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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455020/bayesian-networks-of-age-estimation-and-classification-based-on-dental-evidence-a-study-on-the-third-molar-mineralization
#1
Emanuele Sironi, Vilma Pinchi, Francesco Pradella, Martina Focardi, Silvia Bozza, Franco Taroni
Not only does the Bayesian approach offer a rational and logical environment for evidence evaluation in a forensic framework, but it also allows scientists to coherently deal with uncertainty related to a collection of multiple items of evidence, due to its flexible nature. Such flexibility might come at the expense of elevated computational complexity, which can be handled by using specific probabilistic graphical tools, namely Bayesian networks. In the current work, such probabilistic tools are used for evaluating dental evidence related to the development of third molars...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454295/synthetic-and-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-neural-activity-indicators
#2
REVIEW
Claire Deo, Luke D Lavis
The ultimate goal of neuroscience is to relate the complex activity of cells and cell-networks to behavior and cognition. This requires tools and techniques to visualize neuronal activity. Fluorescence microscopy is an ideal tool to measure activity of cells in the brain due to the high sensitivity of the technique and the growing portfolio of optical hardware and fluorescent sensors. Here, we give a chemist's perspective on the recent progress of fluorescent activity indicators that enable the measurement of cellular events in the living brain...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449907/electrospun-conjugated-polymer-fullerene-hybrid-fibers-photoactive-blends-conductivity-through-tunneling-afm-light-scattering-and-perspective-for-their-use-in-bulk-heterojunction-organic-solar-cells
#3
Zhenhua Yang, Maria Moffa, Ying Liu, Hongfei Li, Luana Persano, Andrea Camposeo, Rosalba Saija, Maria Antonia Iatì, Onofrio M Maragò, Dario Pisignano, Chang-Yong Nam, Eyal Zussman, Miriam Rafailovich
Hybrid conjugated polymer/fullerene filaments based on MEH-PPV/PVP/PCBM were prepared by electrospinning, and their properties were assessed by scanning electron, atomic and lateral-force, tunneling, and confocal microscopies, as well as by attenuated-total-reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence quantum yield, and spatially resolved fluorescence. Highlighted features include the ribbon shape of the realized fibers and the persistence of a network serving as a template for heterogeneous active layers in solar cell devices...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446965/associations-between-coherent-neural-activity-in-the-brain-s-value-system-during-antismoking-messages-and-reductions-in-smoking
#4
Nicole Cooper, Steven Tompson, Matthew B O'Donnell, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett, Emily B Falk
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and illness. One common strategy for reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking and other health risk behaviors is the use of graphic warning labels (GWLs). This has led to widespread interest from the perspective of health psychology in understanding the mechanisms of GWL effectiveness. Here we investigated differences in how the brain responds to negative, graphic warning label-inspired antismoking ads and neutral control ads, and we probed how this response related to future behavior...
February 15, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446316/impact-of-the-inbre-summer-student-mentored-research-program-on-undergraduate-students-in-arkansas
#5
Jean C McSweeney, Teresa J Hudson, Latrina Prince, Helen Beneš, Alan J Tackett, Caroline Miller Robinson, Roger Koeppe, Lawrence E Cornett
The Institutional Development Award (IDeA) program, housed within the National Institute for General Medical Sciences, administers the Networks of Biomedical Research Excellence (INBRE) as a strategic mission to broaden the geographic distribution of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding within the United States. Undergraduate summer student mentored research programs (SSMRP) are a common feature of INBRE programs and are designed to increase undergraduate student interest in research careers in the biomedical sciences...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445842/-rare-diseases-in-dentistry-and-oral-medicine-report-on-the-2017-first-national-congress
#6
Marcel Hanisch, Susanne Jung, Johannes Kleinheinz
On November 25, the first national congress for rare diseases in dentistry and oral medicine under the auspices of ACHSE e. V. and Orphanet was held in Muenster. With speakers from the field of medicine, dentistry, politics, patient advocacy groups, self-help groups and persons concerned, a platform for exchange between physicians and patients on an equal footing was offered to the participants. At the end of each of the 12 lectures, more than 300 national and international guests discussed the various issues and perspectives related to the topic of rare diseases in dentistry and oral medicine...
February 14, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443924/identification-of-key-pathways-and-genes-in-the-dynamic-progression-of-hcc-based-on-wgcna
#7
Li Yin, Zhihui Cai, Baoan Zhu, Cunshuan Xu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a devastating disease worldwide. Though many efforts have been made to elucidate the process of HCC, its molecular mechanisms of development remain elusive due to its complexity. To explore the stepwise carcinogenic process from pre-neoplastic lesions to the end stage of HCC, we employed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) which has been proved to be an effective method in many diseases to detect co-expressed modules and hub genes using eight pathological stages including normal, cirrhosis without HCC, cirrhosis, low-grade dysplastic, high-grade dysplastic, very early and early, advanced HCC and very advanced HCC...
February 14, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442850/single-stroke-synthesis-of-tin-sulphide-oxide-nanocomposites-within-engineering-thermoplastic-and-their-humidity-response
#8
Dattatraya Adkar, Parag Adhyapak, Uttamrao Mulik, Sandesh Jadkar, Katia Vutova, Dinesh Amalnerkar
SnS nanostructured materials have attracted enormous interest due to their important properties and potential application in low cost solar energy conversion systems and optical devices. From the perspective of SnS based device fabrication, we offer single-stroke in-situ technique for the generation of Sn based sulphide and oxide nanostructures inside the polymer network via polymer-inorganic solid state reaction route. In this method, polyphenylene sulphide (PPS)-an engineering thermoplastic-acts as chalcogen source as well as stabilizing matrix for the resultant nano products...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442206/thrown-into-the-world-of-independent-practice-from-unexpected-uncertainty-to-new-identities
#9
Brett Schrewe
One of the most exciting yet stressful times in a physician's life is transitioning from supervised training into independent practice. The majority of literature devoted to this topic has focused upon a perceived gap between clinical and non-clinical skills and interventions taken to address it. Building upon recent streams of scholarship in identity formation and adaptation to new contexts, this work uses a Heideggerian perspective to frame an autoethnographical exploration of the author's transition into independent paediatric practice...
February 13, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441507/economic-evaluation-of-fulvestrant-500-mg-compared-to-generic-aromatase-inhibitors-in-patients-with-advanced-breast-cancer-in-sweden
#10
Ugne Sabale, Mattias Ekman, Daniel Thunström, Claire Telford, Christopher Livings
OBJECTIVES: In Sweden, breast cancer (BC) represents 30% of newly diagnosed cancers and is the most common cancer in women. For hormone-dependent BC, endocrine therapies varying in efficacy and price are available. The aim of this study is to assess the cost effectiveness of fulvestrant 500 mg as a second-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive metastatic or locally advanced BC versus letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane in Sweden. METHODS: A three-state (pre-progression, post-progression, and death) partitioned-survival model was used to estimate progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by extrapolating trial results beyond the trial period to capture costs and benefits over a lifetime perspective...
December 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440929/role-of-intestinal-flora-in-colorectal-cancer-from-the-metabolite-perspective-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Shuwen Han, Jianlan Gao, Qing Zhou, Shanshan Liu, Caixia Wen, Xi Yang
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common human malignant tumors. Recent research has shown that colorectal cancer is a dysbacteriosis-induced disease; however, the role of intestinal bacteria in colorectal cancer is unclear. This review explores the role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. In total, 57 articles were included after identification and screening. The pertinent literature on floral metabolites in colorectal cancer from three metabolic perspectives - including carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism - was analyzed...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440050/carer-experience-of-end-of-life-service-provision-a-social-network-analysis
#12
Rosemary Leonard, Debbie Horsfall, John Rosenberg, Kerrie Noonan
OBJECTIVE: To identify the position of formal service providers in the networks of those providing end-of-life care in the home from the perspective of the informal network. METHODS: Using third-generation social network analysis, this study examined the nature and strength of relationships of informal caring networks with formal service providers through individual carer interviews, focus groups of caring networks and outer network interviews. RESULTS: Service providers were usually highly valued for providing services, equipment, pain management and personalised care for the dying person plus support and advice to the principal carer about both caring tasks and negotiating the health system...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439282/programmatic-and-administrative-barriers-to-high-risk-infant-follow-up-care
#13
Brian G Tang, Henry C Lee, Erika E Gray, Jeffrey B Gould, Susan R Hintz
OBJECTIVE:  This article characterizes programmatic features of a population-based network of high-risk infant follow-up programs and identifies potential challenges associated with attendance from the providers' perspective. STUDY DESIGN:  A web-based survey of high-risk infant follow-up program directors, coordinators, and providers of a statewide high-risk infant follow-up system. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the survey responses. RESULTS:  Of the 68 high-risk infant follow-up programs in California, 56 (82%) responded to the survey...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435224/social-structure-modulates-the-evolutionary-consequences-of-social-plasticity-a-social-network-perspective-on-interacting-phenotypes
#14
Pierre-Olivier Montiglio, Joel W McGlothlin, Damien R Farine
Organisms express phenotypic plasticity during social interactions. Interacting phenotype theory has explored the consequences of social plasticity for evolution, but it is unclear how this theory applies to complex social structures. We adapt interacting phenotype models to general social structures to explore how the number of social connections between individuals and preference for phenotypically similar social partners affect phenotypic variation and evolution. We derive an analytical model that ignores phenotypic feedback and use simulations to test the predictions of this model...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434570/perspectives-on-how-human-simultaneous-multi-modal-imaging-adds-directionality-to-spread-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Julia Neitzel, Rachel Nuttall, Christian Sorg
Previous animal research suggests that the spread of pathological agents in Alzheimer's disease (AD) follows the direction of signaling pathways. Specifically, tau pathology has been suggested to propagate in an infection-like mode along axons, from transentorhinal cortices to medial temporal lobe cortices and consequently to other cortical regions, while amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology seems to spread in an activity-dependent manner among and from isocortical regions into limbic and then subcortical regions. These directed connectivity-based spread models, however, have not been tested directly in AD patients due to the lack of an in vivo method to identify directed connectivity in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433432/predictors-of-breast-cancer-cell-types-and-their-prognostic-power-in-breast-cancer-patients
#16
Fan Wang, Zachariah Dohogne, Jin Yang, Yu Liu, Benjamin Soibam
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive understanding of intratumor heterogeneity requires identification of molecular markers, which are capable of differentiating different subpopulations and which also have clinical significance. One important tool that has been addressing this issue is single cell RNA-Sequencing (scRNASeq) that allows the quantification of expression profiles of transcripts in individual cells in a population of cancer cells. Using the expression profiles from scRNASeq, current studies conduct analysis to group cells into different subpopulations using clustering algorithms...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433339/deconstructing-trait-anxiety-a-network-perspective
#17
Alexandre Heeren, Emily E Bernstein, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: For decades, the dominant paradigm in trait anxiety research has regarded the construct as signifying the underlying cause of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that supposedly reflect its presence. Recently, a network theory of personality has appeared. According to this perspective, trait anxiety is a formative construct emerging from interactions among its constitutive features (e.g., thought, feelings, behaviors); it is not a latent cause of these features...
February 13, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431124/development-and-piloting-of-a-survey-to-estimate-the-frequency-and-nature-of-potentially-harmful-preventable-problems-in-primary-care-from-a-uk-patient-s-perspective
#18
Susan J Stocks, Ailsa Donnelly, Aneez Esmail, Joanne Beresford, Carolyn Gamble, Sarah Luty, Richard Deacon, Avril Danczak, Nicola Mann, David Townsend, James Ashley, Paul Bowie, Stephen M Campbell
OBJECTIVES: To design and pilot a survey to be used at the population level to estimate the frequency of patient-perceived potentially harmful preventable problems occurring in UK primary care. To explore the nature of the problems, patient-suggested strategies for prevention and opinions of clinicians and the public regarding the potential for harm. DESIGN: A survey was codesigned by three members of the public and one researcher and piloted through public and patient involvement and engagement networks...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428228/incidence-and-costs-of-herpes-zoster-and-postherpetic-neuralgia-in-german-adults-aged-%C3%A2-50-years-a-prospective-study
#19
Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott, Ulf Schutter, Jörg Simon, Barbara Poulsen Nautrup, Alfred von Krempelhuber, Kusuma Gopala, Anastassia Annastassopoulou, Adrienne Guignard, Desmond Curran, Sean Matthews, Emmanuelle Espié
Objectives Herpes zoster (HZ) mainly affects elderly people and immunocompromised individuals. HZ is usually characterized by a unilateral painful skin rash. Its most common complication, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), may cause chronic debilitating pain. This study aimed to estimate the HZ incidence in individuals aged ≥50 years in Germany, the proportion of PHN and the economic burden. Methods From 2010 to 2014, HZ-patients were recruited when consulting physicians in physician networks covering about 157,000 persons aged ≥50 years...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421930/research-and-development-of-anti-alzheimer-s-disease-drugs-an-update-from-the-perspective-of-technology-flows
#20
Kunmeng Liu, Hui-Heng Lin, Rongbiao Pi, Shinghung Mak, Yifan Han, Yuanjia Hu
Today, over 20 million people suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide. AD has become a critical issue to human health, especially in aging societies, and therefore it is a research hotspot in the global scientific community. The technology flow method differs from traditional reviews generating an informative overview of the research and development (R&D) landscape in a specific technological area. We need such an updated method to get a general overview of the R&D of anti-AD drugs in light of the dramatic developments in this area in recent years...
February 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
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