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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423994/functional-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-versus-%C3%AE-9-thc-in-mice-on-body-temperature-nociceptive-threshold-anxiety-cognition-locomotor-exploratory-parameters-and-depression
#1
Shaul Schreiber, Miaad Bader, Tatiana Lenchinski, Inbar Meningher, Vardit Rubovitch, Yiffat Katz, Etia Cohen, Yankel Gabet, Michal Rotenberg, Ehud Udi Wolf, Chaim G Pick
Synthetic cannabinoids are psychoactive substances designed to mimic the euphorigenic effects of the natural cannabis. Novel unregulated compounds appear once older compounds become illegal. It has been previously reported that synthetic cannabinoids are different than Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) as they have chemical structures unrelated to Δ9 -THC, different metabolism and, often, greater toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of three novel synthetic cannabinoids and pure Δ9 -THC on body temperature, nociceptive threshold, anxiety, memory function, locomotor and exploratory parameters, and depression...
February 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404633/-bonzai-lead-and-bath-salt-poisoning-with-new-and-old-drugs-synthetic-amphetamines-cathinones-cannabinoids-and-opioids-an-overview
#2
REVIEW
J Strube, A Schaper
BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the number of serious poisonings and deaths after the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). These are usually bought online: sometimes legally, often illegally or "in the grey area". OBJECTIVES: Characteristics of different NPS. Legal status concerning the New Psychoactive Substances Act (NpSG). Risk assessment of several substance groups, possible complications of acute poisonings, therapeutic recommendations...
February 5, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367861/the-newest-cathinone-derivatives-as-designer-drugs-an-analytical-and-toxicological-review
#3
REVIEW
Milena Majchrzak, Rafał Celiński, Piotr Kuś, Teresa Kowalska, Mieczysław Sajewicz
Purpose: Currently, among new psychoactive substances, cathinone derivatives constitute the biggest group, which are mainly classified into N-alkylated, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-alkylated, N-pyrrolidinyl, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-pyrrolidinyl derivatives. These derivatives are actively being subjected to minor modifications at the alkyl chains or the aromatic ring to create new synthetic cathinones with the goal of circumventing laws. In this review, the new synthetic cathinones that have appeared on the illegal drug market during the period 2014-2017 are highlighted, and their characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is presented...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337399/impact-of-pregnancy-on-psychoactive-substance-use-among-women-with-substance-use-disorders-recruited-in-addiction-specialized-care-centers-in-france
#4
Liselotte Pochard, Julie Dupouy, Elisabeth Frauger, Adeline Giocanti, Joëlle Micallef, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
Pregnancy can be a motivation for decrease in drug abusing but may also represent a period of high vulnerability for relapse. We aimed to assess psychoactive substance use among women with substance use disorders followed in addiction care centers in France. We analyzed data from women aged 15-44 years included in the 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medication (OPPIDUM) survey', an annual cross-sectional survey collecting details on psychoactive substances used. Characteristics of women included in 2005-2012 yearly surveys were compared depending on their pregnant or not pregnant status...
April 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287357/simultaneous-lc-ms-ms-determination-of-40-legal-and-illegal-psychoactive-drugs-in-breast-and-bovine-milk
#5
Ester López-García, Nicola Mastroianni, Cristina Postigo, Yolanda Valcárcel, Silvia González-Alonso, Damia Barceló, Miren López de Alda
This work presents a fast, sensitive and reliable multi-residue methodology based on fat and protein precipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of common legal and illegal psychoactive drugs, and major metabolites, in breast milk. One-fourth of the 40 target analytes is investigated for the first time in this biological matrix. The method was validated in breast milk and also in various types of bovine milk, as tranquilizers are occasionally administered to food-producing animals...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285812/are-government-approved-products-containing-new-psychoactive-substances-perceived-to-be-safer-and-more-socially-acceptable-than-alcohol-tobacco-and-illegal-drugs-findings-from-a-survey-of-police-arrestees-in-new-zealand
#6
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins, Karl Parker, Karen Witten
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which established a legal regulated market for government-approved products containing new psychoactive substances (NPS). One of the aims of the PSA was to separate the market for approved NPS products from unapproved products and illegal drugs. The aim of this study was to explore perceived health risks and social acceptability of government-approved NPS compared to unapproved NPS and other drugs...
March 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280291/separation-of-enantiomers-of-new-psychoactive-substances-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#7
Kian Kadkhodaei, Lisa Forcher, Martin G Schmid
New psychoactive substances are defined as compounds with consciousness-changing effects and have been developed simultaneously with classical drugs. They arise through structural modifications of illegal substances and are mainly produced to circumvent laws. Availability is simple, since new psychoactive substances can be purchased from the Internet. Among them many chemical drug compound classes are chiral and thus the two resulting enantiomers can differ in their effects. The aim of this study is to develop a suitable chiral high-performance liquid chromatography separation method for a broad spectrum of new psychoactive substances using cellulose tris(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate) as a chiral selector...
March 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275216/mdpv-in-forensic-routine-cases-psychotic-and-aggressive-behavior-in-relation-to-plasma-concentrations
#8
Marco Diestelmann, Anna Zangl, Inge Herrle, Eva Koch, Matthias Graw, Liane D Paul
The new psychoactive substance 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) belongs to the group of synthetic cathinones and is purchased mainly as "research chemical" or "bath salt" on the illegal drug market, also in South Bavaria. MDPV was detected in blood and urine samples from 2010 on in 50 authentic routine cases in a forensic setting. Plasma concentrations in 46 cases with available blood specimens ranged from approximately 1.0 to 301μg/L (median 23.7; mean 47.9μg/L), detected by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method...
February 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209802/-doping-for-the-brain
#9
REVIEW
Bernhard Iglseder
The enhancement of physical and cognitive abilities (i. e. concentration, vigilance, memory) has always been desirable for humans. The term pharmacological neuroenhancement refers to the use of legal or nonprescription psychoactive substances by healthy subjects with the intention of cognitive enhancement. To give the most prominent example, caffeine serves worldwide as a natural stimulant. Brain doping, however, specifies the use of illegal substances or prescription drugs beyond approval with the purpose of cognitive enhancement...
February 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190268/synthetic-cannabinoid-and-mitragynine-exposure-of-law-enforcement-agents-during-the-raid-of-an-illegal-laboratory-nevada-2014
#10
Loren Tapp, Jessica G Ramsey, Anita Wen, Roy Gerona
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174584/vocal-assessment-of-addicts-on-methadone-therapy-via-the-rbh-scale-and-objective-acoustic-parameters
#11
Veljko Mirkov, Slobodan M Mitrović
INTRODUCTION: A large number of people around the world struggle daily to become free of their addiction to illegal psychoactive substances. In order to create an atmosphere of improved supervision, established communication and improved quality of life for drug addicts, centers have been set up to provide methadone as a substitute. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the research was to assess the vocal features of drug addicts on methadone therapy via subjective and objective parameters, to ascertain if vocal damage has occurred and to determine whether subjective and objective acoustic vocal parameters are related, and how...
November 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128711/polysubstance-use-profiles-among-electronic-dance-music-party-attendees-in-new-york-city-and-their-relation-to-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#12
Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Charles M Cleland, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. METHOD: Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18-40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City...
March 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081089/evaluation-of-the-abuse-potential-of-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-with-modifications-on-the-amine-nbna-and-phenyl-eda-pmea-2-apn-sites
#13
Raly James Perez Custodio, Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Yong Ho Kwon, Nam Yong Kim, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
Recently, there has been a rise in the number of amphetamine derivatives that serve as substitutes for controlled substances (e.g. amphetamine and methamphetamine) on the global illegal drug market. These substances are capable of producing rewarding effects similar to their parent drug. In anticipation of the future rise of new and similar psychoactive substances, we designed and synthesized four novel amphetamine derivatives with N -benzyl, N -benzylamphetamine HCl (NBNA) substituent on the amine region, 1,4-dioxane ring, ethylenedioxy-amphetamine HCl (EDA), methyl, para-methylamphetamine HCl (PMEA), and naphthalene, 2-(aminopropyl) naphthalene HCl (2-APN) substituents on the phenyl site...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030166/mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-use-in-humans-the-twisted-sisters
#14
REVIEW
Laurent Karila, Geneviève Lafaye, Amandine Scocard, Olivier Cottencin, Amine Benyamina
The new psychoactive substances phenomenon continues to represent a considerable public health challenge. Synthetic cathinones are β-keto amphetamine analogues, also known as legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts. These drugs have surfaced as a popular alternative to other illicit drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine, due to their potent psychostimulant and empathogenic effects. Pyrovalerone cathinones (a-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct group of designer cathinones, such as MDPV...
October 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972499/impact-of-pharmacy-reform-on-the-dynamics-of-the-use-of-drugs-and-psychoactive-substances-according-to-the-2013-2016-clinical-data-from-the-center-for-mental-health-and-prevention-of-addiction
#15
L Kiladze, Kh Todadze, T Balkhamishvili, E Gadelia, G Lezhava
Use of medications without doctor's prescription widely established in Georgia had negative impact on the health of the population and on the whole social situation. The use of home-made drugs "Krokodil", "Jeff" and "Vint" produced from the preparations bought without prescriptions (Codeine, Ephedrine), became a special matter of concern. Psychoactive substances became available for teenagers causing damage to their central nervous system and formation of drug-addiction in them. Due to the situation Georgian Government took a number of legislative measures, particularly, it set Criminal Liability for illegal circulation of pharmaceutical products containing Codeine and Ephedrine and Administrative Measures for issuing the psychoactive substances without prescription...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814125/recreational-drug-use-at-a-major-music-festival-trend-analysis-of-anonymised-pooled-urine
#16
Lotte Christine Groth Hoegberg, Cecilie Christiansen, Jesper Soe, Rasmus Telving, Mette Findal Andreasen, Dan Staerk, Lona Louring Christrup, Kenneth Thermann Kongstad
OBJECTIVE: The spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has expanded rapidly in the last decade. The complexity of the pharmacological effects of NPS challenges the traditional treatment guidelines, and information of the emergence of new arrivals is valuable. Our knowledge on the actual range of recreational drugs used and NPS available in Denmark is limited as identification is possible only when consumers become patients in the healthcare system or through drug seizures. We aimed to detect classical recreational drugs and NPS in the urine of music festival attendees and evaluate if the use of NPS could have been predicted by comparing study data with drug seizure data from the previous year published by European and Danish health authorities...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813419/vaccine-driven-pharmacodynamic-dissection-and-mitigation-of-fenethylline-psychoactivity
#17
Cody J Wenthur, Bin Zhou, Kim D Janda
Fenethylline, also known by the trade name Captagon, is a synthetic psychoactive stimulant that has recently been linked to a substance-use disorder and 'pharmacoterrorism' in the Middle East. Although fenethylline shares a common phenethylamine core with other amphetamine-type stimulants, it also incorporates a covalently linked xanthine moiety into its parent structure. These independently active pharmacophores are liberated during metabolism, resulting in the release of a structurally diverse chemical mixture into the central nervous system...
August 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778032/prevalence-of-psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-in-spanish-drivers-a-roadside-study-in-2015
#18
Antonia Domingo-Salvany, M Jesús Herrero, Beatriz Fernandez, Julio Perez, Pilar Del Real, Juan Carlos González-Luque, Rafael de la Torre
A survey was conducted during 2015 to monitor psychoactive substance use in a sample of drivers in Spanish roads and cities. Traffic police officers recruited drivers at sites carefully chosen to achieve representativeness of the driver population. A brief questionnaire included the date, time, and personal and driving patterns data. Alcohol use was ascertained through ethanol breath test at the roadside and considered positive if concentrations >0.05mg alcohol/L were detected. Four drug classes were assessed on-site through an oral fluid screening test that, if positive, was confirmed through a second oral fluid sample at a reference laboratory...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740128/updating-the-list-of-known-opioids-through-identification-and-characterization-of-the-new-opioid-derivative-3-4-dichloro-n-2-diethylamino-cyclohexyl-n-methylbenzamide-u-49900
#19
D Fabregat-Safont, X Carbón, M Ventura, I Fornís, E Guillamón, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
New psychoactive substances have been rapidly growing in popularity in the drug market as non-illegal drugs. In the last few years, an increment has been reported on the use of synthetic alternatives to heroin, the synthetic opioids. Based on the information provided by the European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction, these synthetic opioids have been related to overdoses and deaths in Europe and North America. One of these opioids is the U-47700. A few months ago, U-47700 was scheduled in the U...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711979/acute-kidney-injury-and-critical-limb-ischaemia-associated-with-the-use-of-the-so-called-legal-high-3-fluorophenmetrazine
#20
Michael Fawzy, Wei San Wong-Morrow, Anthony Beaumont, Chris K T Farmer
Until the law in the United Kingdom (UK) changed in May 2016 so called "legal highs" or "new psychoactive substances" were freely available in high street shops across the UK. Following prohibition these drugs are still easily purchased illegally via the internet. We report a case of a patient who self-administered 3-fluorophenmetrazine intravenously with catastrophic consequences. Adverse effects were almost immediate with symptoms of malaise and tachycardia. Two days post administration he was transferred to the intensive therapy unit with acute kidney injury and irreversible four limb ischaemia...
November 2017: CEN Case Reports
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