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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905190/the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-non-imaging-screening-protocols-for-vestibular-schwannoma-in-patients-with-asymmetrical-hearing-loss-and-or-unilateral-audiovestibular-dysfunction-a-diagnostic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
M Hentschel, M Scholte, S Steens, H Kunst, M Rovers
BACKGROUND: Currently, all patients presenting with asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss and/or unilateral audiovestibular dysfunction (i.e. tinnitus, dizziness) undergo MRI, leading to a substantial amount of MRIs with negative findings as the incidence of vestibular schwannoma (VS) in this screening population varies between 1% and 4.7% (i.e. more than 95% of MRIs are negative for VS). OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: The aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of different non-imaging screening protocols that can be used prior to MRI to select patients at high risk of VS...
November 5, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899087/paradoxical-physiological-responses-to-propranolol-in-a-rett-syndrome-patient-a-case-report
#2
P J Santosh, L Bell, K Lievesley, J Singh, F Fiori
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome (RTT), caused by a loss-of-function in the epigenetic modulator: X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), is a pervasive neurological disorder characterized by compromised brain functions, anxiety, severe mental retardation, language and learning disabilities, repetitive stereotyped hand movements and developmental regression. An imbalance in the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system (dysautonomia) and the resulting autonomic storms is a frequent occurrence in patients with RTT...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887820/real-time-tidal-volume-feedback-guides-optimal-ventilation-during-simulated-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#3
Kyoung Min You, Chiwon Lee, Woon Yong Kwon, Jung Chan Lee, Gil Joon Suh, Kyung Su Kim, Min Ji Park, Sungwan Kim
PURPOSE: We performed this study to investigate whether real-time tidal volume feedback increases optimal ventilation and decreases hyperventilation during manikin-simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). BASIC PROCEDURES: We developed a new real-time tidal volume monitoring device (TVD) which estimated tidal volume in real time using a magnetic flowmeter. The TVD was validated with a volume-controlled mechanical ventilator with various tidal volumes. We conducted a randomized, crossover, manikin-simulation study in which 14 participants were randomly divided into a control (without tidal volume feedback, n = 7) and a TVD group (with real-time tidal volume feedback, n = 7) and underwent manikin simulation...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884538/oxygen-therapy-for-management-of-periodic-breathing-a-theoretical-approach
#4
Tanmay Pal, Pranab Kumar Dutta, Srinivasu Maka
A generalized framework for the generation of Periodic Breathing (PB), caused by delay variation, hypocapnia and sleep along with its management with oxygen therapy is presented. For this, a minimal model of respiratory regulation with cardiovascular component and two delays is proposed. This model is linearized and analyzed for stability by the proposed algorithms using Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Oscillation in this model is produced by the increase of delays, an increase of chemoreceptor gains (hypocapnia) and a decrease in minute ventilation (sleep induced PB)...
November 21, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861919/consequences-of-maternal-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-respiratory-function-in-rat-pups
#5
Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Océane Mercier, Olivier Pothier-Piccinin, Tommy Seaborn, Vincent Joseph, Isabelle Marc, Richard Kinkead
Most preterm infants present respiratory instabilities and apneas owing to incomplete development of the neural circuits that control breathing. Because omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) benefit brain development, we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA supplementation (via maternal diet) improves respiratory function in rat pups. Pups received n-3 PUFA supplementation from an enriched diet (13 g kg(-1) of n-3 PUFA) administered to the mother from birth until experiments were performed (postnatal days 10-11)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857512/respiratory-manifestations-in-endocrine-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Codruţa Lencu, Teodora Alexescu, Mirela Petrulea, Monica Lencu
The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814586/exercise-intolerance-and-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-in-children
#7
Predrag B Minic, Aleksandar D Sovtic
Respiratory symptoms at rest or during exercise may restrain the physical capabilities required for normal motor and psychosocial development in children. The most frequent cause of exercise intolerance, apart from poor physical fitness, is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which may occur in some healthy children and in children with asthma. It is proposed that hyperventilation during exercise is associated with drying and cooling of airways, which can trigger a proinflammatory response. Several tests are used to confirm EIB, and the exercise-challenge test is the most common...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810513/trpv1-deletion-exacerbates-hyperthermic-seizures-in-an-age-dependent-manner-in-mice
#8
Karlene T Barrett, Richard J A Wilson, Morris H Scantlebury
Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure disorder to affect children. Although there is mounting evidence to support that FS occur when children have fever-induced hyperventilation leading to respiratory alkalosis, the underlying mechanisms of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation and links to FS remain poorly understood. As transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors are heat-sensitive, play an important role in adult thermoregulation and modulate respiratory chemoreceptors, we hypothesize that TRPV1 activation is important for hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation leading to respiratory alkalosis and decreased FS thresholds, and consequently, TRPV1 KO mice will be relatively protected from hyperthermic seizures...
December 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806982/coupling-between-arterial-and-venous-cerebral-blood-flow-during-postural-change
#9
Shigehiko Ogoh, Takuro Washio, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Lonnie Grove Petersen, Niels H Secher, Kohei Sato
In supine humans the main drainage from the brain is through the internal jugular vein (IJV) but the vertebral veins (VV) become important during orthostatic stress because the IJV is partially collapsed. To identify the effect of this shift in venous drainage from the brain on the cerebral circulation, this study addressed both arterial and venous flow responses in the "anterior" and "posterior" parts of the brain when 9 healthy subjects (5 men) were seated and flow was manipulated by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% carbon dioxide (CO2)...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802250/effects-of-hyperventilation-on-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-estimated-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-randomised-comparison-between-propofol-and-sevoflurane-anaesthesia
#10
Tadahiko Ishiyama, Masakazu Kotoda, Nobumasa Asano, Kodai Ikemoto, Noriyuki Shintani, Toru Matsuoka, Takashi Matsukawa
BACKGROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy estimates cerebral regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2), which may decrease under hyperventilation. Propofol and sevoflurane act differently on cerebral blood vessels. Consequently, cerebral blood flow during hyperventilation with propofol and sevoflurane anaesthesia may differ. OBJECTIVES: The first aim of this study was to compare the changes in rSO2 between propofol and sevoflurane anaesthesia during hyperventilation...
December 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743828/-which-treatments-for-the-hyperventilation-syndrome-in-adults
#11
A Rapin, G Deslee, L Percebois-Macadre, A-C Jonvel, S Demangeon, F C Boyer
The hyperventilation syndrome is a complex entity whose management is poorly codified. We report a synthesis about the management of adult patients diagnosed with hyperventilation syndrome. A systematic literature review has identified fifteen articles dealing, among them three studies about drug treatment and the others about non-pharmacological approaches. Among the last ones, a re-educational approach based on abdominal ventilation and regulation of the ventilatory rate seems and an educative approach seems to be the most effective...
October 12, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743745/use-of-transcranial-doppler-for-management-of-central-nervous-system-infections-in-critically-ill-children
#12
Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Michele G Mills, Priya M Mehta, Craig M Smith, Mark S Wainwright
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to characterize changes in cerebral blood flow measured using transcranial Doppler in children with central nervous system infections. We hypothesized that children with central nervous system infections have abnormal cerebral blood flow, associated with a greater frequency of complications and poor neurological outcome. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of children admitted to the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit with central nervous system infection and undergoing transcranial Doppler as part of routine care between March 2011 and July 2015...
December 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741282/breathing-maneuvers-as-a-vasoactive-stimulus-for-detecting-inducible-myocardial-ischemia-an-experimental-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-study
#13
Kady Fischer, Dominik P Guensch, Nancy Shie, Julie Lebel, Matthias G Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Breathing maneuvers can elicit a similar vascular response as vasodilatory agents like adenosine; yet, their potential diagnostic utility in the presence of coronary artery stenosis is unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate if breathing maneuvers can non-invasively detect inducible ischemia in an experimental animal model when the myocardium is imaged with oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (OS-CMR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 11 anesthetised swine with experimentally induced significant stenosis (fractional flow reserve <0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733617/neurophysiological-evidence-for-a-cortical-contribution-to-the-wakefulness-related-drive-to-breathe-explaining-hypocapnia-resistant-ventilation-in-humans
#14
Matthieu Dubois, Cécile Chenivesse, Mathieu Raux, Adrian Morales-Robles, Marie-Cécile Nierat, Gilles Garcia, Xavier Navarro-Sune, Mario Chavez, Jacques Martinerie, Thomas Similowski
: Spontaneous ventilation in mammals is driven by automatic brainstem networks that generate the respiratory rhythm and increase ventilation in the presence of increased carbon dioxide production. Hypocapnia decreases the drive to breathe and induces apnea. In humans, this occurs during sleep but not during wakefulness. We hypothesized that hypocapnic breathing would be associated with respiratory-related cortical activity similar to that observed during volitional breathing, inspiratory constraints, or in patients with defective automatic breathing (preinspiratory potentials)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692442/hypophosphatemia-in-users-of-cannabis
#15
Peter E Cadman
As cannabis use has legalized for medical and recreational use in several states, the medical community has become more aware of the drug's potential toxicities. First described in 2004, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is increasingly recognized as a cause of hospitalization among drug users. However, little information is available in the medical literature regarding electrolyte abnormalities in this syndrome. Between 2011 and 2014, six men were treated for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Diego, CA, and found to have significant hypophosphatemia (phosphate range, <1-1...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670357/feasibility-of-the-capnogram-to-monitor-ventilation-rate-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#16
Elisabete Aramendi, Andoni Elola, Erik Alonso, Unai Irusta, Mohamud Daya, James K Russell, Pia Hubner, Fritz Sterz
AIM: The rates of chest compressions (CCs) and ventilations are both important metrics to monitor the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Capnography permits monitoring ventilation, but the CCs provided during CPR corrupt the capnogram and compromise the accuracy of automatic ventilation detectors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an automatic algorithm based on the capnogram to detect ventilations and provide feedback on ventilation rate during CPR, specifically addressing intervals where CCs are delivered...
September 23, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664840/risk-assessment-in-combustion-toxicology-should-carbon-dioxide-be-recognized-as-a-modifier-of-toxicity-or-separate-toxicological-entity
#17
Juergen Pauluhn
To characterize the accumulated hazards associated with the inhalation of gases typical of combustion products, a time-integrated value known as the fractional effective dose (FED) is used. This FED is maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and made publicly available as the Standard ISO 13571. The current FED calculation related to asphyxiant gases is based on non-human primate data to estimate the 50% probability of humans to be incapacitated or not being able to execute any escape paradigm from fires...
September 21, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642667/two-common-second-causes-of-dizziness-in-patients-with-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#18
Babette F van Esch, Peter Paul G van Benthem, Hester J van der Zaag-Loonen, Tjasse D Bruintjes
OBJECTIVE: There are no epidemiological studies quantifying the prevalence of second causes of dizziness in Ménière's disease (MD). Therefore, we aimed to quantify which dizziness-inducing causes are prevalent alongside MD. Moreover, we analyzed which second cause of dizziness was more common in a specific age group and if age was a risk factor. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. METHODS: Data were retrospectively obtained from all MD patients who visited our clinic between January 2000 and December 2013...
December 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634605/respiratory-muscle-training-and-exercise-endurance-at-altitude
#19
Samuel Helfer, Joseph Quackenbush, Michael Fletcher, David R Pendergast
BACKGROUND: Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633400/potential-of-in-vivo-real-time-gastric-gas-profiling-a-pilot-evaluation-of-heat-stress-and-modulating-dietary-cinnamon-effect-in-an-animal-model
#20
Jian Zhen Ou, Jeremy J Cottrell, Nam Ha, Naresh Pillai, Chu K Yao, Kyle J Berean, Stephanie A Ward, Danilla Grando, Jane G Muir, Christopher J Harrison, Udani Wijesiriwardana, Frank R Dunshea, Peter R Gibson, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
Gastroenterologists are still unable to differentiate between some of the most ordinary disorders of the gut and consequently patients are misdiagnosed. We have developed a swallowable gas sensor capsule for addressing this. The gases of the gut are the by-product of the fermentation processes during digestion, affected by the gut state and can consequently provide the needed information regarding the health of the gut. Here we present the first study on gas sensor capsules for revealing the effect of a medical supplement in an animal (pig) model...
2016: Scientific Reports
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