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Intestinal transplant

Xiaodan Luo, Lihua Xu, Yangqiu Li, Huo Tan
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induced by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and donor-derived T cells remains the major limitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell-cell communication that is important in T cell development. Recently, Notch signaling pathway is reported to be involved in regulating GVHD. To investigate the role of Notch inhibition in modulating GVHD, we established MHC-mismatched murine allo-BMT model. We found that inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by γ-secretase inhibitor in vivo could reduce aGVHD, which was shown by the onset time of aGVHD, body weight, clinical aGVHD scores, pathology aGVHD scores, and survival...
October 21, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Joern Pezoldt, Jochen Huehn
Upon differentiation, T cells acquire tissue-specific homing properties allowing efficient targeting of effector T cells into distinct inflamed organs. Priming of T cells within skin-draining, peripheral lymph nodes (pLNs) leads to the expression of E- and P-selectin ligands, which facilitate migration into inflamed skin, whereas activation within gut-draining, mesenteric LNs (mLNs) results in induction of chemokine receptor CCR9 and integrin α4β7, both required for migration of effector T cells into mucosal tissues...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Nader Shakibazad, Karmella Kamali, Naser Honar, Mohammadreza Bordbar, Erfaneh Mohazabieh
Rigler sign is a double wall sign suggesting pneumoperitoneum and intestinal perforation, and it needs emergency surgical treatment. Early diagnosis of intestinal perforation by clinical symptoms, presence of Rigler sign in abdominal radiography, and then early surgical treatment can reduce mortality. Here, we report a patient with Crigler-Najjar syndrome who underwent liver transplant and then developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and received chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab...
October 20, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Lee M Bass, Stanley Kim, Riccardo Superina, Saeed Mohammad
Portal hypertension secondary to portal vein obstruction following liver transplant occurs in 5%-10% of children. Jejunal varices are uncommon in this group. We present a case series of children with significant GI blood loss, negative upper endoscopy, and jejunal varices detected by CE. Case series of patients who had CE for chronic GI blood loss following liver transplantation. Three patients who had their initial transplants at a median age of 7 months were identified at our institution presenting at a median age of 8 years (range 7-16 years) with a median Hgb of 2...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Yanling Wei, Jun Yang, Jun Wang, Yang Yang, Juan Huang, Hao Gong, Hongli Cui, Dongfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of gut-derived infections, making it a potential therapeutic target against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after sepsis. However, the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating this disease has been rarely investigated. METHODS: Two male patients, a 65-year-old and an 84-year-old, were initially diagnosed with cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, respectively, after admission...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
S H Lauz Medeiros, A de Oliveira Menezes, L Zogbi, E Frasson de Souza Montero
BACKGROUND: The ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) phenomenon can cause the dysfunction of some transplanted organs and other distant organs. Liver surgery success, including transplantations, may depend on the adverse effects of intestinal mucosa injury arising from temporary porta triad occlusion. The study objective was to examine I/R liver effects on the small intestine in rats after N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
H Diao, H L Yan, Y Xiao, B Yu, J Yu, J He, P Zheng, B H Zeng, H Wei, X B Mao, D W Chen
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to compare the differences in gut microbiota composition and gut-phenotypes among pig breeds, and determine whether these differences would transmit to mice colonized with fecal microbiota of different pig breeds. A total of 24 1-day-old germ-free BALB/C mice were divided into 3 groups (TFM, YFM and RFM), which were transplanted with intact fecal microbiota of Tibetan pig (TP), Yorkshire pig (YP) and Rongchang pig (RP), respectively. RESULTS: Results showed that different pig breeds exhibited distinct gut microbiota profile based on high-throughput pyrosequencing...
October 11, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Jonna Jalanka, Eero Mattila, Hanne Jouhten, Jorn Hartman, Willem M de Vos, Perttu Arkkila, Reetta Satokari
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). It restores the disrupted intestinal microbiota and subsequently suppresses C. difficile. The long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota and the recovery of mucosal microbiota, both of which have not been previously studied, are assessed herein. Further, the specific bacteria behind the treatment efficacy are also investigated. METHODS: We performed a high-throughput microbiota profiling using a phylogenetic microarray analysis of 131 faecal and mucosal samples from 14 rCDI patients pre- and post-FMT during a 1-year follow-up and 23 samples from the three universal donors over the same period...
October 11, 2016: BMC Medicine
R Girlanda, A Pozzi, C S Matsumoto, T M Fishbein
Organ transplantation in patients with prior malignancy increases the risk of tumor recurrence post-transplantation due to immunosuppression. Only two cases of liver transplantation have so far been reported in children with hepatic metastases from pancreatoblastoma, a rare malignant neoplasm originating from the epithelial exocrine cells of the pancreas. Herein, we describe a case of a successful multi-visceral transplant in a man with intestinal failure after surgical resection of pancreatoblastoma.
2016: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Yoshiaki Takahashi, Toshiharu Matsuura, Yusuke Yanagi, Koichiro Yoshimaru, Tomoaki Taguchi
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There is currently no unified view regarding whether liver transplantation or splenectomy should be performed for hypersplenism before liver transplantation in biliary atresia (BA) patients. We herein describe the efficacy of splenectomy before liver transplantation. METHODS: Splenectomy was performed in ten patients with hypersplenism associated with BA. We retrospectively reviewed their perioperative and postoperative courses, the number of leukocytes and thrombocytes, and the MELD score...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Akihiko Kitahara, Seijiro Sato, Terumoto Koike, Masanori Tsuchida
We report here a case of fatal respiratory failure developed during chemotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma that occurred late after lung transplantation. 25-year- old man underwent lung transplantation from brain death donor for respiratory failure due to interstitial pneumonia at the age of 16 years old. Two years after transplantation, his respiratory function decreased gradually. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction including bronchiolitis obliterans( BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome was suspected and immunosuppression was enhanced...
October 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Carlo Castellani, Baroukh M Assael
Cystic fibrosis (CF), a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene on chromosome 7, is complex and greatly variable in clinical expression. Airways, pancreas, male genital system, intestine, liver, bone, and kidney are involved. The lack of CFTR or its impaired function causes fat malabsorption and chronic pulmonary infections leading to bronchiectasis and progressive lung damage. Previously considered lethal in infancy and childhood, CF has now attained median survivals of 50 years of age, mainly thanks to the early diagnosis through neonatal screening, recognition of mild forms, and an aggressive therapeutic attitude...
October 5, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Theodoric Wong, Girish Gupte
Children with intestinal failure have had improved survival, particularly those with extreme short bowel syndrome, over the last 10-15 y. This has been attributed to better understanding of the pathophysiology of intestinal failure, improvement in line care, recognition of the importance of a team approach as well as the progress of intestinal transplant as a viable option. Parenteral nutrition remains the cornerstone for the continual survival of these patients. This review will cover contemporary approaches to intestinal failure including post surgical approaches, non-transplant surgery, dietetic and medication approaches during the adaptation process, considerations for home parenteral nutrition and latest in intestinal transplantation...
October 5, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Maria-Luisa Del Rio, Ana Maria Bravo Moral, Carlos Fernandez-Renedo, Leo Buhler, Jose-Antonio Perez-Simon, Olivier Chaloin, Rafael Alvarez Nogal, Maximino Fernandez-Caso, Jose-Ignacio Rodriguez-Barbosa
CD160 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It exhibits a pattern of expression coincident in humans and mice that is mainly restricted to cytotoxic cells and to all intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes. B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 interact with cysteine-rich domain 1 of the extracellular region of Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM). CD160 engagement by HVEM can deliver inhibitory signals to a small subset of human CD4 T cells and attenuate its proliferation and cytokine secretion, but can also costimulate natural killer cells or intraepithelial lymphocytes...
September 15, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Dasaradha Jalapothu, Margherita Boieri, Rachel E Crossland, Pranali Shah, Isha A Butt, Jean Norden, Ralf Dressel, Anne M Dickinson, Marit Inngjerdingen
MicroRNAs (miRNA) have emerged as central regulators of diverse biological processes and contribute to driving pathology in several diseases. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) represents a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, caused by alloreactive donor T cells attacking host tissues leading to inflammation and tissue destruction. Changes in miRNA expression patterns occur during aGvHD, and we hypothesized that we could identify miRNA signatures in target tissues of aGvHD that may potentially help understand the underlying molecular pathology of the disease...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Dror S Shouval, Amlan Biswas, Yu Hui Kang, Alexandra E Griffith, Liza Konnikova, Ivan D Mascanfroni, Naresh S Redhu, Sandra M Frei, Michael Field, Andria L Doty, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Atul K Bhan, Anthony Loizides, Batia Weiss, Baruch Yerushalmi, Tadahiro Yanagi, Xiuli Lui, Francisco J Quintana, Aleixo M Muise, Christoph Klein, Bruce H Horwitz, Sarah C Glover, Athos Bousvaros, Scott B Snapper
IL10 receptor (IL10R)-deficient mice develop spontaneous colitis and similarly, patients with loss-of-function mutations in IL10R develop severe infant-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Loss of IL10R signaling in mouse and human macrophages is associated with increased production of interleukin 1 beta (IL1B). We demonstrated that innate immune production of IL1B mediates colitis in IL10R-deficient mice. Transfer of Il1r1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells into Rag1-/-/Il10rb-/- mice reduced the severity of their colitis (compared to mice that received CD4(+) T cells that express IL1R), accompanied by decreased production of interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and IL17A...
September 27, 2016: Gastroenterology
Wei Gong, Mengzheng Guo, Zhibo Han, Yan Wang, Ping Yang, Chang Xu, Qin Wang, Liqing Du, Qian Li, Hui Zhao, Feiyue Fan, Qiang Liu
The loss of stem cells residing in the base of the intestinal crypt has a key role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In particular, Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are indispensable for intestinal regeneration following exposure to radiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have previously been shown to improve intestinal epithelial repair in a mouse model of radiation injury, and, therefore, it was hypothesized that this protective effect is related to Lgr5(+) ISCs. In this study, it was found that, following exposure to radiation, transplantation of MSCs improved the survival of the mice, ameliorated intestinal injury and increased the number of regenerating crypts...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Guo-Sheng Wu
Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) has increasingly emerged as an important cause of allograft loss after intestinal transplantation (ITx). Compelling evidence indicates that donor-specific antibodies can mediate and promote acute and chronic rejection after ITx. However, diagnostic criteria for ABMR after ITx have not been established yet and the mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft injury are not well-known. Effective approaches to prevent and treat ABMR are required to improve long-term outcomes of intestine recipients...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Fanny Lanternier, Karima Amazzough, Loic Favennec, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Hendy Abdoul, Jérome Touret, Stéphane Decramer, Julien Zuber, Anne Scemla, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Cryptosporidiosis is classically reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. METHODS: Through the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network and the French Transplantation Society, we collected all cryptosporidiosis cases identified in solid organ transplanted patients between 2006 and 2010 in France...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
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