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Terrie E Moffitt, Daniel W Belsky, Andrea Danese, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
BACKGROUND: To prevent onset of age-related diseases and physical and cognitive decline, interventions to slow human aging and extend health span must eventually be applied to people while they are still young and healthy. Yet most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease, and little is known about aging in healthy young humans. METHOD: This article explains how this knowledge gap is a barrier to extending health span and puts forward the case that geroscience should invest in researching the pace of aging in young adults...
February 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Claudio Franceschi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
William E Sonntag, Zoltan Ungvari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Age (2005-)
Ronald A Kohanski, Steven G Deeks, Claudia Gravekamp, Jeffrey B Halter, Kevin High, Arti Hurria, Rebecca Fuldner, Paige Green, Robin Huebner, Francesca Macchiarini, Felipe Sierra
Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level...
December 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Luigi Ferrucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
George M Martin
There is at present a huge disconnect between levels of funding for basic research on fundamental mechanisms of biological aging and, given demographic projections, the anticipated enormous social and economic impacts of a litany of chronic diseases for which aging is by far the major risk factor: One valuable approach, recently instigated by Felipe Sierra & colleagues at the US National Institute on Aging, is the development of a Geroscience Interest Group among virtually all of the NIH institutes. A complementary approach would be to seek major escalations of private funding...
November 19, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
John C Newman, Sofiya Milman, Shahrukh K Hashmi, Steve N Austad, James L Kirkland, Jeffrey B Halter, Nir Barzilai
Interventions that target fundamental aging processes have the potential to transform human health and health care. A variety of candidate drugs have emerged from basic and translational research that may target aging processes. Some of these drugs are already in clinical use for other purposes, such as metformin and rapamycin. However, designing clinical trials to test interventions that target the aging process poses a unique set of challenges. This paper summarizes the outcomes of an international meeting co-ordinated by the NIH-funded Geroscience Network to further the goal of developing a translational pipeline to move candidate compounds through clinical trials and ultimately into use...
November 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Derek M Huffman, Jamie N Justice, Michael B Stout, James L Kirkland, Nir Barzilai, Steven N Austad
Life extension is no longer considered sufficient evidence of delayed aging in research animals. It must also be demonstrated that a broad swathe of health indicators have been extended. During a retreat of the Geroscience Network, a consortium of basic and clinical aging researchers, potential measures of mouse health were considered for their potential as easily standardized, highly informative metrics. Major health domains considered were neuromuscular, cognitive, cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory functions as well as body composition and energetics and a multitude of assays interrogating these domains...
November 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jamie Justice, Jordan D Miller, John C Newman, Shahrukh K Hashmi, Jeffrey Halter, Steve N Austad, Nir Barzilai, James L Kirkland
Therapies targeted at fundamental processes of aging may hold great promise for enhancing the health of a wide population by delaying or preventing a range of age-related diseases and conditions-a concept dubbed the "geroscience hypothesis." Early, proof-of-concept clinical trials will be a key step in the translation of therapies emerging from model organism and preclinical studies into clinical practice. This article summarizes the outcomes of an international meeting partly funded through the NIH R24 Geroscience Network, whose purpose was to generate concepts and frameworks for early, proof-of-concept clinical trials for therapeutic interventions that target fundamental processes of aging...
November 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Felipe Sierra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Christin E Burd, Matthew S Gill, Laura J Niedernhofer, Paul D Robbins, Steven N Austad, Nir Barzilai, James L Kirkland
Through the progress of basic science research, fundamental mechanisms that contribute to age-related decline are being described with increasing depth and detail. Although these efforts have identified new drug targets and compounds that extend life span in model organisms, clinical trials of therapeutics that target aging processes remain scarce. Progress in aging research is hindered by barriers associated with the translation of basic science discoveries into the clinic. This report summarizes discussions held at a 2014 Geroscience Network retreat focused on identifying hurdles that currently impede the preclinical development of drugs targeting fundamental aging processes...
November 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Alexander M Vaiserman, Oleh V Lushchak, Alexander K Koliada
Life expectancy has grown dramatically in modern times. This increase, however, is not accompanied by the same increase in healthspan. Efforts to extend healthspan through pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes are now in the spotlight of geroscience, the main idea of which is that delaying of aging is far more effective than preventing the particular chronic disorders. Currently, anti-aging pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline. It is a preventive field of health care, as opposed to conventional medicine which focuses on treating symptoms rather than root causes of illness...
November 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Simon C Johnson, Matt Kaeberlein
Experimental geroscience has identified rapamycin as a top candidate for promoting healthy aging and longevity in mammals. As multiple independent studies have successfully reproduced the lifespan and healthspan promoting effects of rapamycin, the focus has shifted to possible translational use. While a promising compound, clinical use of rapamycin is limited by concerns of side effects associated with the drug. Studies aimed at defining optimal dosage regimen, delivery route, and formulation will allow for benefits to be maximized while reducing side effects...
July 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Simon Melov
For decades, researchers in the biology of aging have focused on defining mechanisms that modulate aging by primarily studying a single metric, sometimes described as the "gold standard" lifespan. Increasingly, geroscience research is turning towards defining functional domains of aging such as the cardiovascular system, skeletal integrity, and metabolic health as being a more direct route to understand why tissues decline in function with age. Each model used in aging research has strengths and weaknesses, yet we know surprisingly little about how critical tissues decline in health with increasing age...
2016: F1000Research
Matt Kaeberlein, Kate E Creevy, Daniel E L Promislow
Studies of the basic biology of aging have identified several genetic and pharmacological interventions that appear to modulate the rate of aging in laboratory model organisms, but a barrier to further progress has been the challenge of moving beyond these laboratory discoveries to impact health and quality of life for people. The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, offers a unique opportunity for surmounting this barrier in the near future. In particular, companion dogs share our environment and play an important role in improving the quality of life for millions of people...
August 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Luigi Ferrucci, Rachel Cooper, Michelle Shardell, Eleanor M Simonsick, Jennifer A Schrack, Diana Kuh
Mobility is the most studied and most relevant physical ability affecting quality of life with strong prognostic value for disability and survival. Natural selection has built the "engine" of mobility with great robustness, redundancy, and functional reserve. Efficient patterns of mobility can be acquired during development even by children affected by severe impairments. Analogously, age-associated impairments in mobility-related physiological systems are compensated and overt limitations of mobility only occur when the severity can no longer be compensated...
September 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Felipe Sierra
Research on the biology of aging has accelerated rapidly in the last two decades. It is now at the point where translation of the findings into useful approaches to improve the health of the elderly population seems possible. In trying to fill that gap, a new field termed geroscience will be articulated here that attempts to identify the biological underpinnings for the age-dependency of most chronic diseases. Herein, I will review the major conceptual issues leading to the formulation of geroscience as a field, as well as give examples of current areas of inquiry in which basic aging biology research could lead to therapeutic approaches to address age-related chronic diseases, not one at a time, but most of them in unison...
April 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
L Harkema, S A Youssef, A de Bruin
Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging...
March 2016: Veterinary Pathology
P M Treuting, J M Snyder, Y Ikeno, P N Schofield, J M Ward, J P Sundberg
Pathology is a discipline of medicine that adds great benefit to aging studies of rodents by integrating in vivo, biochemical, and molecular data. It is not possible to diagnose systemic illness, comorbidities, and proximate causes of death in aging studies without the morphologic context provided by histopathology. To date, many rodent aging studies do not utilize end points supported by systematic necropsy and histopathology, which leaves studies incomplete, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. As in traditional toxicity studies, if the effect of a drug, dietary treatment, or altered gene expression on aging is to be studied, systematic pathology analysis must be included to determine the causes of age-related illness, moribundity, and death...
March 2016: Veterinary Pathology
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