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Radhey S Gupta, Sahil Sawnani, Mobolaji Adeolu, Seema Alnajar, Aharon Oren
The genus Mycoplasma, including species earlier classified in the genera Eperythrozoon and Haemobartonella, contains ~ 120 species and constitutes an extensively polyphyletic assemblage of bacteria within the phylum Tenericutes. Due to their small genome sizes and lack of unique characteristics, the relationships among the mycoplasmas/Tenericutes are not reliably discerned. Using genome sequences for 140 Tenericutes, their evolutionary relationships were examined using multiple independent approaches. Phylogenomic trees were constructed for 63 conserved proteins, 45 ribosomal proteins, three main subunits of RNA polymerase and 16S rRNA gene sequences...
March 20, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Karen Rosendahl, Ingvild Sævold Bruserud, Ninnie Oehme, Pétur Benedikt Júlíusson, Laura Tanturri de Horatio, Lil-Sofie Ording Müller, Silvia Magni-Manzoni
Objective: To report novel ultrasound (US) references for the healthy paediatric wrist. Methods: Healthy children and adolescents had an US examination including Doppler, of the right wrist, using a mid-sagittal image through the radiocarpal (RC)/midcarpal (MC) joints. These features were noted: appearances and depth of the recess, with an additional measurement in the flexed position and number of Doppler signals within the recess in close proximity to the joint...
2018: RMD Open
Francles Blanco-Guillot, M Lucía Castañeda-Cediel, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Rosa Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Pedro Torres-González, Norma Téllez-Vazquez, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Genotyping and georeferencing in tuberculosis (TB) have been used to characterize the distribution of the disease and occurrence of transmission within specific groups and communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus (DM) and pulmonary TB may occur in spatial and molecular aggregations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary TB. The study area included 12 municipalities in the Sanitary Jurisdiction of Orizaba, Veracruz, México...
2018: PloS One
P W Crous, M J Wingfield, T I Burgess, A J Carnegie, G E St J Hardy, D Smith, B A Summerell, J F Cano-Lira, J Guarro, J Houbraken, L Lombard, M P Martín, M Sandoval-Denis, A V Alexandrova, C W Barnes, I G Baseia, J D P Bezerra, V Guarnaccia, T W May, M Hernández-Restrepo, A M Stchigel, A N Miller, M E Ordoñez, V P Abreu, T Accioly, C Agnello, A Agustin Colmán, C C Albuquerque, D S Alfredo, P Alvarado, G R Araújo-Magalhães, S Arauzo, T Atkinson, A Barili, R W Barreto, J L Bezerra, T S Cabral, F Camello Rodríguez, R H S F Cruz, P P Daniëls, B D B da Silva, D A C de Almeida, A A de Carvalho Júnior, C A Decock, L Delgat, S Denman, R A Dimitrov, J Edwards, A G Fedosova, R J Ferreira, A L Firmino, J A Flores, D García, J Gené, A Giraldo, J S Góis, A A M Gomes, C M Gonçalves, D E Gouliamova, M Groenewald, B V Guéorguiev, M Guevara-Suarez, L F P Gusmão, K Hosaka, V Hubka, S M Huhndorf, M Jadan, Ž Jurjević, B Kraak, V Kučera, T K A Kumar, I Kušan, S R Lacerda, S Lamlertthon, W S Lisboa, M Loizides, J J Luangsa-Ard, P Lysková, W P Mac Cormack, D M Macedo, A R Machado, E F Malysheva, P Marinho, N Matočec, M Meijer, A Mešić, S Mongkolsamrit, K A Moreira, O V Morozova, K U Nair, N Nakamura, W Noisripoom, I Olariaga, R J V Oliveira, L M Paiva, P Pawar, O L Pereira, S W Peterson, M Prieto, E Rodríguez-Andrade, C Rojo De Blas, M Roy, E S Santos, R Sharma, G A Silva, C M Souza-Motta, Y Takeuchi-Kaneko, C Tanaka, A Thakur, M Th Smith, Z Tkalčec, N Valenzuela-Lopez, P van der Kleij, A Verbeken, M G Viana, X W Wang, J Z Groenewald
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica : Cadophora antarctica from soil. Australia : Alfaria dandenongensis on Cyperaceae , Amphosoma persooniae on Persoonia sp., Anungitea nullicana on Eucalyptus sp . , Bagadiella eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus , Castanediella eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus sp., Cercospora dianellicola on Dianella sp., Cladoriella kinglakensis on Eucalyptus regnans , Cladoriella xanthorrhoeae (incl. Cladoriellaceae fam. nov...
December 2017: Persoonia
Mena Abdelsayed, Manpreet Ruprai, Peter C Ruben
E1784K is the most common mixed syndrome SCN5a mutation underpinning both Brugada syndrome type 1 (BrS1) and Long-QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3). The charge reversal mutant enhances the late sodium current (INa ) passed by the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV 1.5), delaying cardiac repolarization. Exercise-induced triggers, like elevated temperature and cytosolic calcium, exacerbate E1784K late INa . In this study, we tested the effects of Ranolazine, the late INa blocker, on voltage-dependent and kinetic properties of E1784K at elevated temperature and cytosolic calcium...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rashmi Gupta, Carolina R Felix, Matthew P Akerman, Kate J Akerman, Cathryn A Slabber, Wenjie Wang, Jessie Adams, Lindsey N Shaw, Yuk-Ching Tse-Dinh, Orde Q Munro, Kyle H Rohde
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) and the fast-growing Mycobacterium abscessus ( Mab ) are two important human pathogens causing persistent pulmonary infections that are difficult to cure and require long treatment times. The emergence of drug resistant Mtb strains and the high level of intrinsic resistance of Mab calls for novel drug scaffolds that effectively target both pathogens. In this study, we have evaluated the activity of bis(pyrrolide-imine) gold(III) macrocycles and chelates, originally designed as DNA intercalators capable of targeting human topoisomerase I and II, against Mab and Mtb...
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rebecca Troisi, Tone Bjørge, Mika Gissler, Tom Grotmol, Cari M Kitahara, Solbjørg Makalani Myrtveit Saether, Anne Gulbech Ording, Camilla Sköld, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Britton Trabert, Ingrid Glimelius
An understanding of the origin of cancer is critical for cancer prevention and treatment. Complex biological mechanisms promote carcinogenesis, and there is increasing evidence that pregnancy-related exposures influence fetal growth cell division and organ functioning and may have a long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility in the mothers and offspring. Nulliparity is an established risk factor for breast, ovarian, endometrial, and possibly pancreatic cancer, while the risk of kidney cancer is elevated in parous compared with nulliparous women...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Anne G Ording, Katalin Veres, Dóra K Farkas, Kasper Adelborg, Henrik T Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract bleeding may be a marker of cancer. We quantified the risk of specific cancer types among patients with hospital-based diagnoses of epistaxis and haemoptysis relative to risk in the general population. METHODS: We used Danish, nationwide databases to conduct a population-based cohort study of 80460 patients diagnosed with epistaxis and 18487 patients presenting with haemoptysis (1995-2013). We followed patients until a cancer diagnosis, emigration, death, or 31 December 2013, whichever came first...
February 20, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Li-Guang Ma, Qiu-Hong Chen, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Jing Wang, Zhou-Peng Ren, Zong-Fu Cao, Yan-Rong Cao, Xu Ma, Bin-Bin Wang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in children in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), a high-altitude region in China. METHODS: Epidemiological data from a survey on the prevalence of CHD in Qinghai Province including 288,066 children (4-18 years) were used in this study. The prevalence and distribution pattern of CHD was determined by sex, CHD subtype, and nationality and altitude...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Novel N Chegou, Jayne S Sutherland, Anna-Ritah Namuganga, Paul Lam Corstjens, Annemieke Geluk, Gebremedhin Gebremichael, Joseph Mendy, Stephanus Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Gian D van der Spuy, Magdalena Kriel, Andre G Loxton, Belinda Kriel, Felanji Simukonda, Yonas Bekele, Jacob A Sheehama, Josefina Nelongo, Marieta van der Vyver, Atsbeha Gebrexabher, Habteyes Hailu, Maria M Esterhuyse, Ida Rosenkrands, Claus Aagard, Martin Kidd, Desta Kassa, Adane Mihret, Rawleigh Howe, Jacqueline M Cliff, Amelia C Crampin, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Gerhard Walzl
We investigated host-derived biomarkers that were previously identified in QuantiFERON supernatants, in a large pan-African study. We recruited individuals presenting with symptoms of pulmonary TB at seven peripheral healthcare facilities in six African countries, prior to assessment for TB disease. We then evaluated the concentrations of 12 biomarkers in stored QuantiFERON supernatants using the Luminex platform. Based on laboratory, clinical and radiological findings and a pre-established algorithm, participants were classified as TB disease or other respiratory diseases(ORD)...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benjamin D Hallowell, Sara W Robb, Kristina W Kintziger
As HIV-seropositive individuals live longer, they are more likely to acquire conditions seen in the general population. Excluding AIDS-defining malignancies, HIV-seropositive individuals are more likely to develop cancer than individuals in the general population. In order to better inform future screening and prevention efforts in this population, we compared the geographic distribution and location characteristics of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative cancer cases in South Carolina (SC). To do this we obtained linked HIV and cancer data from the SC enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System and Central Cancer Registry...
February 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Sung Hye Kim, Milika Rinamalo, Meleresita Rainima-Qaniuci, Nemani Talemaitoga, Mike Kama, Eric Rafai, John H Lowry, Min-Ho Choi, Sung-Tae Hong, Jaco J Verweij, Louise Kelly-Hope, John Russell Stothard
As part of lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmission assessment surveys (TAS) on Fiji, an island-wide assessment of gastrointestinal protozoan infection was performed through concomitant stool sample collections to investigate the distribution of the protozoan infection. All grade 1 and 2 students of 69 schools in the two main islands were targeted in two phases (one in the Western Division and the other in the Central and Northern, except Taveuni sub-Division of Northern), where fecal samples of 1,800 students were available for coproscopy using the formalin-ether-acetate concentration...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Alan D Hecht, Aaron Ferster, Kevin Summers
When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established nearly 50 years ago, the nation faced serious threats to its air, land, and water, which in turn impacted human health. These threats were effectively addressed by the creation of EPA (in 1970) and many subsequent landmark environmental legislations which in turn significantly reduced threats to the Nation's environment and public health. A key element of historic legislation is research aimed at dealing with current and future problems. Today we face national and global challenges that go beyond classic media-specific (air, land, water) environmental legislation and require an integrated paradigm of action and engagement based on (1) innovation based on science and technology, (2) stakeholder engagement and collaboration, and (3) public education and support...
October 16, 2017: Jacobs J Environ Sci
Tiit Örd, Daima Örd, Tõnis Örd
Mammals must be able to endure periods of limited food availability, and the liver plays a central role in the adaptation to nutritional stresses. TRIB3 (Tribbles homolog 3) is a cellular stress-inducible gene with a liver-centric expression pattern and it has been implicated in stress response regulation and metabolic control. In the current article, we study the involvement of TRIB3 in responses to nutrient deficiencies, including fasting for up to 48 h in mice. We show that hepatic expression of Trib3 is increased after 48 h of fasting and mice with a targeted deletion of the Trib3 gene present elevated hepatic triglyceride content and liver weight at 48 h, along with an upregulation of lipid utilization genes in the liver...
January 26, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
I H Cairns, V V Lobzin, A Donea, S J Tingay, P I McCauley, D Oberoi, R T Duffin, M J Reiner, N Hurley-Walker, N A Kudryavtseva, D B Melrose, J C Harding, G Bernardi, J D Bowman, R J Cappallo, B E Corey, A Deshpande, D Emrich, R Goeke, B J Hazelton, M Johnston-Hollitt, D L Kaplan, J C Kasper, E Kratzenberg, C J Lonsdale, M J Lynch, S R McWhirter, D A Mitchell, M F Morales, E Morgan, S M Ord, T Prabu, A Roshi, N Udaya Shankar, K S Srivani, R Subrahmanyan, R B Wayth, M Waterson, R L Webster, A R Whitney, A Williams, C L Williams
Type III solar radio bursts are the Sun's most intense and frequent nonthermal radio emissions. They involve two critical problems in astrophysics, plasma physics, and space physics: how collective processes produce nonthermal radiation and how magnetic reconnection occurs and changes magnetic energy into kinetic energy. Here magnetic reconnection events are identified definitively in Solar Dynamics Observatory UV-EUV data, with strong upward and downward pairs of jets, current sheets, and cusp-like geometries on top of time-varying magnetic loops, and strong outflows along pairs of open magnetic field lines...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jian-Hua Shao, Jia Chen, Xiao-Qing Xu, Chun-Chao Zhao, Zi-Ling Dong, Wen-Yan Liu, Jie Shen
Three new compounds (1-3) and seven known compounds (4-10) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of Viburnum macrocephalum f. keteleeri using bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as methyl (2-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)acetate (1), methyl (2R-3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)glycerate (2), methyl (3R-4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy-3-hydroxy)butanoate (3), bridelionoside B (4), (6S,7E,9R)-roseoside (5), linarionoside A (6), 3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6-dodecadien-3,10,11-triol (7), (+)-8-hydroxylinalool (8), β-sitosterol (9) and daucosterol (10)...
January 25, 2018: Natural Product Research
Sanea Sheikh, Mats Thulin, James C Cavender, Ricardo Escalante, Shin-Ichi Kawakami, Carlos Lado, John C Landolt, Vidyanand Nanjundiah, David C Queller, Joan E Strassmann, Frederick W Spiegel, Steven L Stephenson, Eduardo M Vadell, Sandra L Baldauf
Traditional morphology-based taxonomy of dictyostelids is rejected by molecular phylogeny. A new classification is presented based on monophyletic entities with consistent and strong molecular phylogenetic support and that are, as far as possible, morphologically recognizable. All newly named clades are diagnosed with small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) sequence signatures plus morphological synapomorphies where possible. The two major molecular clades are given the rank of order, as Acytosteliales ord. nov...
November 24, 2017: Protist
Xinlin Zhang, Yuan Zhao
To investigate the influences of different factors on spatial heterogeneity of regional carbon emissions, we firstly studied the spatial-temporal dynamics of regional energy-related carbon emissions using global Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi and applied geographical detector model to explain the spatial heterogeneity of regional carbon emissions. Some conclusions were drawn. Regional carbon emissions showed significant global and local spatial autocorrelation. The carbon emissions were greater in eastern and northern regions than in western and southern regions...
January 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ximing Du, Armella Zadoorian, Ivan E Lukmantara, Yanfei Qi, Andrew J Brown, Hongyuan Yang
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large family of proteins that mainly function in lipid transport and sensing. ORP5 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein implicated in lipid transfer at the contact sites between the ER and other membranes. Recent studies indicate that ORP5 is also involved in cancer cell invasion and tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanism underlying ORP5's involvement in cancer is unclear. Here, we report that ORP5 promotes cell proliferation and motility of HeLa cells, an effect that depends on its functional OSBP-related domain (ORD)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Noelle M Cocoros, Anne Gulbech Ording, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Victor W Henderson, Henrik Toft Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Substantial but inconclusive evidence suggests in utero exposure to influenza infection may be linked with Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether individuals exposed in utero to the 1918 influenza pandemic are at increased risk of dementia. PATIENTS/METHODS: In this cohort study, surveillance data were used to identify months when influenza activity was at its peak during the pandemic. Using birth dates, exposed and unexposed individuals were identified based on whether they were in utero during ≥1 of the peak months...
January 22, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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