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Michelle L Beck, Molly Thompson, William A Hopkins
Research on reptile ecoimmunology lags behind that on other vertebrates, despite the importance of such studies for conservation and evolution. Because the innate immune system is highly conserved across vertebrate lineages, assessments of its performance may be particularly useful in reptiles. The bacteria-killing assay requires a single, small blood sample and quantifies an individual's ability to kill microorganisms. The assay's construct validity and interpretability make it an attractive measure of innate immunity, but it requires proper optimization and sample storage...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Amber J Brace, Marc J Lajeunesse, Daniel R Ardia, Dana M Hawley, James S Adelman, Katherine L Buchanan, Jeanne M Fair, Jennifer L Grindstaff, Kevin D Matson, Lynn B Martin
A central assumption in ecological immunology is that immune responses are costly, with costs manifesting directly (e.g., increases in metabolic rate and increased amino acid usage) or as tradeoffs with other life processes (e.g., reduced growth and reproductive success). Across taxa, host longevity, timing of maturity, and reproductive effort affect the organization of immune systems. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that these and related factors should also affect immune activation costs. Specifically, species that spread their breeding efforts over a long lifetime should experience lower immune costs than those that mature and breed quickly and die comparatively early...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Laura M E Blanken, Alena Dass, Gail Alvares, Jan van der Ende, Nikita K Schoemaker, Hanan El Marroun, Martha Hickey, Craig Pennell, Scott White, Murray T Maybery, Cheryl Dissanayake, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier, Will McIntosh, Tonya White, Andrew Whitehouse
Altered trajectories of brain growth are often reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly during the first year of life. However, less is known about prenatal head growth trajectories, and no study has examined the relation with postnatal autistic symptom severity. The current study prospectively examined the association between fetal head growth and the spectrum of autistic symptom severity in two large population-based cohorts, including a sample of individuals with clinically diagnosed ASD...
January 22, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Natalia Soledad Della Costa, Joaquín Luis Navarro, Juan Manuel Busso, Raúl Héctor Marin, Mónica Beatriz Martella
Progesterone is the most concentrated maternal yolk steroid characterized to date in birds; however, no information about it is available in ratite eggs. We collected freshly laid eggs from zoo-housed Greater Rhea females (Rhea americana) bred under similar rearing conditions during two breeding seasons to characterize concentration and distribution of maternal yolk progesterone. After high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, yolk hormone was measured using a commercial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Catherine Tylan, Tracy Langkilde
The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test is commonly used by ecologists to assess cell-mediated immune function of wild animals. It can be performed quickly and easily in the field, involving injection of PHA and measurement of the resultant swelling. There are multiple formulations of PHA used in ecological studies, with potentially differing outcomes that could produce inconsistent results. We tested two common types of PHA in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) to identify local and systemic immune responses underlying the resultant swelling at 6, 18, 24, and 48 hr post injection...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Mitchell Andrew Czerwinski, Ben Michael Sadd
Pesticides are well known to have a number of ecological effects. However, it is only now becoming understood that sublethal exposures may have effects on nontarget insects of conservation concern through interactions with immunity, thus increasing detrimental impacts in the presence of pathogens. Pesticides and pathogens are suggested to have played a role in recent declines of several wild bee pollinators. Compromised immunity from exposure to widely used neonicotinoids has been demonstrated in honeybees, but further research on interactions between neonicotinoids and immunity in other important bees is lacking...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Paul A Leighton, Stephen D Brealey, Joseph J Dias
OBJECTIVE: To explore stakeholder perspectives upon participant retention in clinical trials, and to generate strategies to support retention in a surgical, clinical trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The SWIFFT trial is a multicenter study comparing treatments for the fracture of the waist of the scaphoid bone in adults. Here we report upon a multistage, iterative consultative process with SWIFFT stakeholders, these include workshops with members of the public, with nurses involved in data collection, and with consultant clinicians...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Chuanling Zhang, Xueying Zhou, Tianzhuo Yao, Zhenyu Tian, Demin Zhou
Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a common vehicle for the delivery of a variety of therapeutic genes. A better understanding of the process of infection of AAV2 will advance our knowledge of AAV2 biology and allow for the optimization of AAV2 capsids with favorable transduction profiles. However, the precise fluorescent labeling of an AAV2 vector for probing virus tracking without affecting the nature of the virus remains a challenge. In this study, we precisely displayed lab-synthesized azide-moieties on the viral capsid at modifiable sites...
January 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Silvio T da Costa, Luciane T Gressler, Fernando J Sutili, Luíza Loebens, Marisa N Fernandes, Rafael Lazzari, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) against the burden of low pH was assessed in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen through the gills. A commercial humic acid (HA) was used as the source of DOC at 0 (control), 10, 25, and 50 mg/l. For each HA concentration, two pH levels were tested: 6.5 (control) and 5.5. After 40 days of exposure, the gills were removed and morphological variables were analyzed through light and scanning electronic microscopy. The low water pH caused a reduction in the length of filaments, number of lamellae, and gill respiratory surface area (GRSA) and an increase in chloride cells (CCs) number in the filament epithelium...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Paul Mätzig, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, David Caplan, Frank Burchert
We present a computational evaluation of three hypotheses about sources of deficit in sentence comprehension in aphasia: slowed processing, intermittent deficiency, and resource reduction. The ACT-R based Lewis and Vasishth (2005) model is used to implement these three proposals. Slowed processing is implemented as slowed execution time of parse steps; intermittent deficiency as increased random noise in activation of elements in memory; and resource reduction as reduced spreading activation. As data, we considered subject vs...
January 22, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Cole Malloy, Viresh Dayaram, Sarah Martha, Brenda Alvarez, Ikenna Chukwudolue, Nadera Dabbain, Dlovan D Mahmood, Slavina Goleva, Tori Hickey, Angel Ho, Molly King, Paige Kington, Matthew Mattingly, Samuel Potter, Landon Simpson, Amanda Spence, Henry Uradu, Jacob Van Doorn, Kristin Weineck, Robin L Cooper
Proprioception of limbs and joints is a basic sensory function throughout most of the animal kingdom. It is important to understand how proprioceptive organs and the associated sensory neurons function with altered environments such as increased potassium ion concentrations ([K+]) from diseased states, ionic imbalances, and damaged tissues. These factors can drastically alter neuronal activity. To assess this matter, we used the chordotonal organ in a walking leg of a blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and the muscle receptor organ of the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Katie B Needham, Aurelia C Kucera, Britt J Heidinger, Timothy J Greives
Mounting an immunological response is energetically demanding and necessarily redirects allocation of resources toward immune system activation and away from other energetically expensive processes, such as reproduction. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, mimics a bacterial infection without producing the cost of replicating the pathogen and is one of the most commonly used agents to induce an acute phase immune response...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Ping Zhou, Heng Zhao, Quan Wang, Zhiguo Zhou, Jing Wang, Guang Deng, Xiyou Wang, Qian Liu, Hong Yang, Shiping Yang
Magnetic nanoparticles have gained much interest for theranostics benefited from their intrinsic integration of imaging and therapeutic abilities. Herein, c(RGDyK) peptide PEGylated Fe@Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (RGD-PEG-MNPs) are developed for photoacoustic (PA)-enabled self-guidance in tumor-targeting magnetic hyperthermia therapy in vivo. In the αv β3 -positive U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model, the PA signal of RGD-PEG-MNPs reaches its maximum in the tumor at 6 h after intravenous administration. This signal is enhanced by 2...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Clement Bommier, Xiulei Ji
Through intense effort in recent years, knowledge of Na-ion batteries has been advanced significantly, pertaining to electrodes. Often, such progress has been accompanied by using a convenient choice of electrolyte or binder. Nevertheless, it has been witnessed that "external" factors to electrodes, such as electrolytes, solid electrolyte interphase, and binders, affect the functions of electrodes profoundly. And generally, certain types of electrodes favor some electrolytes or binders. With a rapidly increasing number of publications in the area, trends in terms of electrolytes and binders are possibly exploitable...
January 22, 2018: Small
Kun Feng, Matthew Li, Wenwen Liu, Ali Ghorbani Kashkooli, Xingcheng Xiao, Mei Cai, Zhongwei Chen
Silicon has been intensively studied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) because of its exceptionally high specific capacity. However, silicon-based anode materials usually suffer from large volume change during the charge and discharge process, leading to subsequent pulverization of silicon, loss of electric contact, and continuous side reactions. These transformations cause poor cycle life and hinder the wide commercialization of silicon for LIBs. The lithiation and delithiation behaviors, and the interphase reaction mechanisms, are progressively studied and understood...
January 22, 2018: Small
Akira Oike, Koichiro Watanabe, Mi-Sook Min, Koji Tojo, Masahide Kumagai, Yuya Kimoto, Tadashi Yamashiro, Takanori Matsuo, Maho Kodama, Yoriko Nakamura, Masaru Notsu, Takeyoshi Tochimoto, Hiroyuki Fujita, Maki Ota, Etsuro Ito, Shigeki Yasumasu, Masahisa Nakamura
Each vertebrate species, as a general rule, has either the XX/XY or ZZ/ZW chromosomes by which sex is determined. However, the Japanese Rana (R.) rugosa frog is an exception, possessing both sex-determining combinations within one species, varying with region of origin. We collected R. rugosa frogs from 104 sites around Japan and South Korea and determined the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene. Based on the sequences, R. rugosa frogs were divided into four groups from Japan and one from South Korea...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Marie T Dittmann, Michael Kreuzer, Ullrich Runge, Marcus Clauss
Horses achieve a higher degree of particle size reduction through ingestive mastication than functional ruminants. We characterized mastication using chew-monitoring halters (RumiWatch) in six domestic horses, cattle, and Bactrian camels each. All animals were offered grass hay of the same batch for 15 min. In cattle and camels, measurements were continued after eating until rumination was observed. Except for one horse, 96% of the horses' ingestive mastication data were identified as "rumination" by the proprietary RumiWatch algorithm, whereas ingestion and rumination by cattle and camels were mostly classified correctly...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Yanjun Zan, Örjan Carlborg
The adaptation to a new habitat often results in a confounding between genome-wide genotype and beneficial alleles. When the confounding is strong, or the allelic effects weak, it is a major statistical challenge to detect the adaptive polymorphisms. We describe a novel approach to dissect polygenic traits in natural populations. First, candidate adaptive loci are identified by screening for loci directly associated with the adaptive trait or the expression of genes known to affect it. Then, a multi-locus genetic architecture is inferred using a backward elimination association analysis across all candidate loci with an adaptive false discovery rate based threshold...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Sophie Regnault, Vivian R Allen, Kyle P Chadwick, John R Hutchinson
The patella ("kneecap") is a biomechanically important feature of the tendinous insertion of the knee extensor muscles, able to alter the moment arm lengths between its input and output tendons, and so modify the mechanical advantage of the knee extensor muscle. However, patellar gearing function is little-explored outside of humans, and the patella is often simplified or ignored in biomechanical models. Here, we investigate patellar gearing and kinematics in the ostrich-frequently used as an animal analogue to human bipedal locomotion and unusual in its possession of two patellae at the knee joint...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Qiang Du, Ruofei Yu, Han Wang, Dong Yan, Qi Yuan, Yixin Ma, Dennis Slamon, Dongmei Hou, Huiling Wang, Qi Wang
OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) could be a valuable tool for the diagnosis or early detection of cancer due to their relatively high specificity and stability. The purpose of this study is to detect the level of tumor-associated autoantibodies in lung cancer and assess the diagnostic potential of autoantibodies in screening strategy for early stage lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Levels of tumor-associated autoantibodies (AAbs) were measured against a panel of seven tumor-associated antigens (p53, PGP9...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
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