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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889115/new-psychoactive-substances-are-there-any-good-options-for-regulating-new-psychoactive-substances
#1
Peter Reuter, Bryce Pardo
Advances in chemistry, technology, and globalization have contributed to the rapid development and diffusion of NPS (new psychoactive substances), creating perhaps the most serious challenge to the century-old international drug control system and to national systems. Very little is known about the effects of these substances which fall outside of national and international controls. The predominant response to the flood of NPS has been the development of more expeditious methods of prohibiting a new chemical entity...
November 23, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863134/identification-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-4-fluorobutyrfentanyl-1-4-fluorophenyl-1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl-amino-butan-1-one-4-fbf-in-seized-materials-and-the-postmortem-biological-samples
#2
Marcin Rojkiewicz, Milena Majchrzak, Rafał Celiński, Piotr Kuś, Mieczysław Sajewicz
In the course of the last decade, a substantial growth of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has been recorded. Within this group, a considerably fast growing sub-group is represented by the opioids, which are based on modifications of the fentanyl structure. In this study, identification and analytical characterization of a new fentanyl derivative, 4-fluorobutyrfentanyl (1-((4-fluorophenyl)(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)butan-1-one, 4-FBF), is described. Apart from the seized powder, 4-FBF was also identified in the e-cigarette liquid secured in Case 1...
November 9, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663984/comparison-of-illegal-drug-use-pattern-in-taiwan-and-korea-from-2006-to-2014
#3
Ling-Yi Feng, Wen-Jing Yu, Wei-Ting Chang, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
BACKGROUND: Illegal drug use has long been a global concern. Taiwan and Korea are geographically adjacent and both countries have experienced the illegal use problems of methamphetamine, a predominant prototype of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). NPS, a term coined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in recent years, have not been scrutinized for their safety and may become a new threat to public health and security worldwide. To conduct evidence-based drug policy, it is imperative to estimate the trend and pattern of illegal drug use...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639994/legal-high-industry-business-and-lobbying-strategies-under-a-legal-market-for-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-legal-highs-in-new-zealand
#4
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND: The establishment of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, 'legal highs') under New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) 2013 created a new commercial sector for psychoactive products, previously limited to alcohol and tobacco. AIM: To explore how the newly-recognised 'legal high' industry (LHI) viewed and responded to the changing regulatory and market environment. METHODS: In-depth interviews with six key informants (KI) from the LHI: a leading entrepreneur, chemist, industry spokesperson, retailer, product buyer and a researcher commissioned by the LHI - were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically...
September 15, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552699/an-overview-of-emerging-and-new-psychoactive-substances-in-the-united-kingdom
#5
Shruti Beharry, Simon Gibbons
The purpose of this review is to identify emerging or new psychoactive substances (NPS) by undertaking an online survey of the UK NPS market and to gather any data from online drug forums and published literature. Drugs from four main classes of NPS were identified: psychostimulants, dissociative anaesthetics, hallucinogens (phenylalkylamine-based and lysergamide-based materials) and finally benzodiazepines. For inclusion in the review, the 'user reviewers' on drugs forums were selected based on whether or not the particular NPS of interest was used alone or in combination...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490334/a-novel-screening-method-for-64-new-psychoactive-substances-and-5-amphetamines-in-blood-by-lc-ms-ms-and-application-to-real-cases
#6
Fabio Vaiano, Francesco P Busardò, Diego Palumbo, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Alessia Fioravanti, Valeria Catalani, Francesco Mari, Elisabetta Bertol
Identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPS), both in biological and non-biological samples, represent a hard challenge for forensic toxicologists. NPS are increasingly emerging on illegal drug market. Many cases of co-consumption of NPS and other substances have also been reported. Hence, the development of analytical methods aiming at the detection of a broad-spectrum of compounds (NPS and "traditional" drugs) could be helpful. In this paper, a fully validated screening method in blood for the simultaneous detection of 69 substances, including 64 NPS (28 synthetic cannabinoids, 19 synthetic cathinones, 5 phenethylamines, 3 indanes, 2 piperazines, 2 tryptamines, 2 phencyclidine, methoxetamine, ketamine and its metabolite) and 5 amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine - MDEA-) by a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring analysis through liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is described...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484692/are-alcohol-anti-relapsing-and-alcohol-withdrawal-drugs-useful-in-cannabinoid-users
#7
Patrycja Kleczkowska, Irena Smaga, Małgorzata Filip, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny
Cannabinoids are still classified as illegal psychoactive drugs despite their broad and increasingly acknowledged therapeutic potential. These substances are most famous for their wide recreational use, particularly among young adults to either alter the state of consciousness, intensify pleasure induced by other psychoactive substances or as an alternative to the previously abused drugs. It is important to emphasize that cannabinoids are often taken together with a variety of medications intended for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS)...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471990/ocfentanil-overdose-fatality-in-the-recreational-drug-scene
#8
Vera Coopman, Jan Cordonnier, Marc De Leeuw, Vincent Cirimele
This paper describes the first reported death involving ocfentanil, a potent synthetic opioid and structure analogue of fentanyl abused as a new psychoactive substance in the recreational drug scene. A 17-year-old man with a history of illegal substance abuse was found dead in his home after snorting a brown powder purchased over the internet with bitcoins. Acetaminophen, caffeine and ocfentanil were identified in the powder by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detector...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439599/a-qualitative-investigation-comparing-psychosocial-and-physical-sexual-experiences-related-to-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-among-adults
#9
Joseph J Palamar, Patricia Acosta, Danielle C Ompad, Samuel R Friedman
Alcohol and marijuana are two of the most prevalent psychoactive substances and each may result in distinct psychosocial and physical sexual experiences and different sexual risk behaviors. With marijuana becoming more accepted in the US along with more liberal state-level policies, it is important to examine and compare users' psychosocial and physical sexual experiences and sexual risk behavior associated with these drugs. In this study, we interviewed 24 adults who recently used marijuana before sex. Participants were 50 % female and all self-identified as heterosexual and HIV-negative...
July 20, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413674/-gateway-hypothesis-and-early-drug-use-additional-findings-from-tracking-a-population-based-sample-of-adolescents-to-adulthood
#10
Stephen Nkansah-Amankra, Mark Minelli
To evaluate the consistency of the relationship between early drug use in adolescence and illegal drug use in adulthood as proposed in the "gateway theory" and to determine whether pre-existing depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. We used contractual data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult health data spanning a 14 year period. We assessed the relationship between gateway drugs at baseline (age 11-20 years) and drug use in adulthood using generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295823/-efficacy-of-the-serigaya-methamphetamine-relapse-prevention-program-smarpp-for-patients-with-drug-use-disorder-a-study-on-factors-influencing-1-year-follow-up-outcomes
#11
Yuko Tanibuchi, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Fumi Imamura, Asako Wakabayashi, Hiraku Kawachi, Emi Hikitsuchi, Ayumi Takano, Masako Yonezawa, Takashi Kato, Misako Yamada, Aya Wachi, Mai Aboshi, Kiyoshi Wada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP), which is the workbook-based group therapy for individuals with drug dependence, through investigating 1-year follow-up outcomes. METHOD AND SUBJECTS: The sample was drawn from 231 outpatients diagnosed as DSM-IV substance use disorder, who had firstly consulted the drug dependence clinic of the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry between September 2009 and June 2013...
February 2016: Nihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi, Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies & Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291301/cytotoxic-effects-of-psychotropic-benzofuran-derivatives-n-methyl-5-2-aminopropyl-benzofuran-and-its-n-demethylated-derivative-on-isolated-rat-hepatocytes
#12
Yoshio Nakagawa, Toshinari Suzuki, Yukie Tada, Akiko Inomata
The novel psychoactive compounds derived from amphetamine have been illegally abused as recreational drugs, some of which are known to be hepatotoxic in humans and experimental animals. The cytotoxic effects and mechanisms of 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB) and N-methyl-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-MAPB), both of which are benzofuran analogues of amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. 5-MAPB caused not only concentration-dependent (0-4...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235654/-characteristics-of-subjects-under-opiate-maintenance-treatment-in-primary-care-using-the-opema-data-2013
#13
Gaëtan Gentile, Elisabeth Frauger, Adeline Giocanti, Vanessa Pauly, Véronica Orleans, Despina Amaslidou, Xavier Thirion, Joëlle Micallef
AIM: The objective of the study is to describe the characteristics of subjects under opiate maintenance treatment by general practionners (GPs). METHOD: Data analysis from observatory for pharmacodependency in ambulatory medicine survey (observation des pharmacodépendances en médecine ambulatoire [OPEMA]) program in 2013 of the subjects under high dosage buprenorphine (HDB) and methadone prescribed or obtained illegally reported by GPs in France. RESULTS: Survey concerned consumers with 862, 433 and 429 of high dosage buprenorphine and respectively methadone...
June 2016: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228348/drug-vaping-applied-to-cannabis-is-cannavaping-a-therapeutic-alternative-to-marijuana
#14
Vincent Varlet, Nicolas Concha-Lozano, Aurélie Berthet, Grégory Plateel, Bernard Favrat, Mariangela De Cesare, Estelle Lauer, Marc Augsburger, Aurélien Thomas, Christian Giroud
Therapeutic cannabis administration is increasingly used in Western countries due to its positive role in several pathologies. Dronabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pills, ethanolic cannabis tinctures, oromucosal sprays or table vaporizing devices are available but other cannabinoids forms can be used. Inspired by the illegal practice of dabbing of butane hashish oil (BHO), cannabinoids from cannabis were extracted with butane gas, and the resulting concentrate (BHO) was atomized with specific vaporizing devices...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176133/-quite-a-profoundly-strange-experience-an-analysis-of-the-experiences-of-salvia-divinorum-users
#15
Fiona Hutton, Bronwyn Kivell, Otis Boyle
Salvia divnorum (an intense hallucinogen) is currently illegal in New Zealand under the 2014 Psychoactive Substances Amendment Act. Despite this, there is a scarcity of research surrounding Salvia divinorum and its effects in a New Zealand context. To explore the experiences of Salvia divinorum users, an anonymous questionnaire was advertised through flyers placed in locations where young adults congregate. A total of 393 people took part in the online questionnaire in 2010-2011, while salvia was legally available in New Zealand; 167 respondents had used salvia...
July 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27143461/novel-psychoactive-substances
#16
Hege M Krabseth, Silja S Tuv, Maren Cecilie Strand, Ritva A Karinen, Elisabeth Wiik, Merete S Vevelstad, Andreas Austgulen Westin, Elisabeth L Øiestad, Vigdis Vindenes
There has been a significant increase in the number of new intoxicants on the illegal drugs market globally, also in Norway. The substances are given the name NPS: Novel Psychoactive Substances, and are mainly sold over the Internet. Uncertain dosage of potent substances entails a risk of accidental overdose, and therefore serious intoxication and death. In this article we provide an overview of current knowledge with regard to these substances.
May 2016: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130135/early-detection-of-emerging-street-drugs-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-chemometrics
#17
R Risoluti, S Materazzi, A Gregori, L Ripani
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) is spreading as the tool of choice for fast and non-destructive analysis and detection of different compounds in complex matrices. This paper investigated the feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics calibration to detect new psychoactive substances in street samples. The capabilities of this approach in forensic chemistry were assessed in the determination of new molecules appeared in the illicit market and often claimed to contain "non-illegal" compounds, although exhibiting important psychoactive effects...
June 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088708/perinatal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-users-of-illegal-drugs
#18
Tenilson Amaral Oliveira, Ana Aparecida Sanches Bersusa, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos Santos, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de Aquino, Corintio Mariani Neto
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables...
April 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26914712/an-lc-ms-ms-methodological-approach-to-the-analysis-of-hair-for-amphetamine-type-stimulant-ats-drugs-including-selected-synthetic-cathinones-and-piperazines
#19
Elena Lendoiro, Cristian Jiménez-Morigosa, Angelines Cruz, Mario Páramo, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Ana de Castro
Amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATS) are the second most commonly used group of illicit drugs worldwide. However, in the last few years, new psychoactive substances (NPS) with stimulant effects have appeared on the illegal market, which are not detected with traditional analytical methods. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination in hair of classic ATS (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), synthetic cathinones (methylone, methedrone, mephedrone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, (±)-4-fluoromethamphetamine and 4-fluoromethcathinone), synthetic piperazines (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine), and medicines (trazodone and phenazone) that produce mCPP as a metabolite, was developed and fully validated...
February 24, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26887351/recreational-drug-use-and-related-social-factors-among-hiv-positive-men-in-japan
#20
Taisuke Togari, Yoji Inoue, Yosuke Takaku, Sakurako Abe, Rikuya Hosokawa, Takashi Itagaki, Shigeyuki Yoshizawa, Sachiko Oki, Naoko Katakura, Asae Yamauchi, Chihiro Wakabayashi, Takashi Yajima
This study aims to determine the relationship between recreational drug use in HIV-positive males in the past year and socio-economic factors and/or social support networks in Japan. A national online survey in a cross-sectional study was conducted by HIV Futures Japan project from July 2013 to February 2014. Of the 1095 HIV-positive individuals who responded, 913 responses were determined to be valid; responses from the 875 males were analysed. A total of 282 participants used addictive drugs (32.2%) in past year...
July 2016: AIDS Care
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