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Network perspective

Christian Nøhr, Sabine Koch, Vivian Vimarlund, Heidi Gilstad, Arild Faxvaag, Gudrun Audur Hardardottir, Hege K Andreassen, Maarit Kangas, Jarmo Reponen, Pernille Bertelsen, Sidsel Villumsen, Hannele Hyppönen
The Nordic eHealth Research Network, a subgroup of the Nordic Council of Ministers eHealth group, is working on developing indicators to monitor progress in availability, use and outcome of eHealth applications in the Nordic countries. This paper reports on the consecutive analysis of National eHealth policies in the Nordic countries from 2012 to 2016. Furthermore, it discusses the consequences for the development of indicators that can measure changes in the eHealth environment arising from the policies. The main change in policies is reflected in a shift towards more stakeholder involvement and intensified focus on clinical infrastructure...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
David J Wales
Recent advances in the potential energy landscapes approach are highlighted, including both theoretical and computational contributions. Treating the high dimensionality of molecular and condensed matter systems of contemporary interest is important for understanding how emergent properties are encoded in the landscape and for calculating these properties while faithfully representing barriers between different morphologies. The pathways characterized in full dimensionality, which are used to construct kinetic transition networks, may prove useful in guiding such calculations...
April 20, 2018: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
Steven Habbous, Sisira Sarma, Lianne Barnieh, Eric McArthur, Scott Klarenbach, Braden Manns, Mehmet A Begen, Krista L Lentine, Amit X Garg
BACKGROUND: The health care costs to evaluate, perform surgery, and follow a living kidney donor for the year after donation are poorly described. METHODS: We obtained information on the health care costs of 1099 living kidney donors between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2014 from Ontario, Canada using comprehensive health care administrative databases. We estimated the cost of 3 periods of the living donation process: the predonation evaluation period (start of evaluation until the day before donation), perioperative period (day of donation until 30-days postdonation), and 1 year of follow-up period (after perioperative period until 1-year postdonation)...
April 19, 2018: Transplantation
Mohsen Mosleh, David G Rand
Spatial structure is one of the most studied mechanisms in evolutionary game theory. Here, we explore the consequences of spatial structure for a question which has received considerable empirical and theoretical attention in recent years, but has not yet been studied from a network perspective: whether cooperation relies on intuitive predispositions or deliberative self-control. We examine this question using a model which integrates the "dual-process" framework from cognitive science with evolutionary game theory, and considers the evolution of agents who are embedded within a social network and only interact with their neighbors...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yaxin Fan, Xinyan Zhu, Bing She, Wei Guo, Tao Guo
The analysis of traffic collisions is essential for urban safety and the sustainable development of the urban environment. Reducing the road traffic injuries and the financial losses caused by collisions is the most important goal of traffic management. In addition, traffic collisions are a major cause of traffic congestion, which is a serious issue that affects everyone in the society. Therefore, traffic collision analysis is essential for all parties, including drivers, pedestrians, and traffic officers, to understand the road risks at a finer spatio-temporal scale...
2018: PloS One
Gregory B McKenna
Rubber networks are important and form the basis for materials with properties ranging from rubber tires to super absorbents and contact lenses. The development of the entropy ideas of rubber deformation thermodynamics provides a powerful framework from which to understand and to use these materials. In addition, swelling of the rubber in the presence of small molecule liquids or solvents leads to materials that are very soft and 'gel' like in nature. The review covers the thermodynamics of polymer networks and gels from the perspective of the thermodynamics and mechanics of the strain energy density function...
April 19, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Mark R Johnson
Previous literature on cheating has focused on defining the concept, assigning responsibility to individual players, collaborative social processes or technical faults in a game's rules. By contrast, this paper applies an actor-network perspective to understanding 'cheating' in games, and explores how the concept is rhetorically effective in sociotechnical controversies. The article identifies human and nonhuman actors whose interests and properties were translated in a case study of 'edge sorting' - identifying minor but crucial differences in tessellated patterns on the backs of playing cards, and using these to estimate their values...
April 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
Michelle M Angrish, Patrick Allard, Shaun D McCullough, Ingrid L Druwe, Lisa Helbling Chadwick, Erin Hines, Brian N Chorley
BACKGROUND: The epigenome may be an important interface between environmental chemical exposures and human health. However, the links between epigenetic modifications and health outcomes are often correlative and do not distinguish between cause and effect or common-cause relationships. The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has the potential to demonstrate, by way of an inference- and science-based analysis, the causal relationship between chemical exposures, epigenome, and adverse health outcomes...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Ma'n H Zawati, Anne Marie Tassé, Maimuna Mendy, Elodie Caboux, Michael Lang
As biobanking research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continues to grow, novel legal and policy considerations have arisen. Also, while an expansive literature has developed around these issues, the views and concerns of individual researchers in these contexts have been less actively studied. These meeting notes aim to contribute to the growing literature on biobanking in LMICs by communicating a number of challenges and opportunities identified by biobank researchers themselves. Specifically, we describe concerns that emerge in consent and access policy domains...
April 18, 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Jane Null Kogan, Philip Empey, Justin Kanter, Donna J Keyser, William H Shrank
A long-held assumption and expectation has been that genomics-based precision medicine will provide clinicians with the tools and therapies they need to consistently deliver the right treatment to the right patient while simultaneously reducing waste and yielding cost savings for health systems. The pace of discovery within the field of precision medicine has been remarkable, yet optimal uptake of new genetic tests and genetically targeted therapies will occur only if payers recognize their value and opt to cover them...
April 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Hui Wang, Qianwang Chen, Shuiqin Zhou
Nanosized crosslinked polymer networks, named as nanogels, are playing an increasingly important role in a diverse range of applications by virtue of their porous structures, large surface area, good biocompatibility and responsiveness to internal and/or external chemico-physical stimuli. Recently, a variety of carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon quantum dots, graphene/graphene oxide nanosheets, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and nanodiamonds, have been embedded into responsive polymer nanogels, in order to integrate the unique electro-optical properties of carbon nanomaterials with the merits of nanogels into a single hybrid nanogel system for improvement of their applications in nanomedicine...
April 18, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Doo Seok Jeong, Cheol Seong Hwang
Recent progress in deep learning extends the capability of artificial intelligence to various practical tasks, making the deep neural network (DNN) an extremely versatile hypothesis. While such DNN is virtually built on contemporary data centers of the von Neumann architecture, physical (in part) DNN of non-von Neumann architecture, also known as neuromorphic computing, can remarkably improve learning and inference efficiency. Particularly, resistance-based nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) highlights its handy and efficient application to the multiply-accumulate (MAC) operation in an analog manner...
April 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
James S Magnuson, Daniel Mirman, Sahil Luthra, Ted Strauss, Harlan D Harris
Human perception, cognition, and action requires fast integration of bottom-up signals with top-down knowledge and context. A key theoretical perspective in cognitive science is the interactive activation hypothesis: forward and backward flow in bidirectionally connected neural networks allows humans and other biological systems to approximate optimal integration of bottom-up and top-down information under real-world constraints. An alternative view is that online feedback is neither necessary nor helpful; purely feed forward alternatives can be constructed for any feedback system, and online feedback could not improve processing and would preclude veridical perception...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
M M Sellberg, P Ryan, S T Borgström, A V Norström, G D Peterson
Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Mohammad Gheibi, Mohsen Karrabi, Ali Mohammadi, Azin Dadvar
SOAR is a strategic planning framework that helps organizations focus on their current strengths and opportunities, and create a vision of future aspirations and the result they will bring. PESTLE is an analytical framework for understanding external influences on a business. This research paper describes a field study and interview of city hall managers from the city of Mashhad, Iran conducted to investigate the application of SOAR and PESTLE frameworks for managing Mashhad's air pollution. Strategies are prioritized by technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), Shannon entropy (SE), and analytic network process (ANP) multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods considering economic conditions, managers' opinions, consensus, city council approvals and national documents...
April 16, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Christin Wittfoth, Steffen Harzsch
Persistent neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway characterizes many reptant decapods such as lobsters, crayfish and crabs. In these animals, the deutocerebral proliferative system generates new neurons which integrate into the neuronal network of the first order processing neuropil of the olfactory system, the deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (also called olfactory lobes). However, differences concerning the phenotype and the mechanisms that drive adult neurogenesis were reported in crayfish versus spiny lobsters...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Sang Kyu Park, Jin Hong Kim, Soo Young Park
2D organic semiconductor crystals are emerging as a fascinating platform with regard to their applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), attributed to their enhanced charge transport efficiency and their new optoelectronic functions, based on their unique morphological features. Advances in material processing techniques have not only enabled easy fabrication of few-monolayered 2D nanostructures but also facilitated exploration of the interesting properties induced by characteristic 2D morphologies...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
Filomena A Carvalho, Ana Filipa Guedes, Cedric Duval, Fraser L Macrae, Luke Swithenbank, David H Farrell, Robert As Ariëns, Nuno C Santos
Background: Erythrocyte aggregation, a cardiovascular risk factor, is increased by high plasma fibrinogen levels. Here, the effect of different fibrinogen mutations on binding to its human erythrocyte receptor was assessed in order to identify the interaction sites. Methods: Three fibrinogen variants were tested, specifically mutated in their putative integrin recognition sites on the Aα chain (mutants D97E, D574E and D97E/D574E) and compared with wild-type fibrinogen...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Raúl García-Calvo, J L Guisado, Fernando Diaz-Del-Rio, Antonio Córdoba, Francisco Jiménez-Morales
Understanding the regulation of gene expression is one of the key problems in current biology. A promising method for that purpose is the determination of the temporal dynamics between known initial and ending network states, by using simple acting rules. The huge amount of rule combinations and the nonlinear inherent nature of the problem make genetic algorithms an excellent candidate for finding optimal solutions. As this is a computationally intensive problem that needs long runtimes in conventional architectures for realistic network sizes, it is fundamental to accelerate this task...
2018: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Alexandra Sebastian, Birte U Forstmann, Dora Matzke
Our understanding of the neural correlates of response inhibition has greatly advanced over the last decade. Nevertheless the specific function of regions within this stopping network remains controversial. The traditional neuroimaging approach cannot capture many processes affecting stopping performance. Despite the shortcomings of the traditional neuroimaging approach and a great progress in mathematical and computational models of stopping, model-based cognitive neuroscience approaches in human neuroimaging studies are largely lacking...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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