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Intestinal transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424327/rig-i-mavs-and-sting-signaling-promote-gut-integrity-during-irradiation-and-immune-mediated-tissue-injury
#1
Julius C Fischer, Michael Bscheider, Gabriel Eisenkolb, Chia-Ching Lin, Alexander Wintges, Vera Otten, Caroline A Lindemans, Simon Heidegger, Martina Rudelius, Sébastien Monette, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Marco Calafiore, Sophie Liebermann, Chen Liu, Stefan Lienenklaus, Siegfried Weiss, Ulrich Kalinke, Jürgen Ruland, Christian Peschel, Yusuke Shono, Melissa Docampo, Enrico Velardi, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Jarrod A Dudakov, Tobias Haas, Marcel R M van den Brink, Hendrik Poeck
The molecular pathways that regulate the tissue repair function of type I interferon (IFN-I) during acute tissue damage are poorly understood. We describe a protective role for IFN-I and the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway during acute tissue damage in mice. Mice lacking mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) were more sensitive to total body irradiation- and chemotherapy-induced intestinal barrier damage. These mice developed worse graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a preclinical model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) than did wild-type mice...
April 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414794/intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-toxoplasma-gondii-induced-acute-ileitis-in-mice-harboring-a-human-gut-microbiota
#2
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413062/assessment-of-mucosal-integrity-by-quantifying-neutrophil-granulocyte-influx-in-murine-models-of-acute-intestinal-injury
#3
Julius Clemens Fischer, Alexander Wintges, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
Intact epithelial body surfaces represent physical barriers which protect the organism from invading pathogens and loss of nutrients. Barrier malfunction is closely linked to disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. In fact, several pharmacological or radiobiological therapeutic strategies have side effects that affect epithelial surfaces. In this context, assays that accurately assess epithelial barrier integrity in patients and animal models are crucial to create a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to disease or limiting therapeutic approaches due to barrier disruption...
April 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408426/staffas-a-burgos-da-silva-m-van-den-brink-mrm-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-and-graft-versus-host-disease-blood-2017-129-8-927-933
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405600/longitudinal-analysis-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-liver-transplantation
#5
Karin Kato, Miki Nagao, Kentaro Miyamoto, Kentaro Oka, Motomichi Takahashi, Masaki Yamamoto, Yasufumi Matsumura, Toshimi Kaido, Shinji Uemoto, Satoshi Ichiyama
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in liver diseases. However, the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during liver transplantation (LT) and its potential role in clinical course remain unknown. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the intestinal microbiota of 38 patients who underwent LT in Kyoto University Hospital. We characterized the microbial compositions of fecal specimens from LT patients using a metagenomics approach by an Illumina MiSeq platform...
April 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397982/generation-of-chimeric-minipigs-by-aggregating-4-to-8-cell-stage-blastomeres-from-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-with-the-tracing-of-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#6
Huili Ji, Chuan Long, Chong Feng, Ningning Shi, Yingdi Jiang, Guomin Zeng, Xirui Li, Jingjing Wu, Lin Lu, Shengsheng Lu, Dengke Pan
BACKGROUND: Blastocyst complementation is an important technique for generating chimeric organs in organ-deficient pigs, which holds great promise for solving the problem of a shortage of organs for human transplantation procedures. Porcine chimeras have been generated using embryonic germ cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells; however, there are no authentic pluripotent stem cells for pigs. In previous studies, blastomeres from 4- to 8-cell-stage parthenogenetic embryos were able to generate chimeric fetuses efficiently, but the resulting fetuses did not produce live-born young...
April 11, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395445/-clinical-efficacy-of-recombinant-activated-factor-%C3%A2-a-for-16-hematonosis-with-moderate-or-severe-bleeding
#7
F Yang, L J Kong, J W Hu, N Liu, Y F Su, Y H Li, J L Chen, Z Y Yu, Z Q Qiao, Q H Wang, M Jiang
Objective: To analyze the efficacy of recombinant activated factor Ⅶ a (rF Ⅶ a) on hematonosis with moderate or severe bleeding signs. Methods: Of total 16 cases with rF Ⅶ a treatment from May 2013 to May 2016, 8 cases received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the other were non-transplantation patients. In two groups, there was no significant difference on rF Ⅶ a usage and dosage. 15 patients with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allo-HSCT were control group (without rF Ⅶ a) ...
March 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393434/multivisceral-transplantation-for-abdominal-tumors-in-children-a-single-center-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Eliza Lee, Nicole Hodgkinson, Rima Fawaz, Khashayar Vakili, Heung Bae Kim
Standard management of intra-abdominal pediatric solid tumors requires complete resection. However, tumors with multiple organ and vascular involvement present a unique surgical challenge. We conducted a retrospective chart review of four patients, aged 2-14 years, undergoing MVT for intra-abdominal tumors with significant involvement of the visceral arteries and/or portomesenteric venous system at our institution. Indications for MVT included hepatocellular carcinoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, and two cases of hepatoblastoma...
April 9, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386472/comprehensive-survey-of-intestinal-microbiota-changes-in-offspring-of-human-microbiota-associated-mice
#9
Eliane von Klitzing, Fulya Öz, Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Escher, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment provide a valuable tool for association studies with microbiota derived from different vertebrate hosts. We here generated human microbiota-associated (hma) mice by human fecal microbiota transplantation of secondary abiotic mice and performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota dynamics in offspring of hma mice over 18 weeks following weaning as compared to their mothers applying both cultural and molecular methods. Mice were maintained under standard hygienic conditions with open cages, handled under aseptic conditions, and fed autoclaved chow and water...
March 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379928/impact-of-multidisciplinary-teams-for-management-of-intestinal-failure-in-children
#10
Christina Belza, Paul W Wales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature related to the impact of an intestinal rehabilitation program (IRP) on the management of intestinal failure in children. RECENT FINDINGS: As publication of a systematic review of pediatric IRPs in 2013, there have been four publications further describing the impact of IRPs in children with intestinal failure. The results continue to support an improvement in survival and enteral autonomy, and a decrease in complications related to liver dysfunction, central venous catheters, and transplantation...
April 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376583/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-review-of-the-phenotype-and-associated-specific-features
#11
REVIEW
Carolina Palmela, Farhad Peerani, Daniel Castaneda, Joana Torres, Steven H Itzkowitz
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive cholestatic disease that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in approximately 70% of cases. Although the pathogenesis is still unknown for both diseases, there is increasing evidence to indicate that they share a common underlying predisposition. Herein, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, disease pathogenesis, and specific clinical features of the PSC-IBD phenotype. Patients with PSC-IBD have a distinct IBD phenotype with an increased incidence of pancolitis, backwash ileitis, and rectal sparing...
April 6, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365108/hybrid-interventions-for-catheter-placement-in-pediatric-intestinal-rehabilitation-patients-with-end-stage-venous-access
#12
Ludger Sieverding, Andreas Busch, Jens Gesche, Gunnar Blumenstock, Ekkehard Sturm, Ilias Tsiflikas, Femke Piersma, Anja Hauser, Gesa Wiegand, Steffen Hartleif, Michael Hofbeck, Jörg Fuchs, Steven W Warmann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the combined approach of endovascular and open surgical procedures for insertion of permanent central venous catheters in children with intestinal failure and end-stage venous access. METHODS: Data of 14 children (16 interventions) with intestinal failure and end-stage venous access, treated within the pediatric intestinal rehabilitation program at our institution between September 2011 and November 2016, were retrospectively reviewed...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362138/intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-different-groups-of-immunocompromised-patients-in-kashan-and-qom-cities-central-iran
#13
Sima Rasti, Malihe Hassanzadeh, Hossein Hooshyar, Mansooreh Momen-Heravi, Seyed Gholam Abbas Mousavi, Amir Abdoli
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with immunocompromising conditions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IPIs in different groups of immunocompromised patients, including hemodialysis patients (HD), renal transplant recipients (RTR), cancer and HIV/AIDS patients in comparison with healthy individuals in two central cities of Iran (Kashan and Qom). METHODS: In this case-control study, the stool samples of 135 HD, 50 RTR, 60 cancer patients, 20 HIV/AIDS patients and 120 healthy subjects were tested using direct-smear, formol-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and Agar plate method...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361844/new-mutations-of-epcam-gene-for-tufting-enteropathy-in-saudi-arabia
#14
Shaden AlMahamed, Abdelhai Hammo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Tufting enteropathy (TE) is a rare cause of congenital intractable diarrhea in children. It often results in an irreversible intestinal failure and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) dependency; eventually, intestinal transplantation may be necessary. Data on TE from the Middle East are scarce; therefore, our aim of conducting this study was to clarify the clinical, histopathologic, and molecular features of TE in Saudi children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of four children with TE who presented between January 2011 and December 2013 to King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam (KFSH-D)...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361322/in-vivo-model-of-small-intestine
#15
Mahe M Maxime, Nicole E Brown, Holly M Poling, Helmrath A Michael
The utilization of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers new avenues in the generation of organs and opportunities to understand development and diseases. The hPSC-derived human intestinal organoids (HIOs) provide a new tool to gain insights in small intestinal development, physiology, and associated diseases. Herein, we provide a method for orthotropic transplantation of HIOs in immunocompromised mice. This method highlights the specific steps to successful engraftment and provides insight into the study of bioengineered human small intestine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355394/severe-sepsis-from-a-ciprofloxacin-resistant-salmonellosis-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient
#16
Matheus Miranda Mendes, Moisés Carminatti, Hélady Sanders Pinheiro
INTRODUCTION: Salmonellosis is a relatively rare complication in kidney transplant recipients that cannot be clinically distinguished from other forms of enteritis. Among kidney transplant patients, it varies broadly in intensity, and is highly associated with extra-intestinal disease, bacteremia, and, in this case, a high mortality rate. CASE REPORT: Here we describe a clinical case of ciprofloxacin resistant salmonellosis in a kidney transplant patient. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates how immunosuppressed patients can be exposed to rare forms of infection, often clinically difficult to identify, and possibly with severe clinical courses and poor outcomes despite evidence-based empiric antibiotic therapy...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352104/helminth-induced-alterations-of-the-gut-microbiota-exacerbate-bacterial-colitis
#17
C Su, L Su, Y Li, S R Long, J Chang, W Zhang, W A Walker, R J Xavier, B J Cherayil, H N Shi
Infection with the intestinal helminth parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus exacerbates the colitis caused by the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium. To clarify the underlying mechanism, we analyzed fecal microbiota composition of control and helminth-infected mice and evaluated the functional role of compositional differences by microbiota transplantation experiments. Our results showed that infection of Balb/c mice with H. polygyrus resulted in significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, characterized by a marked increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreases in Firmicutes and Lactobacillales...
March 29, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348415/potential-role-of-fecal-microbiota-from-patients-with-slow-transit-constipation-in-the-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-motility
#18
Xiaolong Ge, Wei Zhao, Chao Ding, Hongliang Tian, Lizhi Xu, Hongkan Wang, Ling Ni, Jun Jiang, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Minsheng Zhu, Ning Li
The gut microbiota is involved in various physiological functions, and disturbances in the host-microbiome have been proven to contribute to the dysfunction of gut; however, whether microbiota participates in the pathogenesis of constipation remains unclear. In this study, we extracted and analyzed microbiota in feces from constipated donors who had undergone effective therapy with fecal microbiota transplantation, transplanted microbiota into pseudo-germ-free mice, and measured gut motility. These mice presented with lower pellet frequency and water percentage, smaller pellet size, delayed gastrointestinal transit time, and weaker spontaneous contractions of colonic smooth muscle...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345530/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-methods-of-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-other-diseases
#19
Klaudia Juszczuk, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek
Clostridium difficile is a serious epidemiological problem and particularly dangerous microorganism causing hospital infections. Currently, the treatment of C. difficile infections is the use of metronidazole or vancomycin. However, in some patients, recurrent infection difficult to treat occurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new method used to treat the recurrent CDI. FMT consists in the infusion of the fecal suspension from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient with CDI to restore the natural intestinal microflora...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344157/surgical-procedures-in-liver-transplant-patients-a-monocentric-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Daniele Sommacale, Ganesh Nagarajan, Martin Lhuaire, Federica Dondero, Patrick Pessaux, Tullio Piardi, Alain Sauvanet, Reza Kianmanesh, Jacques Belghiti
BACKGROUND: Pre-existing chronic liver diseases and the complexity of the transplant surgery procedures lead to a greater risk of further surgery in transplanted patients compared to the general population. The aim of this monocentric retrospective cohort study was to assess the epidemiology of surgical complications in liver transplanted patients who require further surgical procedures and to characterize their post-operative risk of complications to enhance their medical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1997 to December 2011, 1211 patients underwent orthotropic liver transplantation in our center...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
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