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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912247/molecular-evolution-in-insect-societies-an-eco-evo-devo-synthesis
#1
Amy L Toth, Sandra M Rehan
The evolution of eusociality is a perennial issue in evolutionary biology, and genomic advances have fueled steadily growing interest in the genetic changes underlying social evolution. Along with a recent flurry of research on comparative and evolutionary genomics in different eusocial insect groups (bees, ants, wasps, and termites), several mechanistic explanations have emerged to describe the molecular evolution of eusociality from solitary behavior. These include solitary physiological ground plans, genetic toolkits of deeply conserved genes, evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes, cis regulation, and the structure of gene networks, epigenetics, and novel genes...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911271/immunoglobulin-superfamily-genes-are-novel-prognostic-biomarkers-for-breast-cancer
#2
Yue Li, Maoni Guo, Zhenkun Fu, Peng Wang, Yan Zhang, Yue Gao, Ming Yue, Shangwei Ning, Dianjun Li
Breast cancer progression is associated with dysregulated expression of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) genes that are involved in cell-cell recognition, binding and adhesion. Despite widespread evidence that many IgSF genes could serve as effective biomarkers, this potential has not been realized because the studies have focused mostly on individual genes and not the entire network. To gain a global perspective of the IgSF-related biomarkers, we constructed an IgSF-directed neighbor network (IDNN) and an IgSF-directed driver network (IDDN) by integrating multiple levels of data, including IgSF genes, breast cancer driver genes, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and gene expression profiling data...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910743/decoding-the-polyphyletic-flexibility-of-allosteric-modular-networks-progress-and-perspectives
#3
Yanan Yu, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang
Advances in identifying architecture of modules and elucidating their modes of action are gradually improving the decoding of complex relationships between phenotypic robustness and genotypic networks. However, approaches to detecting modules have largely focused on identifying modules in static graphs. In this review, we attempt to reveal the mechanism of polyphyletic architectural transformation based on modular boundary evolutions and different oscillating factors. With the rapid progress in probing into the detailed structural model of modular networks, flexible modular organization manifests a key adaptive balancing ability of allosterically regulating or reconstructing intermodular and intramodular states to uncover the novel biological alterations beyond engineering properties...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#4
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909421/metacognition-and-perspective-taking-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-mini-review
#5
REVIEW
Elodie Bertrand, Jesus Landeira-Fernandez, Daniel C Mograbi
Metacognition refers to the monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes and its impairment can lead to a lack of self-awareness of deficits, or anosognosia. In the context of different neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., traumatic brain injury, dementia, and schizophrenia), studies have shown that patients who present impairments in metacognitive abilities may be able to recognize such difficulties in others and in themselves when exposed to material in a third-person perspective. Considering that metacognitive impairments are an important characteristic of dementia, especially in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), studies of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking may be relevant to improve the quality of life of people with dementia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#6
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907231/use-of-autopsy-to-determine-live-or-stillbirth-new-approaches-in-decision-support-systems
#7
Riza Yilmaz, Okan Erkaymaz, Erdogan Kara, Kivanc Ergen
Fetal deaths are important cases for forensic medicine, as well as for criminal and civil law. From a legal perspective, the determination of whether a deceased infant was stillborn is a difficult process. Such a determination is generally made during autopsy; however, no standardized procedures for this determination exist. Therefore, new facilitative approaches are needed. In this study, three new support systems based on 10 autopsy parameters were tested for their ability to correctly determine whether deceased infants were alive or stillborn...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907024/utility-evaluation-based-on-one-to-n-mapping-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-for-interdependent-networks
#8
Juan Wang, Wenwen Lu, Lina Liu, Li Li, Chengyi Xia
In the field of evolutionary game theory, network reciprocity has become an important means to promote the level of promotion within the population system. Recently, the interdependency provides a novel perspective to understand the widespread cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In previous works, interdependency is often built from the direct or indirect connections between two networks through the one-to-one mapping mode. However, under many realistic scenarios, players may need much more information from many neighboring agents so as to make a more rational decision...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903734/deviations-from-critical-dynamics-in-interictal-epileptiform-activity
#9
Oshrit Arviv, Mordekhay Medvedovsky, Liron Sheintuch, Abraham Goldstein, Oren Shriki
: The framework of criticality provides a unifying perspective on neuronal dynamics from in vitro cortical cultures to functioning human brains. Recent findings suggest that a healthy cortex displays critical dynamics, giving rise to scale-free spatiotemporal cascades of activity, termed neuronal avalanches. Pharmacological manipulations of the excitation-inhibition balance (EIB) in cortical cultures were previously shown to result in deviations from criticality and from the power law scaling of avalanche size distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903731/memory-transformation-enhances-reinforcement-learning-in-dynamic-environments
#10
Adam Santoro, Paul W Frankland, Blake A Richards
: Over the course of systems consolidation, there is a switch from a reliance on detailed episodic memories to generalized schematic memories. This switch is sometimes referred to as "memory transformation." Here we demonstrate a previously unappreciated benefit of memory transformation, namely, its ability to enhance reinforcement learning in a dynamic environment. We developed a neural network that is trained to find rewards in a foraging task where reward locations are continuously changing...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902748/features-of-the-asynchronous-correlation-between-the-china-coal-price-index-and-coal-mining-accidental-deaths
#11
Yuecheng Huang, Wuyi Cheng, Sida Luo, Yun Luo, Chengchen Ma, Tailin He
The features of the asynchronous correlation between accident indices and the factors that influence accidents can provide an effective reference for warnings of coal mining accidents. However, what are the features of this correlation? To answer this question, data from the China coal price index and the number of deaths from coal mining accidents were selected as the sample data. The fluctuation modes of the asynchronous correlation between the two data sets were defined according to the asynchronous correlation coefficients, symbolization, and sliding windows...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900039/networks-analysis-of-genes-and-micrornas-in-human-wilms-tumors
#12
Jimin He, Xiaoxin Guo, Linlin Sun, Kuhao Wang, Haiying Yao
Wilms' tumor (WT) is a common kidney cancer. To date, the expression of genes [transcription factors (TFs), target genes and host genes] and microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) in WTs has captured the attention of biologists, while the regulatory association between the genes and miRNAs remains unclear. In the present study, TFs, miRNAs, target genes and host genes were considered as key factors in the construction of three levels of regulatory networks, namely, the differentially-expressed network, the related network and the global network...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899662/kegg-new-perspectives-on-genomes-pathways-diseases-and-drugs
#13
Minoru Kanehisa, Miho Furumichi, Mao Tanabe, Yoko Sato, Kanae Morishima
KEGG (http://www.kegg.jp/ or http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) is an encyclopedia of genes and genomes. Assigning functional meanings to genes and genomes both at the molecular and higher levels is the primary objective of the KEGG database project. Molecular-level functions are stored in the KO (KEGG Orthology) database, where each KO is defined as a functional ortholog of genes and proteins. Higher-level functions are represented by networks of molecular interactions, reactions and relations in the forms of KEGG pathway maps, BRITE hierarchies and KEGG modules...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896606/a-knowledge-ecologies-analysis-of-co-designing-water-and-sanitation-services-in-alaska
#14
Dena Fam, Zoë Sofoulis
Willingness to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries is necessary but not sufficient for project success. This is a case study of a transdisciplinary project whose success was constrained by contextual factors that ultimately favoured technical and scientific forms of knowledge over the cultural intelligence that might ensure technical solutions were socially feasible. In response to Alaskan Water and Sewer Challenge (AWSC), an international team with expertise in engineering, consultative design and public health formed in 2013 to collaborate on a two-year project to design remote area water and sanitation systems in consultation with two native Alaskan communities...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895778/regulatory-network-analysis-of-genes-and-micrornas-in-human-hepatoblastoma
#15
Jimin He, Xiaoxin Guo, Linlin Sun, Ning Wang, Jiwei Bao
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is a common type of primary tumor in children. Previous studies have examined the expression of genes, including transcription factors (TFs), target genes, host genes and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) associated with HB. However, the regulatory pathways of miRNAs and genes remain unclear. In the present study, a novel perspective is proposed, which focuses on HB and the associated regulatory pathways, to construct three networks at various levels, including a differentially expressed network, an associated network and a global network...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892813/thinking-about-social-and-nonsocial-alternative-possibilities-in-premature-preschoolers
#16
María Dolores Roldán-Tapia, Sergio Moreno-Ríos, Rosa Cánovas-López
INTRODUCTION: Prematurely born preschoolers show developmental cognitive delay compared to full-term children. There are important neurological networks developing at preschool age related to perspective taking about the attribution of belief and to deduction with contrary-to-fact situations. Other deductive abilities may be completed during that period. METHOD: A group of very prematurely born children (N = 35) aged between 4 and 5 years was compared with a control group of children born at full term (N = 35)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892230/clinical-academic-careers-embracing-the-art-and-science-of-nursing
#17
Abigail Masterson, Liz Robb
Clinical academics make a unique contribution to health research and scholarship by undertaking practice-focused research that offers direct benefits to patient care. The Florence Nightingale Foundation supports the development of research skills in nursing and midwifery through its scholarships and by establishing a network of chairs in clinical nursing practice research. The Florence Nightingale Foundation also provides leadership scholarships to deans and aspiring deans of university faculties of health...
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#18
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889364/metapopulation-modelling-of-riparian-tree-species-persistence-in-river-networks-under-climate-change
#19
Kris Van Looy, Jérémy Piffady
Floodplain landscapes are highly fragmented by river regulation resulting in habitat degradation and flood regime perturbation, posing risks to population persistence. Climate change is expected to pose supplementary risks in this context of fragmented landscapes, and especially for river systems adaptation management programs are developed. The association of habitat quality and quantity with the landscape dynamics and resilience to human-induced disturbances is still poorly understood in the context of species survival and colonization processes, but essential to prioritize conservation and restoration actions...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889333/magnetoencephalography-meg-past-current-and-future-perspectives-for-improved-differentiation-and-treatment-of-epilepsies
#20
Hermann Stefan, Eugen Trinka
In addition to visual analysis digital computerized recording of electrical and magnetic fields by using EEG and MEG opened a new window for research concerning improved understanding of pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of epilepsies. In the last 25 years MEG was used more and more in clinical studies concerning localization of focal epileptic activity, functional cortex and network analysis. Simultaneous MEG/EEG recording and analysis offer the use of complimentary information increasing the sensitivity for tracing primary epileptic activity...
November 15, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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