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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574508/propionate-ameliorates-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-by-improving-intestinal-barrier-function-and-reducing-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Ling-Chang Tong, Yue Wang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Wei-Ye Liu, Sheng Sun, Ling Li, Ding-Feng Su, Li-Chao Zhang
Propionate is a short chain fatty acid that is abundant as butyrate in the gut and blood. However, propionate has not been studied as extensively as butyrate in the treatment of colitis. The present study was to investigate the effects of sodium propionate on intestinal barrier function, inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Animals in DSS group received drinking water from 1 to 6 days and DSS [3% (w/v) dissolved in double distilled water] instead of drinking water from 7 to 14 days...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24848661/medicalization-of-global-health-3-the-medicalization-of-the-non-communicable-diseases-agenda
#2
Jocalyn Clark
There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition 'diseases' so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach...
2014: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24370343/parent-health-literacy-and-obesogenic-feeding-and-physical-activity-related-infant-care-behaviors
#3
H Shonna Yin, Lee M Sanders, Russell L Rothman, Rachel Shustak, Svetlana K Eden, Ayumi Shintani, Maria E Cerra, Evelyn F Cruzatte, Eliana M Perrin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between parent health literacy and "obesogenic" infant care behaviors. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based early childhood obesity prevention program (Greenlight). English- and Spanish-speaking parents of 2-month-old children were enrolled (n = 844). The primary predictor variable was parent health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults; adequate ≥ 23; low <23)...
March 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24178477/taurine-depletion-increases-phosphorylation-of-a-specific-protein-in-the-rat-retina
#4
J B Lombardini, R S Young, C L Props
Partial depletion of the taurine content in the rat retina was accomplished for up to 22 weeks by introduction of 1.5% guanidinoethanesulfonate (GES) in the drinking water. Taurine levels decreased by 50% after 1 week of GES treatment and by 80% at 16 weeks. Replacement of GES by taurine to the GES-treated rats from week 16 to 22 returned their taurine content to the control value. Whereas addition of taurine (1.5%) to the drinking water of control rats from week 16 to 22 elevated the retinal taurine content to 118% of the control value, the administration of untreated water to GES-treated animals for the 16 to 22 week time period increased the retinal taurine content to only 76% of the control value...
June 1996: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17723731/montmorillonite-as-an-adsorbent-for-extraction-and-concentration-of-atrazine-propazine-deethylatrazine-deisopropylatrazine-and-hydroxyatrazine
#5
Lílian Zarpon, Gilberto Abate, Luciana B O dos Santos, Jorge C Masini
Adsorption properties of the clay mineral montmorillonite in the potassium homoionic form (KMT) was investigated to achieve the extraction and concentration of the herbicides atrazine (AT) and propazine (PROP), as well as the main degradation products of atrazine, namely deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and hydroxyatrazine (ATOH). A batch approach was proposed, with recovery percentages for AT, PROP and DIA higher than 90% at concentrations of 0.50 and 2.50 microg L(-1). For DEA and ATOH, however, low recoveries were obtained...
October 2, 2006: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17250611/functional-variants-in-tas2r38-and-tas2r16-influence-alcohol-consumption-in-high-risk-families-of-african-american-origin
#6
Jen C Wang, Anthony L Hinrichs, Sarah Bertelsen, Heather Stock, John P Budde, Danielle M Dick, Kathleen K Bucholz, John Rice, Nancy Saccone, Howard J Edenberg, Victor Hesselbrock, Samuel Kuperman, Marc A Schuckit, Laura J Bierut, Alison M Goate
BACKGROUND: A novel family of G protein-coupled receptors, TAS2Rs, has recently been characterized and linked to sensitivity to bitter taste compounds. We have previously reported that a missense mutation in the TAS2R16 gene reduces the sensitivity of the receptor to bitter-taste stimuli and that it is associated with risk for alcohol dependence. Other family-based studies on the genetic transmittance of taste perception have previously demonstrated a correlation between genetic variation in TAS2R38 and sensitivity to bitter-taste compounds such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP)...
February 2007: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16733061/individual-differences-in-oral-thermosensation
#7
Suzanna Manrique, David H Zald
Although oral thermosensation is critical to the perception of food and drinks, little information is available on the organization of individual differences in these abilities. We examined the relationship between measures of cooling and warming on the tongue and lip and the association of these measures to taste sensitivity in a sample of 76 healthy subjects. Thermal abilities were assessed with a computer-controlled, 1.5 cm2 peltier plate that was placed on the anterior dorsal surface of the tongue or the lower lip...
July 30, 2006: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16631856/treatability-of-chloro-s-triazines-by-conventional-drinking-water-treatment-technologies
#8
H Jiang, C Adams
Recent research shows that herbicide atrazine (ATZ), simazine (SIM), and propazine (PROP), as well as their three chlorinated degrades-desethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and didealkylatrazine (DDA)-may cause a common toxic effect in terms of endocrine disruption. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently considering a regulatory trigger based on the sum of these concentrations of these six chloro-s-triazines. While limited removal data exists for the parent compounds, little information is available for the degrades formed biologically and/or chemically in the environment and in the treatment plants...
May 2006: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16143745/use-of-cigarettes-and-alcohol-by-preschoolers-while-role-playing-as-adults-honey-have-some-smokes
#9
Madeline A Dalton, Amy M Bernhardt, Jennifer J Gibson, James D Sargent, Michael L Beach, Anna M Adachi-Mejia, Linda T Titus-Ernstoff, Todd F Heatherton
OBJECTIVE: To examine preschoolers' attitudes, expectations, and perceptions of tobacco and alcohol use. DESIGN: Structured observational study. Children used props and dolls to act out a social evening for adults. As part of the role play, each child selected items from a miniature grocery store stocked with 73 different products, including beer, wine, and cigarettes, for an evening with friends. SETTING: A behavioral laboratory at the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College...
September 2005: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15745653/portrayals-of-food-practices-and-exercise-behavior-in-popular-american-films
#10
Robert A Bell, Charles R Berger, Diana Cassady, Marilyn S Townsend
OBJECTIVE: To describe depictions of food, alcohol, and exercise and sport in popular films. DESIGN: Content analysis of the 10 top-grossing films each year from 1991 to 2000 (N = 100 films). ANALYSIS: Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa. Research questions were addressed with basic descriptive statistics. Associations among variables were examined through a cross-tabulation procedure that corrects for the clustering of exercise and food depictions within movies...
January 2005: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15639168/sweet-and-bitter-tastes-of-alcoholic-beverages-mediate-alcohol-intake-in-of-age-undergraduates
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sarah A Lanier, John E Hayes, Valerie B Duffy
Alcoholic beverages are complex stimuli, giving rise to sensations that promote or inhibit intake. Previous research has shown associations between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness, one marker of genetic variation in taste, and alcohol behaviors. We tested the PROP bitterness and alcohol intake relationship as mediated by tastes of sampled alcoholic beverages. Forty-nine undergraduates (mean age=22 years) participated. According to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), only 3 of 49 subjects reported patterns indicating problematic drinking...
January 17, 2005: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15547448/bitter-receptor-gene-tas2r38-6-n-propylthiouracil-prop-bitterness-and-alcohol-intake
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Valerie B Duffy, Andrew C Davidson, Judith R Kidd, Kenneth K Kidd, William C Speed, Andrew J Pakstis, Danielle R Reed, Derek J Snyder, Linda M Bartoshuk
BACKGROUND: Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), chemically related compounds, are probes for genetic variation in bitter taste, although PROP is safer with less sulfurous odor. Threshold for PROP distinguishes nontasters (increased threshold) from tasters (lower threshold); perceived intensity subdivides tasters into medium tasters (PROP is bitter) and supertasters (PROP is very bitter). Compared with supertasters, nontasters have fewer taste papillae on the anterior tongue (fungiform papillae) and experience less negative (e...
November 2004: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15319217/do-incremental-increases-in-blood-pressure-elicit-neointimal-plaques-through-endothelial-injury
#13
Ciro A Ruiz-Feria, Yimu Yang, Hiroko Nishimura
Fowl (males more than females) show maturation-dependent rises in blood pressure (BP) and formation of neointimal plaques (NPs), resembling balloon catheter injury-induced neointima, in the abdominal aorta (AbA) just above the bifurcation. The plaque comprises neointimal cells containing abundant endoplasmic reticulum and extracellular matrix. Hence, we investigated whether rapid incremental BP increases in male chicks trigger NP formation, possibly via endothelial injury in hemodynamically selective areas...
December 2004: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15276811/responses-of-prop-taster-groups-to-variations-in-sensory-qualities-within-foods-and-beverages
#14
J Prescott, J Soo, H Campbell, C Roberts
Despite increasing evidence that variations in sensitivity to the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) are also reflected in responses to other tastes in solution, there has been little research examining the impact of PROP sensitivity on responses to sensory qualities in foods or beverages. The present studies examined responses of PROP taster groups to systematic variations in tastes and oral irritation in different foods and beverages. In Experiment 1, PROP groups were asked to discriminate variations in bitterness, sweetness, or sourness within two foods (yogurt and cream cheese) and a beverage (orange juice)...
September 15, 2004: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15276808/associations-between-taste-genetics-oral-sensation-and-alcohol-intake
#15
Valerie B Duffy, Julie M Peterson, Linda M Bartoshuk
Alcohol produces a range of oral sensations, some of which have been shown to vary with the perceived bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), one marker for genetic variation in taste. Some studies report that offspring of alcoholics are most likely to be PROP nontasters [Physiol. Behav. 51 (1992) 1261; Physiol. Behav. 64 (1998) 147], yet others report the offspring as more responsive to sodium chloride (NaCl) and citric acid, which appears to contradict the taste genetic hypothesis. We predicted alcohol sensation and intake from measures of taste genetics (PROP bitterness and number of fungiform papilla), NaCl and citric acid intensity, and spatial taste pattern in 40 females and 43 males...
September 15, 2004: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15229328/inherited-taste-sensitivity-to-6-n-propylthiouracil-in-diet-and-body-weight-in-children
#16
Kathleen L Keller, Beverly J Tepper
OBJECTIVE: Negative associations between the inherited ability to taste the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and preference for fat and body weight have been observed in adults. This study tested the relationships among the ability to taste PROP, reported food intake, and body weight in young children. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Fifty-three 4- to 5-year-old children were classified as tasters (N = 35) or nontasters (N = 18) of PROP using a standard screening solution...
June 2004: Obesity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15054337/prop-taster-status-and-self-perceived-food-adventurousness-influence-food-preferences
#17
Natalia V Ullrich, Riva Touger-Decker, Julie O'sullivan-Maillet, Beverly J Tepper
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status and food adventurousness on liking of bitter, hot, and pungent foods. DESIGN: Self-reported survey of food likes/dislikes for 70 foods. Subjects were classified as tasters or nontasters of PROP using a standard screening procedure. By their response to a query regarding their perceived frequency of trying unfamiliar foods, subjects were characterized as being more or less adventurous...
April 2004: Journal of the American Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14627538/taste-sensitivities-to-prop-and-ptc-vary-independently-in-mice
#18
Theodore M Nelson, Steven D Munger, John D Boughter
Mammals use common mechanisms to detect, transduce and process taste stimulus information. For example, they share families of receptors that respond to amino acids, and sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli. Nonetheless, it also clear that different species exhibit unique taste sensitivities that may reflect specific genetic variations. In humans, sensitivities to the chemically similar, bitter-tasting compounds 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) are heritable and strongly correlated, suggesting a common genetic basis...
October 2003: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11571067/adverse-outcomes-of-alcohol-use-in-adolescents
#19
Y Bonomo, C Coffey, R Wolfe, M Lynskey, G Bowes, G Patton
AIMS: To compare the occurrence of behaviours occurring under the influence of alcohol in 16-17-year-olds and determine associated risk factors for the different behaviours. DESIGN/SETTING: Cross-sectional survey administered by laptop computers in secondary schools across the state of Victoria, Australia. MEASUREMENT/FINDINGS: The participation rate was 79%. Seventy per cent of participants drank alcohol; 17% of drinkers reported alcohol-related violence (accidents or injuries) and 15% reported problems relating to sex under the influence of alcohol (having sex and later regretting it or having had unsafe sex) in the previous 12 months...
October 2001: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11490690/proposition-65-in-the-dental-office
#20
REVIEW
T J Pichay, L J Seifert
In the mid-1990s, dentistry became included in enforcement activity for Proposition 65, the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. This year, 80 dental offices were served with 60-day notices for failing to post Prop. 65 warnings. The California Dental Association has been inundated with inquiries on what dental offices should be doing with regard to Prop. 65 requirements. This article provides a brief history of Prop. 65 and answers the questions most frequently asked of CDA.
July 2001: Journal of the California Dental Association
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