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Normal appearing white matter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769375/baseline-nawm-structural-integrity-and-cbf-predict-periventricular-wmh-expansion-over-time
#1
Nutta-On Promjunyakul, Hiroko H Dodge, David Lahna, Erin L Boespflug, Jeffrey A Kaye, William D Rooney, Lisa C Silbert
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe and compare baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and microstructural characteristics of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) within the vulnerable periventricular white matter hyperintensity (PVWMH) penumbra region in predicting white matter hyperintensity (WMH) growth over time. METHODS: Fifty-two patients, aged 82.8 years, underwent serial brain MRI, including pulsed arterial spin labeling and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). New WMH and persistent NAWM voxels in relation to WMH penumbra at follow-up were identified...
May 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766930/measurement-of-the-permeability-perfusion-and-histogram-characteristics-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-with-extended-tofts-linear-model
#2
Ping Yin, Hua Xiong, Yi Liu, Shambhu K Sah, Chun Zeng, Jingjie Wang, Yongmei Li, Nan Hong
Objective: To investigate the application value of using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with extended Tofts linear model for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and its correlation with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores and disease duration. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DCE-MRI with a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner. An extended Tofts linear model was used to quantitatively measure MR imaging biomarkers...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764622/absolute-cbv-for-the-differentiation-of-recurrence-and-radionecrosis-of-brain-metastases-after-gamma-knife-radiotherapy-a-comparison-with-relative-cbv
#3
B Wang, B Zhao, Y Zhang, M Ge, P Zhao, Na Sun, C Li, Q Pang, S Xu, Y Liu
AIM: To investigate the efficiency of absolute cerebral blood volume (CBV) in the differentiation of tumour recurrence (TR) and radionecrosis (RN) in brain metastases (BM) and to evaluate the performance of absolute CBV compared to relative CBV (rCBV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2015 and June 2017, 46 patients with BM underwent quantitative dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) because new enhancement had been demonstrated in irradiated lesions after gamma knife radiotherapy...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757481/severe-white-matter-astrocytopathy-in-cadasil
#4
Yoshiki Hase, Aiqing Chen, Letitia L Bates, Lucinda J L Craggs, Yumi Yamamoto, Elizabeth Gemmell, Arthur E Oakley, Viktor I Korolchuk, Raj N Kalaria
Objectives Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is characterised by strategic white matter (WM) hyperintensities on MRI. Pathological features include WM degeneration, arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts and the deposition of granular osmiophilic material. Based on the hypothesis that the gliovascular unit is compromised, we assessed the nature of astrocyte damage in the deep WM of CADASIL subjects. Methods We evaluated post-mortem brains from CADASIL, cerebral small vessel disease, similar age cognitively normal and older control subjects...
May 14, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752305/white-matter-integrity-and-processing-speed-in-sickle-cell-anemia
#5
Hanne Stotesbury, Fenella J Kirkham, Melanie Kölbel, Philippa Balfour, Jonathan D Clayden, Sati Sahota, Simrat Sakaria, Dawn E Saunders, Jo Howard, Rachel Kesse-Adu, Baba Inusa, Maria Pelidis, Subarna Chakravorty, David C Rees, Moji Awogbade, Olu Wilkey, Mark Layton, Christopher A Clark, Jamie M Kawadler
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to investigate whether changes in white matter integrity are related to slower processing speed in sickle cell anemia. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with silent cerebral infarction, 46 patients with normal MRI, and 32 sibling controls (age range 8-37 years) underwent cognitive assessment using the Wechsler scales and 3-tesla MRI. Tract-based spatial statistics analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) parameters were performed...
May 11, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746715/quantitative-susceptibility-map-analysis-in-preterm-neonates-with-germinal-matrix-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#6
Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Jan Sedlacik, Benedetta Toselli, Mariya Malova, Alessandro Parodi, Giovanni Morana, Marco Massimo Fato, Luca Antonio Ramenghi, Andrea Rossi
BACKGROUND: Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage occurring in preterm neonates that may affect normal brain development. Although the primary lesion is easily identified on MRI by the presence of blood products, its exact extent may not be recognizable with conventional sequences. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantify the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility within biological tissues, including blood degradation products...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744799/dti-derived-indexes-of-brain-wm-correlate-with-cognitive-performance-in-vascular-mci-and-small-vessel-disease-a-tbss-study
#7
Mario Mascalchi, Emilia Salvadori, Nicola Toschi, Marco Giannelli, Stefano Orsolini, Stefano Ciulli, Andrea Ginestroni, Anna Poggesi, Antonio Giorgio, Francesca Lorenzini, Marco Pasi, Nicola De Stefano, Leonardo Pantoni, Domenico Inzitari, Stefano Diciotti
Indexes derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are sensitive to changes of both T2-hyperintense and normal-appearing brain white matter (WM) in elderly subjects with variable cognitive status. We investigated correlations between global cognitive performance and DTI-derived indexes along the WM tracts in the brain of patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and small vessel disease (SVD). Seventy-six patients with vascular MCI and SVD were assessed through Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test and underwent DTI examination on a 1...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733919/disruptions-of-brain-structural-network-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-with-long-term-hemodialysis-and-normal-appearing-brain-tissues
#8
Ming-Chung Chou, Chih-Hung Ko, Jer-Ming Chang, Tsyh-Jyi Hsieh
OBJECTIVE: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis were demonstrated to exhibit silent and invisible white-matter alterations which would likely lead to disruptions of brain structural networks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the disruptions of brain structural network in ESRD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thiry-three ESRD patients with normal-appearing brain tissues and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study and underwent both cognitive ability screening instrument (CASI) assessment and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisition...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724890/progression-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-preceded-by-heterogeneous-decline-of-microstructural-integrity
#9
Esther M C van Leijsen, Mayra I Bergkamp, Ingeborg W M van Uden, Mohsen Ghafoorian, Helena M van der Holst, David G Norris, Bram Platel, Anil M Tuladhar, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are frequently seen on neuroimaging of elderly and are associated with cognitive decline and the development of dementia. Yet, the temporal dynamics of conversion of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) into WMH remains unknown. We examined whether and when progression of WMH was preceded by changes in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion tensor imaging values, thereby taking into account differences between participants with mild versus severe baseline WMH...
May 3, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722063/a-discrete-polar-stockwell-transform-for-enhanced-characterization-of-tissue-structure-using-mri
#10
Glen Pridham, Martijn D Steenwijk, Jeroen J G Geurts, Yunyan Zhang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to present an effective algorithm for computing the discrete polar Stockwell transform (PST), investigate its unique multiscale and multi-orientation features, and explore potentially new applications including denoising and tissue segmentation. THEORY AND METHODS: We investigated PST responses using both synthetic and MR images. Moreover, we compared the features of PST with both Gabor and Morlet wavelet transforms, and compared the PST with two wavelet approaches for denoising using MRI...
May 2, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708466/overexpression-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptors-on-reactive-astrocytes-drives-neuropathology-of-multiple-sclerosis-rebound-after-fingolimod-discontinuation
#11
Maria Teresa Giordana, Paola Cavalla, Antonio Uccelli, Alice Laroni, Fabio Bandini, Marco Vercellino, Gianluigi Mancardi
We present the neuropathological description of an autoptic case of fatal rebound of disease activity after fingolimod discontinuation in a multiple sclerosis patient. MRI prior to the fatal outcome showed several large tumefactive demyelinating lesions. These lesions were characterized by prominent astrocytic gliosis, with a remarkable preponderance of large hypertrophic reactive astrocytes showing intense expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1. Prominent astrocytic gliosis was also diffusely observed in the normal-appearing white matter...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704892/fluid-outflow-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-the-role-of-perivascular-and-paravascular-pathways
#12
Shinuo Liu, Magdalena A Lam, Alisha Sial, Sarah J Hemley, Lynne E Bilston, Marcus A Stoodley
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. Although fluid dynamics have been studied in the brain, little is known about spinal cord fluid inflow and outflow. Understanding the normal fluid physiology of the spinal cord may give insight into the pathogenesis of spinal cord oedema and CSF disorders such as syringomyelia...
April 29, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704648/shades-of-white-diffusion-properties-of-t1-and-flair-defined-white-matter-signal-abnormalities-differ-in-stages-from-cognitively-normal-to-dementia
#13
Joost M Riphagen, Ed Hbm Gronenschild, David H Salat, Whitney M Freeze, Dimo Ivanov, Lies Clerx, Frans R J Verhey, Pauline Aalten, Heidi I L Jacobs
The underlying pathology of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) is heterogeneous and may vary dependent on the magnetic resonance imaging contrast used to define them. We investigated differences in white matter diffusivity as an indicator for white matter integrity underlying WMSA based on T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging contrast. In addition, we investigated which white matter region of interest (ROI) could predict clinical diagnosis best using diffusion metrics. One hundred three older individuals with varying cognitive impairment levels were included and underwent neuroimaging...
April 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688489/protective-role-of-the-lipid-phosphatase-fig4-in-the-adult-nervous-system
#14
Yevgeniya A Mironova, Jing-Ping Lin, Ashley Kalinski, Lucas Huffman, Guy M Lenk, Leif A Havton, Miriam H Meisler, Roman J Giger
The signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PI(3,5)P2, functions in vesicular trafficking through the endo-lysosomal compartment. Cellular levels of PI(3,5)P2 are regulated by an enzyme complex comprised of the kinase PIKFYVE, the phosphatase FIG4, and the scaffold protein VAC14. Mutations of human FIG4 cause inherited disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J, polymicrogyria with epilepsy, and Yunis-Varón syndrome. Constitutive Fig4-/- mice exhibit intention tremor, spongiform degeneration of neural tissue, hypomyelination, and juvenile lethality...
April 24, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681883/compromised-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-is-associated-with-total-magnetic-resonance-imaging-burden-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#15
Yue Li, Man Li, Long Zuo, Qinglei Shi, Wei Qin, Lei Yang, Tao Jiang, Wenli Hu
Objective: Several studies have demonstrated that compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of individual cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) markers, but the association between BBB permeability and total magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cSVD burden remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between BBB permeability and total MRI cSVD burden. Methods: Consecutive participants without symptomatic stroke history presented for physical examination were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680179/progress-in-understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
H Zéphir
Multiple sclerosis (MS) arises in people who have a genetic susceptibility to environmental factors and events, which ultimately trigger the disease. It is thought that peripheral immune cells are mobilized and enter the CNS through the impaired blood-brain barrier in the subarachnoid space, as acute lesions show large numbers of macrophages and CD8+ T cells and, to a lesser extent, CD4+ T cells, B cells and plasma cells. Demyelination is mostly localized to focal lesions in early relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, whereas other areas of white matter appear normal...
April 18, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676204/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-mimicking-extensive-leukodystrophy
#17
Jonathan Ciron, Olivier Colin, Marie-Pierre Rosier, Soline Lapeyrie, Damien Biotti, David Brassat, Jean-Philippe Neau
Brain MRI was originally considered to appear normal in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD). Typical brain lesions are now well described and have been integrated in the latest revision of NMO-SD criteria, but the NMO-SD MRI pattern remains not yet comprehensive. We report here extensive white matter lesions (EWML) mimicking leukodystrophy in a 50-year-old woman with long-lasting anti-AQP4+ NMO-SD. We suggest that EWML could be a possible brain MRI presentation of NMO-SD patients.
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676026/selective-inversion-recovery-quantitative-magnetization-transfer-brain-mri-at-7t-clinical-and-postmortem-validation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Francesca Bagnato, Simon Hametner, Giulia Franco, Siddharama Pawate, Subramaniam Sriram, Hans Lassmann, John Gore, Seth E Smith, Richard Dortch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An imaging biomarker of myelin integrity is an unmet need in multiple sclerosis (MS). Selective inversion recovery (SIR) quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMT) provides assays of myelin content in the human brain. We previously translated the SIR method to 7T and incorporated a rapid turbo field echo (TFE) readout for whole-brain imaging within clinically acceptable scan times. We herein provide histological validation and test in vivo feasibility and applicability of the SIR-TFE protocol in MS...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675203/lipid-biochemical-changes-detected-in-normal-appearing-white-matter-of-chronic-multiple-sclerosis-by-spectral-coherent-raman-imaging
#19
K W C Poon, C Brideau, R Klaver, G J Schenk, J J Geurts, P K Stys
Multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibits demyelination, inflammatory infiltration, axonal degeneration, and gliosis, affecting widespread regions of the central nervous system (CNS). While white matter MS lesions have been well characterized pathologically, evidence indicates that the MS brain may be globally altered, with subtle abnormalities found in grossly normal appearing white matter (NAWM). These subtle changes are difficult to investigate by common methods such as histochemical stains and conventional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663845/a-24-month-advanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-alemtuzumab
#20
Irene M Vavasour, Roger Tam, David Kb Li, Cornelia Laule, Carolyn Taylor, Shannon H Kolind, Alex L MacKay, Adil Javed, Anthony Traboulsee
BACKGROUND: Tissue damage in both multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) are important contributors to disability and progression. Specific aspects of MS pathology can be measured using advanced imaging. Alemtuzumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody targeting CD52 developed for MS treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes over 2 years of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) metrics in lesions and NAWM of MS patients treated with alemtuzumab...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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