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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209802/-doping-for-the-brain
#1
REVIEW
Bernhard Iglseder
The enhancement of physical and cognitive abilities (i. e. concentration, vigilance, memory) has always been desirable for humans. The term pharmacological neuroenhancement refers to the use of legal or nonprescription psychoactive substances by healthy subjects with the intention of cognitive enhancement. To give the most prominent example, caffeine serves worldwide as a natural stimulant. Brain doping, however, specifies the use of illegal substances or prescription drugs beyond approval with the purpose of cognitive enhancement...
December 5, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190268/synthetic-cannabinoid-and-mitragynine-exposure-of-law-enforcement-agents-during-the-raid-of-an-illegal-laboratory-nevada-2014
#2
Loren Tapp, Jessica G Ramsey, Anita Wen, Roy Gerona
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174584/vocal-assessment-of-addicts-on-methadone-therapy-via-the-rbh-scale-and-objective-acoustic-parameters
#3
Veljko Mirkov, Slobodan M Mitrović
INTRODUCTION: A large number of people around the world struggle daily to become free of their addiction to illegal psychoactive substances. In order to create an atmosphere of improved supervision, established communication and improved quality of life for drug addicts, centers have been set up to provide methadone as a substitute. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the research was to assess the vocal features of drug addicts on methadone therapy via subjective and objective parameters, to ascertain if vocal damage has occurred and to determine whether subjective and objective acoustic vocal parameters are related, and how...
November 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128711/polysubstance-use-profiles-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees-in-new-york-city-and-their-relation-to-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#4
Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Charles M Cleland, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. METHOD: Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18-40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City...
November 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081089/evaluation-of-the-abuse-potential-of-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-with-modifications-on-the-amine-nbna-and-phenyl-eda-pmea-2-apn-sites
#5
Raly James Perez Custodio, Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Yong Ho Kwon, Nam Yong Kim, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
Recently, there has been a rise in the number of amphetamine derivatives that serve as substitutes for controlled substances (e.g. amphetamine and methamphetamine) on the global illegal drug market. These substances are capable of producing rewarding effects similar to their parent drug. In anticipation of the future rise of new and similar psychoactive substances, we designed and synthesized four novel amphetamine derivatives with N-benzyl, N-benzylamphetamine HCl (NBNA) substituent on the amine region, 1,4-dioxane ring, ethylenedioxy-amphetamine HCl (EDA), methyl, para-methylamphetamine HCl (PMEA), and naphthalene, 2-(aminopropyl) naphthalene HCl (2-APN) substituents on the phenyl site...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030166/mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-use-in-humans-the-twisted-sisters
#6
REVIEW
Laurent Karila, Geneviève Lafaye, Amandine Scocard, Olivier Cottencin, Amine Benyamina
The new psychoactive substances phenomenon continues to represent a considerable public health challenge. Synthetic cathinones are β-keto amphetamine analogues, also known as legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts. These drugs have surfaced as a popular alternative to other illicit drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine, due to their potent psychostimulant and empathogenic effects. Pyrovalerone cathinones (a-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct group of designer cathinones, such as MDPV...
October 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972499/impact-of-pharmacy-reform-on-the-dynamics-of-the-use-of-drugs-and-psychoactive-substances-according-to-the-2013-2016-clinical-data-from-the-center-for-mental-health-and-prevention-of-addiction
#7
L Kiladze, Kh Todadze, T Balkhamishvili, E Gadelia, G Lezhava
Use of medications without doctor's prescription widely established in Georgia had negative impact on the health of the population and on the whole social situation. The use of home-made drugs "Krokodil", "Jeff" and "Vint" produced from the preparations bought without prescriptions (Codeine, Ephedrine), became a special matter of concern. Psychoactive substances became available for teenagers causing damage to their central nervous system and formation of drug-addiction in them. Due to the situation Georgian Government took a number of legislative measures, particularly, it set Criminal Liability for illegal circulation of pharmaceutical products containing Codeine and Ephedrine and Administrative Measures for issuing the psychoactive substances without prescription...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814125/recreational-drug-use-at-a-major-music-festival-trend-analysis-of-anonymised-pooled-urine
#8
Lotte Christine Groth Hoegberg, Cecilie Christiansen, Jesper Soe, Rasmus Telving, Mette Findal Andreasen, Dan Staerk, Lona Louring Christrup, Kenneth Thermann Kongstad
OBJECTIVE: The spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has expanded rapidly in the last decade. The complexity of the pharmacological effects of NPS challenges the traditional treatment guidelines, and information of the emergence of new arrivals is valuable. Our knowledge on the actual range of recreational drugs used and NPS available in Denmark is limited as identification is possible only when consumers become patients in the healthcare system or through drug seizures. We aimed to detect classical recreational drugs and NPS in the urine of music festival attendees and evaluate if the use of NPS could have been predicted by comparing study data with drug seizure data from the previous year published by European and Danish health authorities...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813419/vaccine-driven-pharmacodynamic-dissection-and-mitigation-of-fenethylline-psychoactivity
#9
Cody J Wenthur, Bin Zhou, Kim D Janda
Fenethylline, also known by the trade name Captagon, is a synthetic psychoactive stimulant that has recently been linked to a substance-use disorder and 'pharmacoterrorism' in the Middle East. Although fenethylline shares a common phenethylamine core with other amphetamine-type stimulants, it also incorporates a covalently linked xanthine moiety into its parent structure. These independently active pharmacophores are liberated during metabolism, resulting in the release of a structurally diverse chemical mixture into the central nervous system...
August 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778032/prevalence-of-psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-in-spanish-drivers-a-roadside-study-in-2015
#10
Antonia Domingo-Salvany, M Jesús Herrero, Beatriz Fernandez, Julio Perez, Pilar Del Real, Juan Carlos González-Luque, Rafael de la Torre
A survey was conducted during 2015 to monitor psychoactive substance use in a sample of drivers in Spanish roads and cities. Traffic police officers recruited drivers at sites carefully chosen to achieve representativeness of the driver population. A brief questionnaire included the date, time, and personal and driving patterns data. Alcohol use was ascertained through ethanol breath test at the roadside and considered positive if concentrations >0.05mg alcohol/L were detected. Four drug classes were assessed on-site through an oral fluid screening test that, if positive, was confirmed through a second oral fluid sample at a reference laboratory...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740128/updating-the-list-of-known-opioids-through-identification-and-characterization-of-the-new-opioid-derivative-3-4-dichloro-n-2-diethylamino-cyclohexyl-n-methylbenzamide-u-49900
#11
D Fabregat-Safont, X Carbón, M Ventura, I Fornís, E Guillamón, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
New psychoactive substances have been rapidly growing in popularity in the drug market as non-illegal drugs. In the last few years, an increment has been reported on the use of synthetic alternatives to heroin, the synthetic opioids. Based on the information provided by the European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction, these synthetic opioids have been related to overdoses and deaths in Europe and North America. One of these opioids is the U-47700. A few months ago, U-47700 was scheduled in the U...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711979/acute-kidney-injury-and-critical-limb-ischaemia-associated-with-the-use-of-the-so-called-legal-high-3-fluorophenmetrazine
#12
Michael Fawzy, Wei San Wong-Morrow, Anthony Beaumont, Chris K T Farmer
Until the law in the United Kingdom (UK) changed in May 2016 so called "legal highs" or "new psychoactive substances" were freely available in high street shops across the UK. Following prohibition these drugs are still easily purchased illegally via the internet. We report a case of a patient who self-administered 3-fluorophenmetrazine intravenously with catastrophic consequences. Adverse effects were almost immediate with symptoms of malaise and tachycardia. Two days post administration he was transferred to the intensive therapy unit with acute kidney injury and irreversible four limb ischaemia...
November 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602505/proposal-of-5-methoxy-n-methyl-n-isopropyltryptamine-consumption-biomarkers-through-identification-of-in-vivo-metabolites-from-mice
#13
D Fabregat-Safont, M Barneo-Muñoz, F Martinez-Garcia, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a new breed of synthetically produced substances designed to mimic the effects of traditional illegal drugs. Synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are the two most common groups, which try to mimic the effects of the natural compounds (9)Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol and cathinone, respectively. Similarly, synthetic tryptamines are designer compounds which are based on the compounds psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine found in some mushrooms...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578694/worldwide-legislative-challenges-related-to-psychoactive-drugs
#14
REVIEW
Carolina Negrei, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau, Mircea Lucian Bogdan Dumitru, Eren Ozcagli, Concettina Fenga, Leda Kovatsi, Domniki Fragou, Aristidis Tsatsakis
The discovery of a "new" psychoactive substance is a relatively exceptional event, while the regulatory response usually involved the assessment of risks to public health and inclusion of the novel substance in the national list of controlled substances. However, in recent years we have witnessed the rapid emergence of new chemical substances, which elude international control and pose a challenge to existing processes and a threat to the credibility of control systems. We currently review and present characteristics of these legal and illegal new substances and issues regarding their global monitoring and regulatory measures already taken, or in the process of being taken, for their control...
June 2, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557547/readiness-to-use-psychoactive-substances-among-second-generation-adolescent-immigrants-and-perceptions-of-parental-immigration-related-trauma
#15
Yael Aviad-Wilchek, Inna Levy, Sarah Ben-David
OBJECTIVES: This research explores the relationship between parental immigration-related trauma and second-generation adolescent substance abuse. To examine this relationship, we focused on Ethiopian adolescents in Israel who are at risk for substance abuse. Many immigrants from Ethiopia experienced severe immigration trauma and research indicates the existence of transgenerational trauma transmission. The current research focuses on the connection between Ethiopian adolescents' perceptions of their parents' immigration trauma and their readiness to use psychoactive substances...
May 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538918/mental-health-care-for-brazilian-juvenile-offenders
#16
Nilson do Rosário Costa, Paulo Roberto Fagundes da Silva
This paper analyzes the use of psychoactive drugs by juvenile offenders in Brazil in socio-educational facilities (USEs). It describes the guidelines of the national public policy and the quality of mental healthcare coordination by subnational public governments. This work draws on the hypothesis that USEs vertical governance is associated with the use of psychoactive medication. This is comparative study of two cases in Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. Data resulted from a sample of medical records and interviews with key informants...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494249/evaluation-of-problematic-psychoactive-substances-use-in-people-placed-in-police-custody
#17
Marie Gérardin, Gabriel Guigand, Laura Wainstein, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Renaud Clément
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445835/economic-consequences-of-legal-and-illegal-drugs-the-case-of-social-costs-in-belgium
#18
Delfine Lievens, Freya Vander Laenen, Nick Verhaeghe, Koen Putman, Lieven Pauwels, Wim Hardyns, Lieven Annemans
BACKGROUND: Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. METHODS: A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied...
June 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343650/-surveillance-system-on-drug-abuse-interest-of-the-french-national-oppidum-program-of-french-addictovigilance-network
#19
Elisabeth Frauger, Liselotte Pochard, Quentin Boucherie, Adeline Giocanti, Cécile Chevallier, Amélie Daveluy, Valérie Gibaja, Anne-Sylvie Caous, Céline Eiden, Nicolas Authier, Reynald Le Boisselier, Marylène Guerlais, Émilie Jouanjus, Marion Lepelley, Véronique Pizzoglio, Stéphanie Pain, Nathalie Richard, Joëlle Micallef
It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. OPPIDUM ('Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications') surveillance system anonymously collects information on drug abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the utility of OPPIDUM system using 2015 data. OPPIDUM is a cross-sectional survey repeated each year since 1995. In 2015, 5003 patients described the modality of use of 10,159 psychoactive drugs...
September 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343112/the-impact-of-australian-legislative-changes-on-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposures-reported-to-the-new-south-wales-poisons-information-centre
#20
Rose Cairns, Jared A Brown, Naren Gunja, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre...
May 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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