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Creating normative data

Grant M Walker, Gregory Hickok, Julius Fridriksson
Picture naming impairments are a typical feature of stroke-induced aphasia. Overall accuracy and rates of different error types are used to make inferences about the severity and nature of damage to the brain's language network. Currently available assessment tools for picture naming accuracy treat it as a unidimensional measure, while assessment tools for error types treat items homogenously, contrary to findings from psycholinguistic investigations of word production. We created and tested a new cognitive psychometric model for assessment of picture naming responses, using cognitive theory to specify latent processing decisions during the production of a naming attempt, and using item response theory to separate the effects of item difficulty and participant ability on these internal processing decisions...
March 19, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Piray Atsak, Maria Morena, Chantal Schoenmaker, Emma Tabak, Charlotte A Oomen, Sara Jamil, Matthew N Hill, Benno Roozendaal
Early-life stress (ELS) creates life-long vulnerability to stress-related anxiety disorders through altering stress and fear systems in the brain. The endocannabinoid system has emerged as an important regulator of the stress response through a crosstalk with the glucocorticoid system, yet whether it plays a role in the persistent effects of ELS remains unanswered. By combining, behavioral, pharmacological and biochemical approaches in adult male rats, we examined the impact of ELS on the regulation of endocannabinoid function by stress and glucocorticoids...
February 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Corine Mouton Dorey, Holger Baumann, Nikola Biller-Andorno
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in aggregating more biomedical and patient data into large health data sets for research and public benefits. However, collecting and processing patient data raises new ethical issues regarding patient's rights, social justice and trust in public institutions. The aim of this empirical study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the awareness of possible ethical risks and corresponding obligations among those who are involved in projects using patient data, i...
March 7, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Angela Sanabria, Montserrat Alegret, Octavio Rodriguez-Gomez, Sergi Valero, Oscar Sotolongo-Grau, Gemma Monté-Rubio, Carla Abdelnour, Ana Espinosa, Gemma Ortega, Alba Perez-Cordon, Anna Gailhajanet, Isabel Hernandez, Maitee Rosende-Roca, Liliana Vargas, Ana Mauleon, Domingo Sanchez, Elvira Martin, Dorene M Rentz, Francisco Lomeña, Agustin Ruiz, Lluis Tarraga, Merce Boada
The Face-Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME) is a paired associative memory test created to detect memory deficits in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Worse performance on FNAME in cognitively healthy individuals were found related to higher amyloid beta (Aβ) burden measured with Positron-Emission-Tomography using11 C-PiB (PiB-PET). We previously reported normative data of a Spanish version of FNAME (S-FNAME) in cognitively healthy Spanish-speaking subjects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether performance on S-FNAME was associated with Aβ burden in subjective cognitive decline (SCD) individuals...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Erin K Stenson, Rajesh Punn, Musaab Ramsi, Saraswati Kache
OBJECTIVES: The ability to plot the inferior vena cava (IVC) size on a normal curve for pediatric patients may prove beneficial. First, in patients with normal cardiac anatomy who present in shock, assessing IVC size may be valuable for evaluating the degree of dehydration. Second, in children with heart disease, understanding how a child's IVC size compares to normal could be particularly beneficial for patients with right heart disease. We sought to create normal curves for the IVC and aorta in children younger than 6 years...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Sidney Ruth Schuler, Sohela Nazneen
Studies addressing the relationship between women's empowerment and intimate partner violence (IPV) have yielded conflicting findings. Some suggest that women's economic and social empowerment is associated with an increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), arguably because men use often IPV to enforce their dominance and reassert inegalitarian gender norms when patriarchal norms are challenged; other studies suggest the converse. It is important to understand why these findings are contradictory to create a more sound basis for designing both women's empowerment interventions and anti-violence interventions...
January 2018: World Development
Anne E Hogan, Jonathan H Spindel, Lincoln C Gray
PURPOSE: Vestibular rehabilitation exercises have been proven to reduce symptoms and diminish the risk of falls in those with dizziness and balance impairments. The first purpose of this study is to investigate a new method of measuring head movements during habituation vestibular rehabilitation exercises. The second is to explore the relationship between head acceleration measurements during select traditional vestibular rehabilitation exercises and the variables of age, dizziness, and poor balance confidence...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Michael P Whyte, Kenji P Fujita, Scott Moseley, David D Thompson, William H McAlister
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the heritable metabolic disease characterized by impaired skeletal mineralization due to low activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase. Although HPP during growth often manifests with distinctive radiographic skeletal features, no validated method was available to quantify them, including changes over time. We created the Radiographic Global Impression of Change (RGI-C) scale to assess changes in the skeletal burden of pediatric HPP. Site-specific pairs of radiographs of newborns, infants, and children with HPP from 3 clinical studies of asfotase alfa, an enzyme replacement therapy for HPP, were obtained at Baseline and during treatment...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Ben Mostyn, Helen Gibbon
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs 1988 ("1988 Convention") expresses a strong normative preference for criminalising drug possession. Historically, the United Nations offices responsible for overseeing the treaties have held that decriminalisation of drug possession is contrary to the treaties. Leading up to and during UNGASS 2016, however, rather than emphasise criminalisation, the high-ranking officials from the drug control offices emphasised the treaties' allowance of alternatives to punishment for drug possession offences...
December 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sandra Weintraub, Lilah Besser, Hiroko H Dodge, Merilee Teylan, Steven Ferris, Felicia C Goldstein, Bruno Giordani, Joel Kramer, David Loewenstein, Dan Marson, Dan Mungas, David Salmon, Kathleen Welsh-Bohmer, Xiao-Hua Zhou, Steven D Shirk, Alireza Atri, Walter A Kukull, Creighton Phelps, John C Morris
INTRODUCTION: The neuropsychological battery of the Uniform Data Set (UDSNB) was implemented in 2005 by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) Alzheimer Disease Centers program to measure cognitive performance in dementia and mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer Disease. This paper describes a revision, the UDSNB 3.0. METHODS: The Neuropsychology Work Group of the NIA Clinical Task Force recommended revisions through a process of due diligence to address shortcomings of the original battery...
December 13, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Ana-Maria Olteţeanu, Holger Schultheis, Jonathan B Dyer
The Remote Associates Test (RAT) has been used to measure creativity, however few repositories or standardizations of test items exist, like the normative data on 144 items provided by Bowden and Jung-Beeman. comRAT is a computational solver which has been used to solve the compound RAT in linguistic and visual forms, showing correlation to human performance over the normative data provided by Bowden and Jung-Beeman. This paper describes using a variant of comRAT, comRAT-G, to generate and construct a repository of compound RAT items for use in the cognitive psychology and cognitive modeling community...
December 12, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Tanya Glozman, Lisa Bruckert, Franco Pestilli, Derek W Yecies, Leonidas J Guibas, Kristen W Yeom
Diffusion imaging coupled with tractography algorithms allows researchers to image human white matter fiber bundles in-vivo. These bundles are three-dimensional structures with shapes that change over time during the course of development as well as in pathologic states. While most studies on white matter variability focus on analysis of tissue properties estimated from the diffusion data, e.g. fractional anisotropy, the shape variability of white matter fiber bundle is much less explored. In this paper, we present a set of tools for shape analysis of white matter fiber bundles, namely: (1) a concise geometric model of bundle shapes; (2) a method for bundle registration between subjects; (3) a method for deformation estimation...
December 2, 2017: NeuroImage
James R Hall, Valerie Hobson Balldin, Adriana Gamboa, Melissa L Edwards, Leigh A Johnson, Sid E O'Bryant
The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is an assessment of neuropsychological functioning commonly used in clinical and research settings. To our knowledge, normative data for the RBANS is not available for Hispanic, Mexican Americans, which the current study sought to establish. Data from 136 Hispanic, Mexican Americans from Project FRONTIER were analyzed. Approximately half of the sample was administered testing in Spanish. Normative tables were created for English and Spanish speaking Mexican Americans...
January 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Brandy L Simula
This study examines how BDSM participants understand sexual experiences. Data are drawn from 32 in-depth, semistructured interviews and discussion-board threads from a large BDSM community Web site. The analysis suggests that many BDSM participants perceive sexual BDSM experiences as not only significantly different from but also better than mainstream or "vanilla" sex. Three primary differentiation mechanisms are identified. First, BDSM participants constructed sex as requiring genital contact, while framing sexual BDSM as creating sexual fulfillment not requiring normative indicators of sexual experiences (e...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
Catharina Melander, Stefan Sävenstedt, Britt-Marie Wälivaara, Malin Olsson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore how Martha Nussbaum's approach to human capabilities can apply to dignity in the lives of people with advanced dementia living in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Challenges experienced when supporting people with advanced dementia who express problematic behaviours include understanding their needs and ensuring a dignified life for them. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were gathered using an ethnographic approach based on participatory observation...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
A McAllister, J Leach, H West, B Jones, B Zhang, S Serai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Synthetic MR imaging is a new technique to create absolute R1 relaxivity (1/T1), R2 relaxivity (1/T2), and proton-density maps using a single multiple-spin-echo saturation recovery sequence. These relaxivity maps allow rapid automated intracranial segmentation of tissue types. To assess its utility in children, we created a normative data base of intracranial volume and brain parenchymal, GM, WM, CSF, and myelin volumes in a pediatric population with normal brain MRI findings using synthetic MR imaging...
October 5, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Gregory David Scott, Susan K Atwater, Dita A Gratzinger
AIMS: To create clinically relevant normative flow cytometry data for understudied benign lymph nodes and characterise outliers. METHODS: Clinical, histological and flow cytometry data were collected and distributions summarised for 380 benign lymph node excisional biopsies. Outliers for kappa:lambda light chain ratio, CD10:CD19 coexpression, CD5:CD19 coexpression, CD4:CD8 ratios and CD7 loss were summarised for histological pattern, concomitant diseases and follow-up course...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Benjamin Sheredos, William Bechtel
In many fields of biology, both the phenomena to be explained and the mechanisms proposed to explain them are commonly presented in diagrams. Our interest is in how scientists construct such diagrams. Researchers begin with evidence, typically developed experimentally and presented in data graphs. To arrive at a robust diagram of the phenomenon or the mechanism, they must integrate a variety of data to construct a single, coherent representation. This process often begins as the researchers create a first sketch, and it continues over an extended period as they revise the sketch until they arrive at a diagram they find acceptable...
September 15, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
Katie M Litts, Robert F Cooper, Jacque L Duncan, Joseph Carroll
Improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying inherited retinal degenerations has created the possibility of developing much needed treatments for these relentless, blinding diseases. However, standard clinical indicators of retinal health (such as visual acuity and visual field sensitivity) are insensitive measures of photoreceptor survival. In many retinal degenerations, significant photoreceptor loss must occur before measurable differences in visual function are observed. Thus, there is a recognized need for more sensitive outcome measures to assess therapeutic efficacy as numerous clinical trials are getting underway...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jeffrey N Wherry, Catherine E Dunlop
Clinical norms were developed for two screening tools recently developed by Briere and published by Psychological Assessment Resources. The screening measures were derived from the most predictive items of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC). Both screening measures (TSCC-Screening Form and TSCYC-Screening Form) have a total of 20 items measuring general trauma (12 items) and sexual concerns (8 items). Briere and Wherry report on the reliability and validity of the instrument when used with a normative group of children who are not identified as abused...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
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