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Geroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149257/eleven-telomere-epigenetic-clock-and-biomarker-composite-quantifications-of-biological-aging-do-they-measure-the-same-thing
#1
Daniel W Belsky, Terrie E Moffitt, Alan A Cohen, David L Corcoran, Morgan E Levine, Joseph A Prinz, Jonathan Schaefer, Karen Sugden, Benjamin Williams, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
The geroscience hypothesis posits that therapies to slow biological processes of aging can prevent disease and extend healthy years of life. To test such "gero-protective" therapies in humans, outcome measures are needed that can assess extension of disease-free lifespan. This need has spurred development of different methods to quantify biological aging. But different methods have not been systematically compared in the same humans. We implemented seven methods to quantify biological aging using repeated-measures physiological and genomic data in 964 middle-aged humans in the Dunedin Study...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857125/aging-research-collaborations-forge-a-promising-future
#2
Melinda S Kelley, Marie A Bernard, Richard J Hodes
The National Institute on Aging (NIA), one of 27 institutes and centers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), was founded in 1974 to conduct and support research on aging and the health and well-being of older people. The Institute's interests span the fundamental processes that contribute to aging and their impact on systems; diseases and conditions for which aging is a risk factor; and interventions that may prevent, delay, or treat these conditions or otherwise contribute to an extension of healthy, active years of life...
November 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803893/the-companion-dog-as-a-unique-translational-model-for-aging
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Mazzatenta, Augusto Carluccio, Domenico Robbe, Camillo Di Giulio, Alessandro Cellerino
The dog is a unique species due to its wide variation among breeds in terms of size, morphology, behaviour and lifespan, coupled with a genetic structure that facilitates the dissection of the genetic architecture that controls these traits. Dogs and humans co-evolved and share recent evolutionary selection processes, such as adaptation to digest starch-rich diets. Many diseases of the dog have a human counterpart, and notably Alzheimer's disease, which is otherwise difficult to model in other organisms. Unlike laboratory animals, companion dogs share the human environment and lifestyle, are exposed to the same pollutants, and are faced with pathogens and infections...
October 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728596/implementation-of-longevity-promoting-supplements-and-medications-in-public-health-practice-achievements-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Alexander Vaiserman, Oleh Lushchak
BACKGROUND: Most modern societies undergo rapid population aging. The rise in life expectancy, nevertheless, is not accompanied, to date, by the same increment of healthspan. Efforts to increase healthspan by means of supplements and pharmaceuticals targeting aging-related pathologies are presently in spotlight of a new branch in geriatric medicine, geroscience, postulating that aging could be manipulated in such a way that will in parallel allow delay the onset of all age-associated chronic disorders...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719097/mitochondrial-proteostasis-as-a-shared-characteristic-of-slowed-aging-the-importance-of-considering-cell-proliferation
#5
Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
Proteostasis is one of the seven "pillars of aging research" identified by the Trans-NIH Geroscience Initiative and loss of proteostasis is associated with aging and age-related chronic disease. Accumulated protein damage and resultant cellular dysfunction are consequences of limited protein repair systems and slowed protein turnover. When relatively high rates of protein turnover are maintained despite advancing age, damaged proteins are more quickly degraded and replaced, maintaining proteome fidelity. Therefore, maintenance of protein turnover represents an important proteostatic mechanism...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698311/proteomics-and-metabolomics-in-ageing-research-from-biomarkers-to-systems-biology
#6
REVIEW
Jessica M Hoffman, Yang Lyu, Scott D Pletcher, Daniel E L Promislow
Age is the single greatest risk factor for a wide range of diseases, and as the mean age of human populations grows steadily older, the impact of this risk factor grows as well. Laboratory studies on the basic biology of ageing have shed light on numerous genetic pathways that have strong effects on lifespan. However, we still do not know the degree to which the pathways that affect ageing in the lab also influence variation in rates of ageing and age-related disease in human populations. Similarly, despite considerable effort, we have yet to identify reliable and reproducible 'biomarkers', which are predictors of one's biological as opposed to chronological age...
July 15, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624867/cytomegalovirus-cmv-research-in-immune-senescence-comes-of-age-overview-of-the-6th-international-workshop-on-cmv-and-immunosenescence
#7
EDITORIAL
Janko Nikolich-Žugich, René A W van Lier
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most complex and most ubiquitous latent persistent viruses, with a considerable ability to evade and manipulate the immune system. Following an early-life infection, most immunocompetent humans spend several decades living with CMV, and, because the virus in these hosts does not cause manifest disease, CMV can be considered part of normal aging for more than half of humanity. However, there is accumulating evidence that CMV carriage is not a null event and that both potentially harmful and potentially beneficial outcomes emanate from the interaction of CMV with its mammalian hosts...
June 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526131/metabolic-alterations-at-the-crossroad-of-aging-and-oncogenesis
#8
L Raffaghello, V Longo
Aging represents the major risk factor for cancer. Cancer and aging are characterized by a similar dysregulated metabolism consisting in upregulation of glycolysis and downmodulation of oxidative phosphorylation. In this respect, metabolic interventions can be viewed as promising strategies to promote longevity and to prevent or delay age-related disorders including cancer. In this review, we discuss the most promising metabolic approaches including chronic calorie restriction, periodic fasting/fasting-mimicking diets, and pharmacological interventions mimicking calorie restriction...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365140/deregulation-of-crtcs-in-aging-and-age-related-disease-risk
#9
REVIEW
Caroline C Escoubas, Carlos G Silva-García, William B Mair
Advances in public health in the past century have seen a sharp increase in human life expectancy. With these changes have come an increased prevalence of age-related pathologies and health burdens in the elderly. Patient age is the biggest risk factor for multiple chronic conditions that often occur simultaneously within a single individual. An alternative to disease-centric therapeutic approaches is that of 'geroscience', which aims to define molecular mechanisms that link age to overall disease risk. One such mechanism is deregulation of CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs)...
May 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352958/the-epigenetic-landscape-of-age-related-diseases-the-geroscience-perspective
#10
Noémie Gensous, Maria Giulia Bacalini, Chiara Pirazzini, Elena Marasco, Cristina Giuliani, Francesco Ravaioli, Giacomo Mengozzi, Claudia Bertarelli, Maria Giustina Palmas, Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani
In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the epigenetics of age-related diseases, focusing on those studies that have described DNA methylation landscape in cardio-vascular diseases, musculoskeletal function and frailty. We stress the importance of adopting the conceptual framework of "geroscience", which starts from the observation that advanced age is the major risk factor for several of these pathologies and aims at identifying the mechanistic links between aging and age-related diseases...
August 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299635/geroscience-and-the-trans-nih-geroscience-interest-group-gsig
#11
EDITORIAL
Felipe Sierra, Ron Kohanski
Age is by far the major risk factor for most chronic diseases. This has been common knowledge since time immemorial. Aging encompasses the biological changes most often seen as declines of function and increasing burden of disease. The close linkage of these two has led people to believe that aging, like age, is immutable. It is only recently that research into the basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging has led to potential interventions that increase lifespan and appear to increase healthspan, as well...
February 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087676/the-longitudinal-study-of-aging-in-human-young-adults-knowledge-gaps-and-research-agenda
#12
Terrie E Moffitt, Daniel W Belsky, Andrea Danese, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
BACKGROUND: To prevent onset of age-related diseases and physical and cognitive decline, interventions to slow human aging and extend health span must eventually be applied to people while they are still young and healthy. Yet most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease, and little is known about aging in healthy young humans. METHOD: This article explains how this knowledge gap is a barrier to extending health span and puts forward the case that geroscience should invest in researching the pace of aging in young adults...
February 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059157/healthy-ageing-in-2016-obesity-in-geroscience-is-cellular-senescence-the-culprit
#13
Claudio Franceschi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924421/geroscience-understanding-the-interaction-of-processes-of-aging-and-chronic-diseases
#14
EDITORIAL
William E Sonntag, Zoltan Ungvari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Age (2005-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907230/reverse-geroscience-how-does-exposure-to-early-diseases-accelerate-the-age-related-decline-in-health
#15
REVIEW
Ronald A Kohanski, Steven G Deeks, Claudia Gravekamp, Jeffrey B Halter, Kevin High, Arti Hurria, Rebecca Fuldner, Paige Green, Robin Huebner, Francesca Macchiarini, Felipe Sierra
Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level...
December 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880694/commentary-life-course-epidemiology-embraces-geroscience
#16
Luigi Ferrucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871822/geroscience-addressing-the-mismatch-between-its-exciting-research-opportunities-its-economic-imperative-and-its-current-funding-crisis
#17
REVIEW
George M Martin
There is at present a huge disconnect between levels of funding for basic research on fundamental mechanisms of biological aging and, given demographic projections, the anticipated enormous social and economic impacts of a litany of chronic diseases for which aging is by far the major risk factor: One valuable approach, recently instigated by Felipe Sierra & colleagues at the US National Institute on Aging, is the development of a Geroscience Interest Group among virtually all of the NIH institutes. A complementary approach would be to seek major escalations of private funding...
August 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832069/suggestions-from-geroscience-for-the-genetics-of-age-related-diseases
#18
Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535968/strategies-and-challenges-in-clinical-trials-targeting-human-aging
#19
John C Newman, Sofiya Milman, Shahrukh K Hashmi, Steve N Austad, James L Kirkland, Jeffrey B Halter, Nir Barzilai
Interventions that target fundamental aging processes have the potential to transform human health and health care. A variety of candidate drugs have emerged from basic and translational research that may target aging processes. Some of these drugs are already in clinical use for other purposes, such as metformin and rapamycin. However, designing clinical trials to test interventions that target the aging process poses a unique set of challenges. This paper summarizes the outcomes of an international meeting co-ordinated by the NIH-funded Geroscience Network to further the goal of developing a translational pipeline to move candidate compounds through clinical trials and ultimately into use...
November 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535967/evaluating-health-span-in-preclinical-models-of-aging-and-disease-guidelines-challenges-and-opportunities-for-geroscience
#20
Derek M Huffman, Jamie N Justice, Michael B Stout, James L Kirkland, Nir Barzilai, Steven N Austad
Life extension is no longer considered sufficient evidence of delayed aging in research animals. It must also be demonstrated that a broad swathe of health indicators have been extended. During a retreat of the Geroscience Network, a consortium of basic and clinical aging researchers, potential measures of mouse health were considered for their potential as easily standardized, highly informative metrics. Major health domains considered were neuromuscular, cognitive, cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory functions as well as body composition and energetics and a multitude of assays interrogating these domains...
November 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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