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Simulation medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527474/fifteen-years-of-experience-from-a-medical-school-clinical-skills-laboratory
#1
José Miguel Pêgo, João José Cerqueira, João Bessa, Vitor Hugo Pereira, Sara Gomes, José Mariz, Rita Sousa, Pedro Morgado, Nuno Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Medical Education has evolved being defined as a continuum of the medical training from the pre- to the post-graduate period and through a lifetime of medical practice that is mirrored in the competencies framework that several international institutions have established. This creates a challenge to educational institutions (pre- and post-graduate) that traditionally take separate pathways. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present report is a description of the efforts carried by the School of Medicine of the University of Minho to implement a strategy of teaching/learning methods that follows modern standards towards constructive alignment of the medical curriculum, from the pre- to the post-graduate...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525957/determining-dominant-driving-forces-affecting-controlled-protein-release-from-polymeric-nanoparticles
#2
Josh Smith, Kayla G Sprenger, Rick Liao, Andrea Joseph, Elizabeth Nance, Jim Pfaendtner
Enzymes play a critical role in many applications in biology and medicine as potential therapeutics. One specific area of interest is enzyme encapsulation in polymer nanostructures, which have applications in drug delivery and catalysis. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms governing protein/polymer interactions is crucial for optimizing the performance of these complex systems for different applications. Using a combined computational and experimental approach, this study aims to quantify the relative importance of molecular and mesoscale driving forces to protein release from polymeric nanoparticles...
May 19, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524556/the-larmor-frequency-shift-in-magnetically-heterogeneous-media-depends-on-their-mesoscopic-structure
#3
Alexander Ruh, Harald Scherer, Valerij G Kiselev
PURPOSE: Recent studies have addressed the determination of the NMR precession frequency in biological tissues containing magnetic susceptibility differences between cell types. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dependence of the precession frequency on medium microstructure using a simple physical model. THEORY: This dependence is governed by diffusion of NMR-visible molecules in magnetically heterogeneous microenvironments. In the limit of fast diffusion, the precession frequency is determined by the average susceptibility-induced magnetic field, whereas in the limit of slow diffusion it is determined by the average local phase factor of precessing spins...
May 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523827/statistical-model-based-hplc-analytical-method-adjustment-strategy-to-adapt-to-different-sets-of-analytes-in-complicated-samples
#4
Binjun Yan, Xue Bai, Yunjie Sheng, Fanzhu Li
INTRODUCTION: On account of the complicated compositions of the products like traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and functional foods, it is a common practice to determine different sets of analytes in the same product for different purposes. OBJECTIVE: To efficiently develop the corresponding HPLC methods, a statistical model based analytical method adjustment (SMB-AMA) strategy was proposed. METHODS: In this strategy, the HPLC data acquired with design of experiments methodology were efficiently utilised to build the retention models for all the analytes and interferences shown in the chromatograms with multivariate statistical modelling methods...
May 19, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523139/an-overview-of-the-use-of-artificial-neural-networks-in-lung-cancer-research
#5
EDITORIAL
Luca Bertolaccini, Piergiorgio Solli, Alessandro Pardolesi, Antonello Pasini
The artificial neural networks (ANNs) are statistical models where the mathematical structure reproduces the biological organisation of neural cells simulating the learning dynamics of the brain. Although definitions of the term ANN could vary, the term usually refers to a neural network used for non-linear statistical data modelling. The neural models applied today in various fields of medicine, such as oncology, do not aim to be biologically realistic in detail but just efficient models for nonlinear regression or classification...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521373/paediatric-medicines-regulatory-and-scientific-issues
#6
Chrysa Daousani, Vangelis D Karalis
In the past, dosage regimens authorized for adults were extrapolated to children relying mainly on empirical dosage adjustments. However, children are not small adults, but a distinct and heterogeneous group in terms of physiology, disease occurrence, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and also psychological, cognitive, and behavioral aspects. Even though it would be helpful to know the physiological changes and the special drug treatment needs in children, this task could not be performed due to ethical reasons...
May 18, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520105/large-scale-computational-models-of-liver-metabolism-how-far-from-the-clinics
#7
REVIEW
Tanja Cvitanović, Matthias C Reichert, Miha Moškon, Miha Mraz, Frank Lammert, Damjana Rozman
Understanding the dynamics of human liver metabolism is fundamental for effective diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases in general and the metabolism of drugs in particular. This knowledge can be obtained with systems biology/medicine approaches that account for the complexity of hepatic responses and their systemic consequences in other organs. Computational modelling can reveal hidden principles of the system by classification of individual components, analysing their interactions and simulating the effects that are difficult to investigate experimentally...
May 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515841/demands-of-simulated-commuting-using-an-electrically-assisted-bicycle
#8
D Taylor LA Salle, Robert Shute, Matthew Heesch, Dustin Slivka
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends adults participate in weekly aerobic activity for a minimum of 30 minutes moderate intensity exercise 5 days per week or 20 minutes of vigorous activity 3 days per week. The electrically assisted bicycle may help individuals achieve the ACSM's aerobic recommendations and introduce inactive individuals to physical activity. To compare the physiological requirements of riding a bicycle with electric pedal assist versus non-assist among healthy active young adults...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511730/simulation-in-canadian-postgraduate-emergency-medicine-training-a-national-survey
#9
Evan Russell, Andrew Koch Hall, Carly Hagel, Andrew Petrosoniak, Jeffrey Damon Dagnone, Daniel Howes
OBJECTIVES: Simulation-based education (SBE) is an important training strategy in emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate programs. This study sought to characterize the use of simulation in FRCPC-EM residency programs across Canada. METHODS: A national survey was administered to residents and knowledgeable program representatives (PRs) at all Canadian FRCPC-EM programs. Survey question themes included simulation program characteristics, the frequency of resident participation, the location and administration of SBE, institutional barriers, interprofessional involvement, content, assessment strategies, and attitudes about SBE...
May 17, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510452/rational-optimization-of-mechanism-based-inhibitors-through-determination-of-the-microscopic-rate-constants-of-inactivation
#10
Carter G Eiden, Kimberly M Maize, Barry C Finzel, John D Lipscomb, Courtney C Aldrich
Mechanism-based inhibitors (MBIs) are widely employed in chemistry, biology, and medicine because of their exquisite specificity and sustained duration of inhibition. Optimization of MBIs is complicated because of time-dependent inhibition resulting from multistep inactivation mechanisms. The global kinetic parameters kinact and KI have been used to characterize MBIs, but they provide far less information than is commonly assumed, as shown by derivation and simulation of these parameters. We illustrate an alternative and more rigorous approach for MBI characterization through determination of the individual microscopic rate constants...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507234/modelling-far-field-pacing-for-terminating-spiral-waves-pinned-to-ischaemic-heterogeneities-in-cardiac-tissue
#11
E Boccia, S Luther, U Parlitz
In cardiac tissue, electrical spiral waves pinned to a heterogeneity can be unpinned (and eventually terminated) using electric far field pulses and recruiting the heterogeneity as a virtual electrode. While for isotropic media the process of unpinning is much better understood, the case of an anisotropic substrate with different conductivities in different directions still needs intensive investigation. To study the impact of anisotropy on the unpinning process, we present numerical simulations based on the bidomain formulation of the phase I of the Luo and Rudy action potential model modified due to the occurrence of acute myocardial ischaemia...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507230/computational-design-of-treatment-strategies-for-proactive-therapy-on-atopic-dermatitis-using-optimal-control-theory
#12
Panayiotis Christodoulides, Yoshito Hirata, Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Simon G Danby, Michael J Cork, Hywel C Williams, Kazuyuki Aihara, Reiko J Tanaka
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disease characterized by recurrent skin inflammation and a weak skin barrier, and is known to be a precursor to other allergic diseases such as asthma. AD affects up to 25% of children worldwide and the incidence continues to rise. There is still uncertainty about the optimal treatment strategy in terms of choice of treatment, potency, duration and frequency. This study aims to develop a computational method to design optimal treatment strategies for the clinically recommended 'proactive therapy' for AD...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507229/spread-of-competing-viruses-on-heterogeneous-networks
#13
Shanshan Chen, Kaihua Wang, Mengfeng Sun, Xinchu Fu
In this paper, we propose a model where two strains compete with each other at the expense of common susceptible individuals on heterogeneous networks by using pair-wise approximation closed by the probability-generating function (PGF). All of the strains obey the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) mechanism. From a special perspective, we first study the dynamical behaviour of an SIR model closed by the PGF, and obtain the basic reproduction number via two methods. Then we build a model to study the spreading dynamics of competing viruses and discuss the conditions for the local stability of equilibria, which is different from the condition obtained by using the heterogeneous mean-field approach...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504508/-mistakes-in-drug-prescription-during-simulated-pediatric-resuscitations-and-other-urgency-procedures
#14
Diego Enriquez, Raúl Gómez Traverso, Silvina Brizuela, Edgardo Szyld
INTRODUCTION: The probability of making mistakes in the prescription of medicines is high in pediatrics, and substantially increases in emergency situations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective observational study analyzed the prescriptions issued by physicians during 23 cardiopulmonary resuscitation pediatric emergency training sessions. RESULTS: During 94 simulated cases, 96 physicians participated. Forty-four prescriptions on paper were analyzed (48%) including 120 doses...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504360/oxygen-extraction-fraction-mapping-at-3-tesla-using-an-artificial-neural-network-a-feasibility-study
#15
Sebastian Domsch, Bettina Mürle, Sebastian Weingärtner, Jascha Zapp, Frederik Wenz, Lothar R Schad
PURPOSE: The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is an important biomarker for tissue-viability. MRI enables noninvasive estimation of the OEF based on the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) effect. Quantitative OEF-mapping is commonly applied using least-squares regression (LSR) to an analytical tissue model. However, the LSR method has not yet become clinically established due to the necessity for long acquisition times. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) recently have received increasing interest for robust curve-fitting and might pose an alternative to the conventional LSR method for reduced acquisition times...
May 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503225/self-reported-and-actual-involvement-of-community-pharmacists-in-patient-counseling-a-cross-sectional-and-simulated-patient-study-in-gondar-ethiopia
#16
Abdrrahman S Surur, Eyob Getachew, Ebsa Teressa, Bisrat Hailemeskel, Nurahmed S Getaw, Daniel A Erku
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists play a crucial role in reducing medication related health problems and improving the patient's overall wellbeing. Evidence suggests that community pharmacist led counseling services result in a better clinical and self-reported outcome, including a higher level of satisfaction and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to document self-reported and actual levels of community pharmacists' involvement in the provision of patient counseling and barriers that limit their involvement in such services...
January 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503221/management-of-musculoskeletal-pain-in-retail-drug-outlets-within-a-nigerian-community-a-descriptive-study
#17
Samirah N Abdu-Aguye, Aishatu Shehu, Ubaidullah I Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to describe attitudes and practices of both community pharmacies and patent and proprietary medicine vendor (PPMV) outlets towards over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic use for musculoskeletal pain states within Zaria, Nigeria. METHODS: The study was carried out in 2 phases from May to August 2016. Phase one was a cross-sectional survey of 40 retail drug outlets (10 community pharmacies and 30 PPMVs). A simulated patient scenario of a young adult male complaining of acute onset back pain was used to collect data on the type and quality of analgesic recommended, duration of consultation, as well as nature of information provided during the drug dispensing process...
January 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500759/a-monte-carlo-model-for-mean-glandular-dose-evaluation-in-spot-compression-mammography
#18
Antonio Sarno, David R Dance, Ruben E van Engen, Kenneth C Young, Paolo Russo, Francesca Di Lillo, Giovanni Mettivier, Kristina Bliznakova, Baowei Fei, Ioannis Sechopoulos
PURPOSE: To characterize the dependence of normalized glandular dose (DgN) on various breast model and image acquisition parameters during spot compression mammography and other partial breast irradiation conditions, and evaluate alternative previously-proposed dose-related metrics for this breast imaging modality. METHODS: Using Monte Carlo simulations with both simple homogeneous breast models and patient-specific breasts, three different dose related metrics for spot compression mammography were compared: the standard DgN, the normalized glandular dose to only the directly irradiated portion of the breast (DgNv), and the DgN obtained by the product of the DgN for full field irradiation and the ratio of the mid-height area of the irradiated breast to the entire breast area (DgNM )...
May 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497493/natural-and-synthetic-flavonoids-as-potent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ugm-inhibitors
#19
Stephane Vincent, Sydney Villaume, Jian Fu, Inès N'Go, Huayong Lou, Hui Liang, Laurent Kremer, Weidong Pan
This study reports a novel class of inhibitors of UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) derived from a screening of natural products. This enzyme is an essential biocatalyst involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Flavonoids were found to be potent inhibitors of UGM. The synthesis of novel methylated flavonoids allowed to perform a structure-activity relationship analysis and to determine which functional groups and structural elements are required for UGM inhibition.The binding mode of one of the best inhibitor was found to be non-competitive...
May 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497465/designing-3d-selective-adiabatic-radiofrequency-pulses-with-single-and-parallel-transmission
#20
Albert Jang, Xiaoping Wu, Edward J Auerbach, Michael Garwood
PURPOSE: To introduce a method of designing single and parallel transmit (pTx) 3D adiabatic π pulses for inverting and refocusing spins that are insensitive to transmit B1 ( B1+) inhomogeneity. THEORY AND METHODS: A 3D adiabatic pulse is created by replacing each piece-wise constant element (or sub-pulse) of an adiabatic full passage (AFP) by a 2D selective pulse. In this study, the parent AFP is an HS1 and each sub-pulse is a 2D pulse derived from a jinc function designed using a spiral k-trajectory...
May 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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