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A Rapin, G Deslee, L Percebois-Macadre, A-C Jonvel, S Demangeon, F C Boyer
The hyperventilation syndrome is a complex entity whose management is poorly codified. We report a synthesis about the management of adult patients diagnosed with hyperventilation syndrome. A systematic literature review has identified fifteen articles dealing, among them three studies about drug treatment and the others about non-pharmacological approaches. Among the last ones, a re-educational approach based on abdominal ventilation and regulation of the ventilatory rate seems and an educative approach seems to be the most effective...
October 12, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Michele G Mills, Priya M Mehta, Craig M Smith, Mark S Wainwright
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to characterize changes in cerebral blood flow measured using transcranial Doppler in children with central nervous system infections. We hypothesized that children with central nervous system infections have abnormal cerebral blood flow, associated with a greater frequency of complications and poor neurological outcome. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of children admitted to the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit with central nervous system infection and undergoing transcranial Doppler as part of routine care between March 2011 and July 2015...
September 4, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Kady Fischer, Dominik P Guensch, Nancy Shie, Julie Lebel, Matthias G Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Breathing maneuvers can elicit a similar vascular response as vasodilatory agents like adenosine; yet, their potential diagnostic utility in the presence of coronary artery stenosis is unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate if breathing maneuvers can non-invasively detect inducible ischemia in an experimental animal model when the myocardium is imaged with oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (OS-CMR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 11 anesthetised swine with experimentally induced significant stenosis (fractional flow reserve <0...
2016: PloS One
Matthieu Dubois, Cécile Chenivesse, Mathieu Raux, Adrian Morales-Robles, Marie-Cécile Nierat, Gilles Garcia, Xavier Navarro-Sune, Mario Chavez, Jacques Martinerie, Thomas Similowski
: Spontaneous ventilation in mammals is driven by automatic brainstem networks that generate the respiratory rhythm and increase ventilation in the presence of increased carbon dioxide production. Hypocapnia decreases the drive to breathe and induces apnea. In humans, this occurs during sleep but not during wakefulness. We hypothesized that hypocapnic breathing would be associated with respiratory-related cortical activity similar to that observed during volitional breathing, inspiratory constraints, or in patients with defective automatic breathing (preinspiratory potentials)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Peter E Cadman
As cannabis use has legalized for medical and recreational use in several states, the medical community has become more aware of the drug's potential toxicities. First described in 2004, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is increasingly recognized as a cause of hospitalization among drug users. However, little information is available in the medical literature regarding electrolyte abnormalities in this syndrome. Between 2011 and 2014, six men were treated for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Diego, CA, and found to have significant hypophosphatemia (phosphate range, <1-1...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Elisabete Aramendi, Andoni Elola, Erik Alonso, Unai Irusta, Mohamud Daya, James K Russell, Pia Hubner, Fritz Sterz
AIM: The rates of chest compressions (CCs) and ventilations are both important metrics to monitor the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Capnography permits monitoring ventilation, but the CCs provided during CPR corrupt the capnogram and compromise the accuracy of automatic ventilation detectors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an automatic algorithm based on the capnogram to detect ventilations and provide feedback on ventilation rate during CPR, specifically addressing intervals where CCs are delivered...
September 23, 2016: Resuscitation
Juergen Pauluhn
To characterize the accumulated hazards associated with the inhalation of gases typical of combustion products, a time-integrated value known as the fractional effective dose (FED) is used. This FED is maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and made publicly available as the Standard ISO 13571. The current FED calculation related to asphyxiant gases is based on non-human primate data to estimate the 50% probability of humans to be incapacitated or not being able to execute any escape paradigm from fires...
September 21, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Babette F van Esch, Peter Paul G van Benthem, Hester J van der Zaag-Loonen, Tjasse D Bruintjes
OBJECTIVE: There are no epidemiological studies quantifying the prevalence of second causes of dizziness in Ménière's disease (MD). Therefore, we aimed to quantify which dizziness-inducing causes are prevalent alongside MD. Moreover, we analyzed which second cause of dizziness was more common in a specific age group and if age was a risk factor. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. METHODS: Data were retrospectively obtained from all MD patients who visited our clinic between January 2000 and December 2013...
September 16, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Samuel Helfer, Joseph Quackenbush, Michael Fletcher, David R Pendergast
BACKGROUND: Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Jian Zhen Ou, Jeremy J Cottrell, Nam Ha, Naresh Pillai, Chu K Yao, Kyle J Berean, Stephanie A Ward, Danilla Grando, Jane G Muir, Christopher J Harrison, Udani Wijesiriwardana, Frank R Dunshea, Peter R Gibson, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
Gastroenterologists are still unable to differentiate between some of the most ordinary disorders of the gut and consequently patients are misdiagnosed. We have developed a swallowable gas sensor capsule for addressing this. The gases of the gut are the by-product of the fermentation processes during digestion, affected by the gut state and can consequently provide the needed information regarding the health of the gut. Here we present the first study on gas sensor capsules for revealing the effect of a medical supplement in an animal (pig) model...
2016: Scientific Reports
Martin Seule, Rimmon Isaak, Renan Sanchez-Porras, Oliver Sakowitz, Emanuela Keller, Andreas Unterberg, Berk Orakcioglu
BACKGROUND: Bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of brain injury, allow early detection of secondary ischemia, and help guide therapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new brain tissue probe for serial CBF monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution (NeMo Probe) compared with the existing thermal diffusion probe (QFlow 500 Probe). METHODS: In 7 pigs, the NeMo Probe and QFlow 500 Probe were inserted into the subcortical white matter...
September 9, 2016: Neurosurgery
Jorge López, Sarah N Fernández, Rafael González, María J Solana, Javier Urbano, Jesús López-Herce
AIMS: Actual resuscitation guidelines recommend 10 respirations per minute (rpm) for advanced pediatric life support. This respiratory rate (RR) is much lower than what is physiological for children. The aim of this study is to compare changes in ventilation, oxygenation, haemodynamics and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) rates with three RR. METHODS: An experimental model of asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) in 46 piglets (around 9.5 kg) was performed. Resuscitation with three different RR (10, 20 and 30 rpm) was carried out...
2016: PloS One
Richard Boulding, Rebecca Stacey, Rob Niven, Stephen J Fowler
Dysfunctional breathing is a term describing breathing disorders where chronic changes in breathing pattern result in dyspnoea and other symptoms in the absence or in excess of the magnitude of physiological respiratory or cardiac disease. We reviewed the literature and propose a classification system for the common dysfunctional breathing patterns described. The literature was searched using the terms: dysfunctional breathing, hyperventilation, Nijmegen questionnaire and thoraco-abdominal asynchrony. We have summarised the presentation, assessment and treatment of dysfunctional breathing, and propose that the following system be used for classification...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Anna J Haw, Leith Cr Meyer, John J Greer, Andrea Fuller
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether CX1942 reverses respiratory depression in etorphine-immobilized goats, and to compare its effects with those of doxapram hydrochloride. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, crossover experimental trial conducted at 1753 m.a.s.l. ANIMALS: Eight adult female Boer goats (Capra hircus) with a mean ± standard deviation mass of 27.1 ± 1.6 kg. METHODS: Following immobilization with 0.1 mg kg(-1) etorphine, goats received one of doxapram, CX1942 or sterile water intravenously, in random order in three trials...
September 2016: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Erika Treptow, Mayron F Oliveira, Aline Soares, Roberta P Ramos, Luiz Medina, Rita Lima, Maria Clara Alencar, Eloara Vieira Ferreira, Jaquelina S Ota-Arakaki, Sergio Tufik, Luiz E Nery, Lia Rita Bittencourt, J Alberto Neder
Hypocapnia and endothelial dysfunction might impair microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBFmicr) and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 (CVRCO2). Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characteristically associated with chronic alveolar hyperventilation and microvascular endothelial dysfunction. We therefore determined CBFmicr (pre-frontal blood flow index (BFI) by the indocyanine green-near infrared spectroscopy methodology) during hypocapnia and hypercapnia in 25 PAH patients and 10 gender- and age-matched controls...
November 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, Camila Coelho Greco, Benedito Sérgio Denadai, Ricardo Jorge Fernandes, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, David Robert Pendergast
Our purpose was to examine the swimming biophysical responses at velocities (v) of 97.5, 100 and 102.5% of the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Ten elite female swimmers performed three-to-five 30-min constant tests at imposed paces to determine 97.5, 100 and 102.5%MLSS v. Gas exchange, blood lactate concentration ([La-]), stroke rate (SR) and v were determined during each test. The v values at 97.5, 100 and 102.5%MLSS were 1.21±0.07, 1.24±0.07 and 1.27±0.07m.s(-1), respectively. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and Pulmonary ventilation (V̇E) increased as function of v...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Joanne Avraam, Kevin J Cummings, Peter B Frappell
Among numerous studies, perinatal nicotine exposure (PN) has had variable effects on respiratory control in the neonatal period. The effects of acute nicotine exposure on breathing are largely mediated by α4-containing nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These receptors are also involved in thermoregulatory responses induced by both acetylcholine and nicotine. We therefore hypothesized that α4 - containing nAChRs would mediate the effects of PN on the metabolic and ventilatory responses of neonates to modest cold exposure...
August 10, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Nele Beeckmans, Astrid Vermeersch, Roeland Lysens, Peter Van Wambeke, Nina Goossens, Tinne Thys, Simon Brumagne, Lotte Janssens
BACKGROUND: Inspiratory muscles, such as the diaphragm, play a key role in both respiration and spinal control. Therefore, diaphragm dysfunctions are often related to low back pain (LBP). However, few is known on the association between the presence of LBP and the presence of respiratory disorders (RD). OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review on the relation between RD and LBP. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Two reviewers searched on PubMed/MEDLINE for studies concerning LBP and RD, from 1950 up to January 2016...
July 25, 2016: Manual Therapy
Edoardo Mazzucchi, Catello Vollono, Anna Losurdo, Elisa Testani, Valentina Gnoni, Chiara Di Blasi, Nadia Mariagrazia Giannantoni, Leonardo Lapenta, Valerio Brunetti, Giacomo Della Marca
INTRODUCTION: Hyperventilation is a commonly used electroencephalogram activation method. METHODS: We analyzed EEG recordings in 22 normal subjects and 22 patients with focal epilepsy of unknown cause. We selected segments before (PRE), during (HYPER) and five minutes after (POST) hyperventilation. In order to analyze the neural generators of EEG signal, we used standard LOw Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA software). We then computed EEG lagged coherence, an index of functional connectivity, between 19 Regions Of Interest...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Yingtang Shi, Chikara Abe, Benjamin B Holloway, Shaofang Shu, Natasha N Kumar, Janelle L Weaver, Josh Sen, Edward Perez-Reyes, Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet, Douglas A Bayliss
UNLABELLED: The activity of background potassium and sodium channels determines neuronal excitability, but physiological roles for "leak" Na(+) channels in specific mammalian neurons have not been established. Here, we show that a leak Na(+) channel, Nalcn, is expressed in the CO2/H(+)-sensitive neurons of the mouse retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) that regulate breathing. In RTN neurons, Nalcn expression correlated with higher action potential discharge over a more alkalized range of activity; shRNA-mediated depletion of Nalcn hyperpolarized RTN neurons, and reduced leak Na(+) current and firing rate...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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