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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216852/access-to-affordable-medicines-and-diagnostic-tests-for-asthma-and-copd-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-ugandan-perspective
#1
Davis Kibirige, Leaticia Kampiire, David Atuhe, Raymond Mwebaze, Winceslaus Katagira, Winters Muttamba, Rebecca Nantanda, William Worodria, Bruce Kirenga
BACKGROUND: Equitable access to affordable medicines and diagnostic tests is an integral component of optimal clinical care of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In Uganda, we lack contemporary data about the availability, cost and affordability of medicines and diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management. METHODS: Data on the availability, cost and affordability of 17 medicines and 2 diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management were collected from 22 public hospitals, 23 private and 85 private pharmacies...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216757/assessing-challenges-in-low-income-families-to-inform-a-life-skills-based-obesity-intervention
#2
Nivedita Bhushan, Maihan Vu, Randall Teal, Jessica Carda-Auten, Dianne Ward, Temitope Erinosho
BACKGROUND: This article describes the formative research undertaken to explore challenges of low-income parents of 3-to 5-year-olds to inform a parent-focused life skills-based intervention to prevent obesity in preschool-aged children. METHOD: A total of 40 parents completed surveys, 30 parents participated in focus groups, and 5 community stakeholders participated in individual interviews. In each data mode, participants were asked to prioritize a list of challenges centered on parenting, family care, and self-care...
December 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214409/strategies-to-implement-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-ukraine
#3
Alex Dubov, Liana Fraenkel, Roman Yorick, Adedotun Ogunbajo, Frederick L Altice
Ukrainian men who have sex with men (MSM) remain highly stigmatized group with HIV prevalence as high as 23%. Despite documented effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP remains unavailable in Ukraine. The aim of this study was to elicit MSM preferences in order to inform program development to facilitate successful delivery of PrEP to Ukrainian MSM. 1184 MSM were recruited through social networking applications to complete a stated preference (choice-based conjoint) survey. Respondents completed 14 choice tasks presenting experimentally-varied combinations of five attributes related to PrEP administration (dosing frequency, dispensing venue, prescription practices, adherence support, and costs)...
December 6, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213344/psychotherapy-for-major-depressive-disorder-and-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-health-technology-assessment
#4
(no author information available yet)
Background: Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder are among the most commonly diagnosed mental illnesses in Canada; both are associated with a high societal and economic burden. Treatment for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder consists of pharmacological and psychological interventions. Three commonly used psychological interventions are cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy, and supportive therapy. The objectives of this report were to assess the effectiveness and safety of these types of therapy for the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder, to assess the cost-effectiveness of structured psychotherapy (CBT or interpersonal therapy), to calculate the budget impact of publicly funding structured psychotherapy, and to gain a greater understanding of the experiences of people with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder...
2017: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213190/smartphone-based-imaging-of-the-corneal-endothelium-at-sub-cellular-resolution
#5
Devrim Toslak, Damber Thapa, Muhammet Kazim Erol, Yanjun Chen, Xincheng Yao
This aim of this study was to test the feasibility of smartphone-based specular microscopy of the corneal endothelium at a sub-cellular resolution. Quantitative examination of endothelial cells is essential for evaluating corneal disease such as determining a diagnosis, monitoring progression and assessing treatment. Smartphone-based technology promises a new opportunity to develop affordable devices to foster quantitative examination of endothelial cells in rural and underserved areas. In our study, we incorporated an iPhone 6 and a slit lamp to demonstrate the feasibility of smartphone-based microscopy of the corneal endothelium at a sub-cellular resolution...
2017: Journal of Modern Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212732/the-role-of-rituximab-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-treatment-and-the-potential-utility-of-biosimilars
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer R Brown, Florence Cymbalista, Jeff Sharman, Ira Jacobs, Pilar Nava-Parada, Anthony Mato
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is managed with observation for asymptomatic or clinically silent disease; pharmacologic intervention is generally required for symptomatic patients with clinically significant adenopathy or cytopenia. In the front-line treatment of CLL, the current standard-of-care includes chemotherapy in combination with an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (e.g., rituximab, ofatumumab, or obinutuzumab) or ibrutinib as single agent. Despite the evolving treatment paradigm toward targeted therapy, it is likely that rituximab (plus chemotherapy), with or without targeted agents, will retain a significant role in CLL treatment...
December 6, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211503/national-health-care-spending-in-2016-spending-and-enrollment-growth-slow-after-initial-coverage-expansions
#7
Micah Hartman, Anne B Martin, Nathan Espinosa, Aaron Catlin, The National Health Expenditure Accounts Team
Total nominal US health care spending increased 4.3 percent and reached $3.3 trillion in 2016. Per capita spending on health care increased by $354, reaching $10,348. The share of gross domestic product devoted to health care spending was 17.9 percent in 2016, up from 17.7 percent in 2015. Health spending growth decelerated in 2016 following faster growth in 2014 and 2015 associated with coverage expansions under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and strong retail prescription drug spending growth. In 2016 the slowdown was broadly based, as spending for the largest categories by payer and by service decelerated...
December 6, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210557/improving-patient-safety-improving-communication
#8
Heather Bittner-Fagan, Joshua Davis, Margot Savoy
Communication among physicians, staff, and patients is a critical element in patient safety. Effective communication skills can be taught and improved through training and awareness. The practice of family medicine allows for long-term relationships with patients, which affords opportunities for ongoing, high-quality communication. There are many barriers to effective communication, including patient factors, clinician factors, and system factors, but tools and strategies exist to address these barriers, improve communication, and engage patients in their care...
December 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208889/why-abortion-is-illegal-comparison-of-legal-and-illegal-abortion-a-critical-review
#9
M E Huq, M J Raihan, H Shirin, S Chowdhury, Y Jahan, A S Chowdhury, M M Rahman
Abortion is the termination of pregnancy that occurs spontaneously or purposely. In the most developed world, abortion is legally allowed for women seeking safe termination of pregnancies. Particularly, when access to legal abortion is restricted, abortion is the resort to unsafe methods. The aim of this review is to necessitate safe abortion and to accentuate the consequences of illegal abortion in case of legal prohibition. We used Pubmed, MedLine and Scopus databases to review previous literatures of safe, unsafe, legal and illegal abortions...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208832/comparison-of-visual-performance-and-after-cataract-formation-between-two-monofocal-aspheric-intraocular-lenses-following-phacoemulsification-for-senile-cataract-a-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Shikha Yadav, Pranita Sahay, Prafulla K Maharana, Jeewan S Titiyal, Rasik B Vajpayee, Namrata Sharma
PURPOSE: Monofocal aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) provide better visual outcome compared to other available IOLs following cataract surgery. However, the imported IOLs are expensive and are not affordable by all subset of patients in low- to middle-income countries like India. The aim of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of a relatively low cost indigenous IOL (Acriol EC) with an imported aspheric IOL (AcrySof IQ). METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary care centre...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204328/the-role-of-affordable-point-of-care-technologies-for-cancer-care-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-review-and-commentary
#11
Karen Haney, Pushpa Tandon, Rao Divi, Miguel R Ossandon, Houston Baker, Paul C Pearlman
As the burden of non-communicable diseases such as cancer continues to rise in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), it is essential to identify and invest in promising solutions for cancer control and treatment. Point-of-care technologies (POCTs) have played critical roles in curbing infectious disease epidemics in both high- and low-income settings, and their successes can serve as a model for transforming cancer care in LMICs, where access to traditional clinical resources is often limited. The versatility, cost-effectiveness, and simplicity of POCTs warrant attention for their potential to revolutionize cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203653/rapid-diagnostic-testing-platform-for-iron-and-vitamin-a-deficiency
#12
Zhengda Lu, Dakota O'Dell, Balaji Srinivasan, Elizabeth Rey, Ruisheng Wang, Sasank Vemulapati, Saurabh Mehta, David Erickson
Micronutrient deficiencies such as those of vitamin A and iron affect a third of the world's population with consequences such as night blindness, higher child mortality, anemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, and reduced work capacity. Many efforts to prevent or treat these deficiencies are hampered by the lack of adequate, accessible, and affordable diagnostic methods that can enable better targeting of interventions. In this work, we demonstrate a rapid diagnostic test and mobile enabled platform for simultaneously quantifying iron (ferritin), vitamin A (retinol-binding protein), and inflammation (C-reactive protein) status...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203336/spontaneous-recovery-of-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-functional-deficits-is-not-hindered-by-daily-administration-of-lorazepam
#13
Jeffrey P Cheng, Jacob B Leary, Darik A O'Neil, Elizabeth A Meyer, Kristin E Free, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Agitation and aggression are common sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pose a challenge to physicians and other health providers during acute patient care and subsequent neurorehabilitation. Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are routinely administered to manage TBI patients displaying such maladaptive behaviors despite several clinical and preclinical studies demonstrating that they hinder recovery. A potentially viable alternative to APDs may be the benzodiazepines, which have differing mechanisms of action...
December 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203038/trends-in-medicaid-beneficiaries-receipt-of-breast-reconstruction-procedures-following-pre-affordable-care-act-aca-medicaid-expansion-in-new-york-state
#14
Oluseyi Aliu, Aviram M Giladi, Kevin C Chung
BACKGROUND: Expanding eligibility will increase the demand for surgical services within Medicaid but little is known of the response to such increase in demand. We examined how much of the increased demand for breast reconstruction was met after expansion of Medicaid eligibility. METHODS: We used New York state databases from 1998 to 2006 and a population of non-elderly adults (19-64) who underwent breast cancer treatment and reconstructive procedures. We used an Interrupted Time-Series design to examine the association between Medicaid expansion in 2001 and changes in the percentages of treatment and reconstructive procedures covered by Medicaid...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202843/socioeconomic-inequalities-of-outpatient-and-inpatient-service-utilization-in-china-personal-and-regional-perspectives
#15
Dawei Zhu, Na Guo, Jian Wang, Stephen Nicholas, Li Chen
BACKGROUND: China's health system has shown remarkable progress in health provision and health outcomes in recent decades, however inequality in health care utilization persists and poses a serious social problem. While government pro-poor health policies addressed affordability as the major obstacle to equality in health care access, this policy direction deserves further examination. Our study examines the issue of health care inequalities in China, analyzing both regional and individual socioeconomic factors associated with the inequality, and provides evidence to improve governmental health policies...
December 4, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202162/controversial-issues-in-healthcare-policy-a-survey-of-doctor-of-physical-therapy-students-in-a-public-university
#16
Drew D Snyder, Teale K Bennett, Jeremy C Oller, Weiqing Ge
BACKGROUND: The recently passed legislation and proposed policy changes governing the healthcare system have been met with extensive debate and controversy. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the study was to determine the attitudes of Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students towards some of these controversial issues. The secondary objective was to determine the demographic factors, including number of years in a physical therapy program, that contribute to their attitude formation...
2017: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202157/utilization-of-ambulatory-physical-therapy-and-occupational-therapy-by-the-united-states-population-2009-2013
#17
Robert Sandstrom
PURPOSE: The aging of the U.S. population and insurance reforms in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 have been postulated to increase future demand for physical therapy and occupational therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop population estimates for and describe the demographic characteristics of persons using ambulatory physical therapy and occupational therapy during 2009-2013. METHOD: From data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component, population estimates of the number of persons utilizing ambulatory therapy services were developed for the total U...
2017: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201531/stigma-partners-providers-and-costs-potential-barriers-to-prep-uptake-among-us-women
#18
Lakshmi Goparaju, Nathan C Praschan, Lari Warren-Jeanpiere, Laure S Experton, Mary A Young, Seble Kassaye
Background: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) use has remained low among US women while significantly increasing among men who have sex with men. Besides lack of awareness, women face several social and structural barriers in gaining access to and using PrEP. Methods: Four focus group discussions with 20 HIV-negative women who live in the Washington DC metropolitan area. Results: The women expressed concerns about social and structural barriers to PrEP use...
September 2017: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201261/electrical-stimulation-for-pressure-injuries-a-health-technology-assessment
#19
(no author information available yet)
Background: Pressure injuries (bedsores) are common and reduce quality of life. They are also costly and difficult to treat. This health technology assessment evaluates the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, budget impact, and lived experience of adding electrical stimulation to standard wound care for pressure injuries. Methods: We conducted a systematic search for studies published to December 7, 2016, limited to randomized and non-randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of electrical stimulation plus standard wound care versus standard wound care alone for patients with pressure injuries...
2017: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200702/affordable-and-safe-health-care-for-all-children-lessons-learned-from-the-use-of-peg-asparaginase-in-a-developing-country
#20
Dhaarani Jayaraman, Ramya Uppuluri, Venkateswaran Vellaichamy Swaminathan, Meena Sivasankaran, Shivani Patel, Revathi Raj
Peg-asparaginase has widely replaced the use of conventional asparaginase in treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in developed countries. In developing countries like India, with financial constraints being a part of clinical challenge to the treatment of cancers, uniform use of Peg-asparaginase in all children is not practically possible. However, we found by a retrospective analysis of 211 children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, uniform use of this drug was feasible with indigenous techniques like storing the drug with strict cold chain maintenance and sharing the drug amongst 2 or 3 patients to reduce the burden on each family...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
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