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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814125/recreational-drug-use-at-a-major-music-festival-trend-analysis-of-anonymised-pooled-urine
#1
Lotte Christine Groth Hoegberg, Cecilie Christiansen, Jesper Soe, Rasmus Telving, Mette Findal Andreasen, Dan Staerk, Lona Louring Christrup, Kenneth Thermann Kongstad
OBJECTIVE: The spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has expanded rapidly in the last decade. The complexity of the pharmacological effects of NPS challenges the traditional treatment guidelines, and information of the emergence of new arrivals is valuable. Our knowledge on the actual range of recreational drugs used and NPS available in Denmark is limited as identification is possible only when consumers become patients in the healthcare system or through drug seizures. We aimed to detect classical recreational drugs and NPS in the urine of music festival attendees and evaluate if the use of NPS could have been predicted by comparing study data with drug seizure data from the previous year published by European and Danish health authorities...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813419/vaccine-driven-pharmacodynamic-dissection-and-mitigation-of-fenethylline-psychoactivity
#2
Cody J Wenthur, Bin Zhou, Kim D Janda
Fenethylline, also known by the trade name Captagon, is a synthetic psychoactive stimulant that has recently been linked to a substance-use disorder and 'pharmacoterrorism' in the Middle East. Although fenethylline shares a common phenethylamine core with other amphetamine-type stimulants, it also incorporates a covalently linked xanthine moiety into its parent structure. These independently active pharmacophores are liberated during metabolism, resulting in the release of a structurally diverse chemical mixture into the central nervous system...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778032/prevalence-of-psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-in-spanish-drivers-a-roadside-study-in-2015
#3
Antonia Domingo-Salvany, M Jesús Herrero, Beatriz Fernandez, Julio Perez, Pilar Del Real, Juan Carlos González-Luque, Rafael de la Torre
A survey was conducted during 2015 to monitor psychoactive substance use in a sample of drivers in Spanish roads and cities. Traffic police officers recruited drivers at sites carefully chosen to achieve representativeness of the driver population. A brief questionnaire included the date, time, and personal and driving patterns data. Alcohol use was ascertained through ethanol breath test at the roadside and considered positive if concentrations >0.05mg alcohol/L were detected. Four drug classes were assessed on-site through an oral fluid screening test that, if positive, was confirmed through a second oral fluid sample at a reference laboratory...
July 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740128/updating-the-list-of-known-opioids-through-identification-and-characterization-of-the-new-opioid-derivative-3-4-dichloro-n-2-diethylamino-cyclohexyl-n-methylbenzamide-u-49900
#4
D Fabregat-Safont, X Carbón, M Ventura, I Fornís, E Guillamón, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
New psychoactive substances have been rapidly growing in popularity in the drug market as non-illegal drugs. In the last few years, an increment has been reported on the use of synthetic alternatives to heroin, the synthetic opioids. Based on the information provided by the European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction, these synthetic opioids have been related to overdoses and deaths in Europe and North America. One of these opioids is the U-47700. A few months ago, U-47700 was scheduled in the U...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711979/acute-kidney-injury-and-critical-limb-ischaemia-associated-with-the-use-of-the-so-called-legal-high-3-fluorophenmetrazine
#5
Michael Fawzy, Wei San Wong-Morrow, Anthony Beaumont, Chris K T Farmer
Until the law in the United Kingdom (UK) changed in May 2016 so called "legal highs" or "new psychoactive substances" were freely available in high street shops across the UK. Following prohibition these drugs are still easily purchased illegally via the internet. We report a case of a patient who self-administered 3-fluorophenmetrazine intravenously with catastrophic consequences. Adverse effects were almost immediate with symptoms of malaise and tachycardia. Two days post administration he was transferred to the intensive therapy unit with acute kidney injury and irreversible four limb ischaemia...
July 15, 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602505/proposal-of-5-methoxy-n-methyl-n-isopropyltryptamine-consumption-biomarkers-through-identification-of-in-vivo-metabolites-from-mice
#6
D Fabregat-Safont, M Barneo-Muñoz, F Martinez-Garcia, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a new breed of synthetically produced substances designed to mimic the effects of traditional illegal drugs. Synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are the two most common groups, which try to mimic the effects of the natural compounds (9)Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol and cathinone, respectively. Similarly, synthetic tryptamines are designer compounds which are based on the compounds psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine found in some mushrooms...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578694/worldwide-legislative-challenges-related-to-psychoactive-drugs
#7
REVIEW
Carolina Negrei, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau, Mircea Lucian Bogdan Dumitru, Eren Ozcagli, Concettina Fenga, Leda Kovatsi, Domniki Fragou, Aristidis Tsatsakis
The discovery of a "new" psychoactive substance is a relatively exceptional event, while the regulatory response usually involved the assessment of risks to public health and inclusion of the novel substance in the national list of controlled substances. However, in recent years we have witnessed the rapid emergence of new chemical substances, which elude international control and pose a challenge to existing processes and a threat to the credibility of control systems. We currently review and present characteristics of these legal and illegal new substances and issues regarding their global monitoring and regulatory measures already taken, or in the process of being taken, for their control...
June 2, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557547/readiness-to-use-psychoactive-substances-among-second-generation-adolescent-immigrants-and-perceptions-of-parental-immigration-related-trauma
#8
Yael Aviad-Wilchek, Inna Levy, Sarah Ben-David
OBJECTIVES: This research explores the relationship between parental immigration-related trauma and second-generation adolescent substance abuse. To examine this relationship, we focused on Ethiopian adolescents in Israel who are at risk for substance abuse. Many immigrants from Ethiopia experienced severe immigration trauma and research indicates the existence of transgenerational trauma transmission. The current research focuses on the connection between Ethiopian adolescents' perceptions of their parents' immigration trauma and their readiness to use psychoactive substances...
May 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538918/mental-health-care-for-brazilian-juvenile-offenders
#9
Nilson do Rosário Costa, Paulo Roberto Fagundes da Silva
This paper analyzes the use of psychoactive drugs by juvenile offenders in Brazil in socio-educational facilities (USEs). It describes the guidelines of the national public policy and the quality of mental healthcare coordination by subnational public governments. This work draws on the hypothesis that USEs vertical governance is associated with the use of psychoactive medication. This is comparative study of two cases in Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. Data resulted from a sample of medical records and interviews with key informants...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494249/evaluation-of-problematic-psychoactive-substances-use-in-people-placed-in-police-custody
#10
Marie Gérardin, Gabriel Guigand, Laura Wainstein, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Renaud Clément
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445835/economic-consequences-of-legal-and-illegal-drugs-the-case-of-social-costs-in-belgium
#11
Delfine Lievens, Freya Vander Laenen, Nick Verhaeghe, Koen Putman, Lieven Pauwels, Wim Hardyns, Lieven Annemans
BACKGROUND: Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. METHODS: A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied...
June 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343650/-surveillance-system-on-drug-abuse-interest-of-the-french-national-oppidum-program-of-french-addictovigilance-network
#12
Elisabeth Frauger, Liselotte Pochard, Quentin Boucherie, Adeline Giocanti, Cécile Chevallier, Amélie Daveluy, Valérie Gibaja, Anne-Sylvie Caous, Céline Eiden, Nicolas Authier, Reynald Le Boisselier, Marylène Guerlais, Émilie Jouanjus, Marion Lepelley, Véronique Pizzoglio, Stéphanie Pain, Nathalie Richard, Joëlle Micallef
It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. OPPIDUM ('Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications') surveillance system anonymously collects information on drug abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the utility of OPPIDUM system using 2015 data. OPPIDUM is a cross-sectional survey repeated each year since 1995. In 2015, 5003 patients described the modality of use of 10,159 psychoactive drugs...
February 22, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343112/the-impact-of-australian-legislative-changes-on-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposures-reported-to-the-new-south-wales-poisons-information-centre
#13
Rose Cairns, Jared A Brown, Naren Gunja, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre...
May 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340719/application-of-a-rapid-%C3%AE-spe-clean-up-for-multiclass-quantitative-analysis-of-sixteen-new-psychoactive-substances-in-whole-blood-by-lc-ms-ms
#14
Camilla Montesano, Gabriele Vannutelli, Valeria Piccirilli, Manuel Sergi, Dario Compagnone, Roberta Curini
Europe is an important market for illegal drugs, and nowadays a lot of new different psychoactive substances (NPS) are widespread. This work reports the development of a method to determine simultaneously different classes of NPS, as synthetic cannabinoids (SC) and their metabolites, cathinones and phenetylamines, directly on whole blood (WB) without anti-coagulants and using miniaturized solid phase extraction (μ-SPE). In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the method 16 different NPS belonging to the mentioned classes were selected for the analysis...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063587/indirect-chiral-separation-of-8-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-as-potential-new-psychoactive-compounds-by-gc-ms-and-hplc
#15
Jennifer A Weiß, Kian Kadkhodaei, Martin G Schmid
Amphetamine and its derivatives gained high popularity on the illegal drug market. In the last few years, a lot of new psychoactive compounds structurally related to amphetamine, such as 4-fluoroamphetamine and 4-fluoromethamphetamine swamped the drug market. They were designed to circumvent prohibition of amphetamine and N-methylamphetamine and are distributed via the Internet. Often, a halogen atom is introduced into the phenyl ring of amphetamine to turn the illegal amphetamine legal. Since amphetamines possess a chiral centre, two enantiomers are available, which might differ in activity...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889115/new-psychoactive-substances-are-there-any-good-options-for-regulating-new-psychoactive-substances
#16
Peter Reuter, Bryce Pardo
Advances in chemistry, technology, and globalization have contributed to the rapid development and diffusion of NPS (new psychoactive substances), creating perhaps the most serious challenge to the century-old international drug control system and to national systems. Very little is known about the effects of these substances which fall outside of national and international controls. The predominant response to the flood of NPS has been the development of more expeditious methods of prohibiting a new chemical entity...
November 23, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863134/identification-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-4-fluorobutyrfentanyl-1-4-fluorophenyl-1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl-amino-butan-1-one-4-fbf-in-seized-materials-and-post-mortem-biological-samples
#17
Marcin Rojkiewicz, Milena Majchrzak, Rafał Celiński, Piotr Kuś, Mieczysław Sajewicz
During the last decade, a substantial growth in new psychoactive substances (NPS) has been recorded. Within this group, a considerably fast-growing sub-group is represented by the opioids, which are based on modifications of the fentanyl structure. In this study, identification and analytical characterization of a new fentanyl derivative, 4-fluorobutyrfentanyl (1-((4-fluorophenyl)(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)butan-1-one, 4-FBF), is described. Apart from the seized powder, 4-FBF was also identified in the e-cigarette liquid secured in Case 1...
March 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663984/comparison-of-illegal-drug-use-pattern-in-taiwan-and-korea-from-2006-to-2014
#18
Ling-Yi Feng, Wen-Jing Yu, Wei-Ting Chang, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
BACKGROUND: Illegal drug use has long been a global concern. Taiwan and Korea are geographically adjacent and both countries have experienced the illegal use problems of methamphetamine, a predominant prototype of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). NPS, a term coined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in recent years, have not been scrutinized for their safety and may become a new threat to public health and security worldwide. To conduct evidence-based drug policy, it is imperative to estimate the trend and pattern of illegal drug use...
September 23, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639994/legal-high-industry-business-and-lobbying-strategies-under-a-legal-market-for-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-legal-highs-in-new-zealand
#19
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND: The establishment of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, 'legal highs') under New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) 2013 created a new commercial sector for psychoactive products, previously limited to alcohol and tobacco. AIM: To explore how the newly-recognised 'legal high' industry (LHI) viewed and responded to the changing regulatory and market environment. METHODS: In-depth interviews with six key informants (KI) from the LHI: a leading entrepreneur, chemist, industry spokesperson, retailer, product buyer and a researcher commissioned by the LHI - were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically...
September 15, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552699/an-overview-of-emerging-and-new-psychoactive-substances-in-the-united-kingdom
#20
REVIEW
Shruti Beharry, Simon Gibbons
The purpose of this review is to identify emerging or new psychoactive substances (NPS) by undertaking an online survey of the UK NPS market and to gather any data from online drug forums and published literature. Drugs from four main classes of NPS were identified: psychostimulants, dissociative anaesthetics, hallucinogens (phenylalkylamine-based and lysergamide-based materials) and finally benzodiazepines. For inclusion in the review, the 'user reviewers' on drugs forums were selected based on whether or not the particular NPS of interest was used alone or in combination...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
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