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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636192/intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-stem-cell-based-approaches-to-regenerate-the-barrier
#1
REVIEW
Fredrik E O Holmberg, Jannie Pedersen, Peter Jørgensen, Christoffer Soendergaard, Kim B Jensen, Ole H Nielsen
Disruption of normal barrier function is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, which includes increased epithelial cell death, modified mucus configuration, altered expression and distribution of tight junction-proteins, along with a decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630433/gut-microbiota-of-liver-transplantation-recipients
#2
Li-Ying Sun, Yun-Sheng Yang, Wei Qu, Zhi-Jun Zhu, Lin Wei, Zhi-Sheng Ye, Jian-Rui Zhang, Xiao-Ye Sun, Zhi-Gui Zeng
The characteristics of intestinal microbial communities may be affected by changes in the pathophysiology of patients with end-stage liver disease. Here, we focused on the characteristics of intestinal fecal microbial communities in post-liver transplantation (LT) patients in comparison with those in the same individuals pre-LT and in healthy individuals. The fecal microbial communities were analyzed via MiSeq-PE250 sequencing of the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA and were then compared between groups. We found that the gut microbiota of patients with severe liver disease who were awaiting LT was significantly different from that of healthy controls, as represented by the first principal component (p = 0...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628918/bifidobacterium-rich-fecal-donor-may-be-a-positive-predictor-for-successful-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#3
Shinta Mizuno, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Makoto Naganuma, Taishiro Kishimoto, Momoko Kitazawa, Shunya Kurokawa, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Wataru Suda, Masaru Mimura, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysbiosis is associated with various systemic disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) might restore intestinal microbial balance. The study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of FMT in IBS patients, as well as also positive predictors for FMT. METHODS: This was a single-arm, open-label study. Eligible patients were diagnosed based on Rome III Diagnostic Criteria. Fecal materials were administered to the patient via colonoscopy...
June 21, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628495/congress-of-the-international-intestinal-rehabilitation-and-transplantation-association-cirta-abstracts
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624575/intestinal-fungal-dysbiosis-associates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-rats
#5
Sara Botschuijver, Guus Roeselers, Evgeni Levin, Daisy M Jonkers, Olaf Welting, Sigrid Em Heinsbroek, Heleen H de Weerd, Teun Boekhout, Matteo Fornai, Ad A Masclee, Frank H J Schuren, Wouter J de Jonge, Jurgen Seppen, Rene M van den Wijngaard
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Visceral hypersensitivity is one feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Bacterial dysbiosis might be involved in activation of nociceptive sensory pathways, but there have been few studies of the role of the mycobiome (the fungal microbiome) in development of IBS. We analyzed intestinal mycobiomes of patients with IBS and a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity. METHODS: We used internal transcribed spacer 1-based metabarcoding to compare fecal mycobiomes of 18 healthy volunteers with those of 39 patients with IBS (with visceral hypersensitivity or normal levels of sensitivity)...
June 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615946/treatment-and-outcome-of-intestinal-perforation-after-liver-transplant-surgery-in-adults-a-single-center-experience
#6
Jianyu Lin, Jing Wang, Peng Yue, Xingmao Zhang, Ren Lang, Yuan Wang, Chen Cui, Qiang He
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal perforation is a rare complication after liver transplantation. This study was designed to calculate the incidence and investigate the outcomes of intestinal perforation in adult liver transplant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical records of liver transplant recipients between January 2014 and June 2016 were obtained. The incidence of intestinal perforation was calculated, and high risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean operative time was 8...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609252/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-metabolic-syndrome-history-present-and-future
#7
P F de Groot, M N Frissen, N C de Clercq, M Nieuwdorp
The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609251/intestinal-microbiota-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Alexa R Weingarden, Byron P Vaughn
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex set of diseases that lead to chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the etiology of IBD is not fully understood, it is well-known that the intestinal microbiota is associated with the development and maintenance of IBD. Manipulation of the gut microbiota, therefore, may represent a target for IBD therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), where fecal microbiota from a healthy donor is transplanted into a patient's GI tract, is already a successful therapy for Clostridium difficile infection...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607413/early-gut-microbiota-intervention-suppresses-dss-induced-inflammatory-responses-by-deactivating-tlr-nlr-signalling-in-pigs
#9
Yi Xiao, Honglin Yan, Hui Diao, Bing Yu, Jun He, Jie Yu, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Yuheng Luo, Daiwen Chen
Recent metagenomic studies suggest that innate and adaptive immune phenotypes can be programmed via gut microbiota-host interactions mediated via activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells. In this study, we used two extremely different pig lines (the Yorkshire and the Tibetan) to test the hypothesis that the transplantation of gut microbiota could transfer certain immunologic characteristics from donor to recipient. The faecal microbiota of these two pig lines was transplanted in healthy commercial hybrid newborn piglets to establish the "Tibetan-intervened" and "Yorkshire-intervened" porcine models...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604513/severe-sarcopenia-and-increased-fat-stores-in-pediatric-patients-with-liver-kidney-or-intestine-failure
#10
Richard S Mangus, Weston J Bush, Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Christina Miller
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition and wasting predict clinical outcomes in children with severe chronic illness. Objectively calculated malnutrition in children with end-stage organ failure has not been well studied. This analysis compares children with kidney, liver or intestine failure to healthy controls to quantitate the disparity in muscle and fat stores. METHODS: Children younger than age 19 with end stage liver, kidney or intestine failure and with pre-transplant computed tomography (CT) imaging were selected from the transplant database...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600659/a-meta-analysis-of-clinical-outcome-of-intestinal-transplantation-in-patients-with-total-intestinal-aganglionosis
#11
Hiroki Nakamura, Davina Henderson, Prem Puri
AIM OF THE STUDY: Total intestinal aganglionosis (TIA) occurs in less than 1% of patients with Hirschsprung disease (HD), and TIA is the most severe form of HD. Survival has improved with the advent of parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation (ITx). The field of ITx has rapidly progressed in the last two decades and has now become an established treatment for patients with intestinal failure. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the clinical outcome of ITx in patients with TIA...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596693/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-cured-epilepsy-in-a-case-with-crohn-s-disease-the-first-report
#12
Zhi He, Bo-Ta Cui, Ting Zhang, Pan Li, Chu-Yan Long, Guo-Zhong Ji, Fa-Ming Zhang
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising strategy that involves reconstruction of gut microbiota. Recently, it has been considered as a treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and certain neurological diseases. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case that used FMT to achieve remission of intestinal and neurological symptoms in a girl with CD and a 17-year history of epilepsy. During the 20 mo of follow-up, FMT has proved its efficacy in preventing relapse of seizures after withdrawing the antiepileptic drugs...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589214/-individualized-treatment-strategies-for-clostridium-difficile-infections
#13
REVIEW
P Solbach, P Dersch, O Bachmann
Upon hospitalization, up to 15.5% of patients are already colonized with a toxigenic Clostridium difficile strain (TCD). The rate of asymptomatic colonization is 0-3% in healthy adults and up to 20-40% in hospitalized patients. The incidence and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has significantly increased during recent years. Mortality lies between 3 and 14%. CDI is generally caused by intestinal dysbiosis, which can be triggered by various factors, including antibiotics or immune suppressants. If CDI occurs, ongoing antibiotic therapy should be discontinued...
June 6, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587588/contemporary-management-of-renal-transplant-recipients-with-de-novo-urolithiasis-a-single-institution-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Ahmed M Harraz, Mohamed H Zahran, Ahmed I Kamal, Ahmed S El-Hefnawy, Yasser Osman, Shady A Soliman, Mohamed M Kamal, Beder Ali-El-Dein, Ahmed A Shokeir
OBJECTIVES: We report on the long-term follow-up of managing allograft stones at a single tertiary referral institution and review the relevant literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of renal allograft recipient charts was performed to identify patients who developed allograft lithiasis between 1974 and 2009. Patient and stone characteristics, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes were described. RESULTS: Sixteen patients developed 22 stones after a median follow-up of 170 months (range, 51-351 mo)...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586772/clinical-features-and-recurrence-pattern-of-perianal-abscess-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#15
Hung Chang, Ming-Chung Kuo, Tzung-Chih Tang, Tung-Liang Lin, Jin-Hou Wu, Yu-Shin Hung, Po-Nan Wang
INTRODUCTION: Perianal abscess may develop during neutropenia periods in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The standard of care for perianal abscess in AML is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively collected patient data in our institute from 2009 to 2012. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-two patients with AML were analyzed. In total, 1,051 chemotherapy sessions were administered. Twenty-three patients experienced perianal abscess. Patients with perianal abscess were younger than those without (44 vs...
June 7, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583542/splenectomy-for-severe-intestinal-bleeding-caused-by-portal-hypertensive-enteropathy-after-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation-a-report-of-three-cases
#16
K Tokodai, N Kawagishi, S Miyagi, C Nakanishi, Y Hara, W Nakanishi, T Kamei, N Ohuchi
BACKGROUND: The incidence of portal vein thrombosis after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is reported to be higher than that after deceased-donor or adult liver transplantation. Portal vein thrombosis can cause portal hypertension and related complications, including portal hypertensive gastropathy or portal hypertensive enteropathy (PHE). PHE, in particular, can lead to severe intestinal bleeding, which is extremely difficult to treat. However, the pathogenesis of and appropriate treatment for PHE are not clearly defined, especially after pediatric LDLT...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581444/altered-homeostatic-regulation-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-lower-gastrointestinal-tract-gvhd-pathogenesis
#17
James Lm Ferrara, Christopher M Smith, Julia Sheets, Pavan Reddy, Jonathan S Serody
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality from GVHD after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Recent data indicate that lower GI tract GVHD is a complicated process mediated by donor/host antigenic disparities. This process is exacerbated by significant changes to the microbiome, and innate and adaptive immune responses that are critical to the induction of disease, persistence of inflammation, and a lack of response to therapy. Here, we discuss new insights into the biology of lower GI tract GVHD and focus on intrinsic pathways and regulatory mechanisms crucial to normal intestinal function...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576434/-molecular-epidemiology-and-kinetics-of-early-escherichia-coli-urinary-tract-infections-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#18
Parvine Tashk, Marie Lecronier, Olivier Clermont, Aurélie Renvoisé, Alexandra Aubry, Benoît Barrou, Alexandre Hertig, Mathilde Lescat, Olivier Tenaillon, Erick Denamur, Jérôme Tourret
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli strains causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) have a fecal origin. METHODS: A fecal sample was collected before Kidney Transplantation (KT) and concomitantly with urine at each of the 15 E. coli UTIs which occurred in 11 KT recipients. Unique E. coli strains were identified among 25 isolates per feces and 5 isolates per urinary sample by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Phylogenetic group (which is correlated to virulence in the E...
May 30, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572754/functional-amplification-and-preservation-of-human-gut-microbiota
#19
Nadia Gaci, Prem Prashant Chaudhary, William Tottey, Monique Alric, Jean-François Brugère
Background: The availability of fresh stool samples is a prerequisite in most gut microbiota functional studies. Objective: Strategies for amplification and long-term gut microbiota preservation from fecal samples would favor sample sharing, help comparisons and reproducibility over time and between laboratories, and improve the safety and ethical issues surrounding fecal microbiota transplantations. Design: Taking advantage of in vitro gut-simulating systems, we amplified the microbial repertoire of a fresh fecal sample and assessed the viability and resuscitation of microbes after preservation with some common intracellular and extracellular acting cryoprotective agents (CPAs), alone and in different combinations...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559695/therapy-of-the-postinfectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Teodora Iacob, Doina F Ţăţulescu, D L Dumitraşcu
After acute infectious gastroenteritis, up to thirty percent of patients present prolonged gastrointestinal symptoms and a part of those affected patients can have the diagnostic criteria for postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Treatment is symptom directed rather than curative and includes agents prescribed for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in general. Prophylaxis or early treatment of acute bacterial diarrhea may reduce the risk of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome development by reducing the occurrence, duration, and severity of the chronic inflammation and mucosal alterations (all these believed to play an important role in disease persistence)...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
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