-integrity-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-and-sex-specific-outcomes-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#2
Mark R Etherton, Ona Wu, Pedro Cougo, Anne-Katrin Giese, Lisa Cloonan, Kaitlin M Fitzpatrick, Allison S Kanakis, Gregoire Boulouis, Hasan H Karadeli, Arne Lauer, Jonathan Rosand, Karen L Furie, Natalia S Rost
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Women have worse poststroke outcomes than men. We evaluated sex-specific clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of white matter in association with functional recovery after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of acute ischemic stroke patients with admission brain MRI and 3- to 6-month modified Rankin Scale score. White matter hyperintensity and acute infarct volume were quantified on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion tensor imaging MRI, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126445/ykl-40-in-the-brain-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-neurodegenerative-dementias
#3
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Waqas Tahir, Eirini Kanata, Daniela Diaz-Lucena, Konstantinos Xanthopoulos, Eleni Kovatsi, Catharina Pleschka, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Matthias Schmitz, Duru Ozbay, Susana Correia, Ângela Correia, Ira Milosevic, Olivier Andréoletti, Natalia Fernández-Borges, Ina M Vorberg, Markus Glatzel, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Juan Maria Torres, Susanne Krasemann, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Isidro Ferrer, Inga Zerr
BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (also known as Chitinase 3-like 1) is a glycoprotein produced by inflammatory, cancer and stem cells. Its physiological role is not completely understood but YKL-40 is elevated in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammatory processes. Yet the precise characterization of YKL-40 in dementia cases is missing. METHODS: In the present study, we comparatively analysed YKL-40 levels in the brain and CSF samples from neurodegenerative dementias of different aetiologies characterized by the presence of cortical pathology and disease-specific neuroinflammatory signatures...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098732/differentiating-the-histologic-grades-of-gliomas-preoperatively-using-amide-proton-transfer-weighted-aptw-and-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-mri
#4
Tianyu Zou, Hao Yu, Chunxiu Jiang, Xianlong Wang, Shanshan Jiang, Qihong Rui, Yingjie Mei, Jinyuan Zhou, Zhibo Wen
The purpose of this work was to investigate the diagnostic performance of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTW) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative grading of gliomas. Fifty-one patients with suspected gliomas were recruited and underwent a preoperative MRI examination that included APTW and IVIM sequences. All cases were confirmed by postsurgical histopathology. APTW signal intensity, true diffusion coefficient (D), perfusion fraction (f) and pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*) were applied to assess the solid tumor component and contralateral normal-appearing white matter...
November 3, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097413/spatial-correlation-of-pathology-and-perfusion-changes-within-the-cortex-and-white-matter-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
A D Mulholland, R Vitorino, S-P Hojjat, A Y Ma, L Zhang, L Lee, T J Carroll, C G Cantrell, C R Figley, R I Aviv
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The spatial correlation between WM and cortical GM disease in multiple sclerosis is controversial and has not been previously assessed with perfusion MR imaging. We sought to determine the nature of association between lobar WM, cortical GM, volume and perfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen individuals with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 19 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 19 age-matched healthy controls were recruited...
November 2, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091750/t1-shortening-in-the-globus-pallidus-after-multiple-administrations-of-gadobutrol-assessment-with-a-multidynamic-multiecho-sequence
#6
Koung Mi Kang, Seung Hong Choi, Moonjung Hwang, Tae Jin Yun, Ji-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn
Purpose To determine the association between the administration of the macrocyclic contrast medium gadobutrol and T1 relaxation time in the brains of patients with normal renal function by using multidynamic multiecho (MDME) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the need to obtain written informed consent was waived. This study included 46 patients (revealed by an electronic medical record search) who had received one or more gadobutrol injections and a maximum of one MR imaging contrast medium injection other than gadobutrol before MDME sequence acquisition...
November 1, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072188/body-dysmorphic-disorder-latest-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-findings
#7
K Tasios, I Michopoulos
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in physical appearance that is not observable or appears slight to others. It leads to severe distress and functional impairment. Cognitive-behavioural and neurobiological similarities to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have led to its newly conceived classification as an obsessive compulsive related disorder (OCRD). In the process of investigating the neurobiology of BDD, neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064346/metabolic-counterparts-of-sodium-accumulation-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-whole-brain-23-na-mri-and-fast-1-h-mrsi-study
#8
Maxime Donadieu, Yann Le Fur, Adil Maarouf, Soraya Gherib, Ben Ridley, Lauriane Pini, Stanislas Rapacchi, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Maxime Guye, Lothar R Schad, Andrew A Maudsley, Jean Pelletier, Bertrand Audoin, Wafaa Zaaraoui, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva
BACKGROUND: Increase of brain total sodium concentrations (TSC) is present in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its pathological involvement has not been assessed yet. OBJECTIVE: To determine in vivo the metabolic counterpart of brain sodium accumulation. MATERIALS/METHODS: Whole brain (23)Na-MR imaging and 3D-(1)H-EPSI data were collected in 21 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 20 volunteers. Metabolites and sodium levels were extracted from several regions of grey matter (GM), normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and white matter (WM) T2 lesions...
October 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060535/early-axonal-damage-in-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-multiple-sclerosis-novel-insights-from-multi-shell-diffusion-mri
#9
Silvia De Santis, Tobias Granberg, Russell Ouellette, Constantina A Treaba, Qiuyun Fan, Elena Herranz, Caterina Mainero, Nicola Toschi
Conventional diffusion-weighted MR imaging techniques provide limited specificity in disentangling disease-related microstructural alterations involving changes in both axonal density and myelination. By simultaneously probing multiple diffusion regimens, multi-shell diffusion MRI is capable of increasing specificity to different tissue sub-compartments and hence separate different contributions to changes in diffusion-weighted signal attenuation. Advanced multi-shell diffusion models impose significant requirements on the amount of diffusion weighting (i...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058342/radiation-induced-brain-structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-presymptomatic-phase-and-outcome-prediction
#10
Zhongxiang Ding, Han Zhang, Xiao-Fei Lv, Fei Xie, Lizhi Liu, Shijun Qiu, Li Li, Dinggang Shen
Radiation therapy, a major method of treatment for brain cancer, may cause severe brain injuries after many years. We used a rare and unique cohort of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with normal-appearing brains to study possible early irradiation injury in its presymptomatic phase before severe, irreversible necrosis happens. The aim is to detect any structural or functional imaging biomarker that is sensitive to early irradiation injury, and to understand the recovery and progression of irradiation injury that can shed light on outcome prediction for early clinical intervention...
October 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055436/brain-white-matter-demyelinating-lesions-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-a-patient-with-c9orf72-hexanucleotide-repeat-expansion
#11
Miguel Oliveira Santos, Inês Caldeira, Marta Gromicho, Ana Pronto-Laborinho, Mamede de Carvalho
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. It has been described before four patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and C9orf72-ALS. However, C9orf72 positivity is not associated with increased risk of MS. Inflammatory pathways related to NF-κB have been linked to ALS and MS, and appear to be important in C9orf72-ALS patients. A 42-year-old woman presented with progressive bulbar symptoms for 9 months. Neurological examination disclosed spastic dysarthria, atrophic tongue with fasciculations, brisk jaw and limb tendon reflexes, and bilateral Hoffman sign...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053836/long-term-disability-progression-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-a-15-year-study
#12
Maria A Rocca, Maria Pia Sormani, Marco Rovaris, Domenico Caputo, Angelo Ghezzi, Enrico Montanari, Antonio Bertolotto, Alice Laroni, Roberto Bergamaschi, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
Prognostic markers of primary progressive multiple sclerosis evolution are needed. We investigated the added value of magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain and cervical cord damage in predicting long-term clinical worsening of primary progressive multiple sclerosis compared to simple clinical assessment. In 54 patients, conventional and diffusion tensor brain scans and cervical cord T1-weighted scans were acquired at baseline and after 15 months. Clinical evaluation was performed after 5 and 15 years in 49 patients...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053798/in-vivo-characterization-of-cortical-and-white-matter-neuroaxonal-pathology-in-early-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Tobias Granberg, Qiuyun Fan, Constantina Andrada Treaba, Russell Ouellette, Elena Herranz, Gabriel Mangeat, Céline Louapre, Julien Cohen-Adad, Eric C Klawiter, Jacob A Sloane, Caterina Mainero
Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053775/neuroinflammation-and-its-relationship-to-changes-in-brain-volume-and-white-matter-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Gourab Datta, Alessandro Colasanti, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Eline Van Vlierberghe, Wim Van Hecke, Graham Searle, Andre Santos-Ribeiro, Paul M Matthews
Brain magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis patients. However, magnetic resonance imaging alone provides limited information for predicting an individual patient's disability progression. In part, this is because magnetic resonance imaging lacks sensitivity and specificity for detecting chronic diffuse and multi-focal inflammation mediated by activated microglia/macrophages. The aim of this study was to test for an association between 18 kDa translocator protein brain positron emission tomography signal, which arises largely from microglial activation, and measures of subsequent disease progression in multiple sclerosis patients...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021778/the-combined-quantification-and-interpretation-of-multiple-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-metrics-enlightens-longitudinal-changes-compatible-with-brain-repair-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#15
Guillaume Bonnier, Benedicte Maréchal, Mário João Fartaria, Pavel Falkowskiy, José P Marques, Samanta Simioni, Myriam Schluep, Renaud Du Pasquier, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Gunnar Krueger, Cristina Granziera
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative and semi-quantitative MRI (qMRI) metrics provide complementary specificity and differential sensitivity to pathological brain changes compatible with brain inflammation, degeneration, and repair. Moreover, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with overlapping elements amplify the true tissue-related information and limit measurement noise. In this work, we combined multiple advanced MRI parameters to assess focal and diffuse brain changes over 2 years in a group of early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987682/mr-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-predicts-malignant-potential-and-the-histological-type-of-meningioma
#16
Fen Xing, Ning Tu, Tong San Koh, Guangyao Wu
PURPOSE: To explore the value of Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in the differential diagnosis of meningioma. METHODS: For this study, we retrospectively enrolled 35 patients of cerebral meningioma with DKI which included axial diffusion coefficient (AD), radial diffusion coefficient (RD), mean diffusion coefficient (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial kurtosis (AK), radial kurtosis (RK) and mean kurtosis (MK). All of these metrics were normalized according to contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWMc)...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981455/a-unique-tgfb1-driven-genomic-program-links-astrocytosis-low-grade-inflammation-and-partial-demyelination-in-spinal-cord-periplaques-from-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#17
Serge Nataf, Marc Barritault, Laurent Pays
We previously reported that, in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a progressive form of the disease, spinal cord periplaques extend distance away from plaque borders and are characterized by the co-occurrence of partial demyelination, astrocytosis and low-grade inflammation. However, transcriptomic analyses did not allow providing a comprehensive view of molecular events in astrocytes vs. oligodendrocytes. Here, we re-assessed our transcriptomic data and performed co-expression analyses to characterize astrocyte vs...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970242/initial-investigation-into-microbleeds-and-white-matter-signal-changes-following-radiotherapy-for-low-grade-and-benign-brain-tumors-using-ultra-high-field-mri-techniques
#18
J-G Belliveau, G S Bauman, K Y Tay, D Ho, R S Menon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: External beam radiation therapy is a common treatment for many brain neoplasms. While external beam radiation therapy adheres to dose limits to protect the uninvolved brain, areas of high dose to normal tissue still occur. Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy can have adverse effects such as microbleeds and radiation necrosis, but few studies exist of patients treated without chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients were treated for low-grade or benign neoplasms with external beam radiation therapy only and scanned within 12-36 months following treatment with a 7T MR imaging scanner...
September 28, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953791/neurosyphilis-the-white-matter-disintegration-two-case-reports
#19
Monika Czarnowska-Cubała, Adam Włodarczyk, Joanna Szarmach, Katarzyna Gwoździewicz, Joanna Pieńkowska, Mariusz S Wiglusz, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała, Krzysztof Krysta
BACKGROUND: There is evidence for neurosyphilis being associated with the central nervous system vasculitis involving medium and small vessels. As the hemispheric white matter is the major target of these vascular alterations the white matter axonal and myelination disruption may be observed employing measure for the rate of water molecule diffusion. High apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correspond to unimpeded water diffusion and indicating white matter disintegration. CASE REPORTS: In a retrospective study exploringcentral nervous system magnetic resonance (MR) images of two subjects presenting with neurosyphilis the ADC values were found to be increased as related to normal values being accompanied with normal appearing white matter of hemispheres...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944575/seven-tesla-magnetization-transfer-imaging-to-detect-multiple-sclerosis-white-matter-lesions
#20
I-Jun Chou, Su-Yin Lim, Radu Tanasescu, Ali Al-Radaideh, Olivier E Mougin, Christopher R Tench, William P Whitehouse, Penny A Gowland, Cris S Constantinescu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 Tesla (T) field strength is the most sensitive modality for detecting white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. While 7T FLAIR is effective in detecting cortical lesions, it has not been fully optimized for visualization of white matter lesions and thus has not been used for delineating lesions in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
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