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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441790/eradicating-breast-cancer-longevity-impact-on-kuwaiti-women
#1
Muhammad Ali Al Ramadhan
Objective: To explore salient trends in incidence and mortality from breast cancer among Kuwaiti females and to quantify the number of years that could be saved if breast cancer deaths were eliminated. Methods: Appling life table technique, the paper constructs a bridged, multiple decrement and cancer-elimination life tables for Kuwaiti females. Data sources include Kuwait Cancer Control Center Registry along with vital statistics on mortality by age groups, nationality, and causes of death according to ICD-10 revision...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441324/designing-fit-for-purpose-health-and-social-services-for-ageing-populations
#2
Jean Woo
Population ageing is occurring in all countries, regardless of the level of economic development. While the rising burden of chronic diseases and disabilities as a consequence of this demographic transition is well recognized, the increasing prevalence of geriatric syndromes as a public health issue is not as well recognized. Recently the World Health Organization's World Health and Ageing Report emphasized functional ability as an important outcome for aging populations, highlighting the concept of raising intrinsic capacity throughout the life course...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441061/precisely-where-are-we-going-charting-the-new-terrain-of-precision-prevention
#3
Karen M Meagher, Michelle L McGowan, Richard A Settersten, Jennifer R Fishman, Eric T Juengst
In addition to genetic data, precision medicine research gathers information about three factors that modulate gene expression: lifestyles, environments, and communities. The relevant research tools-epidemiology, environmental assessment, and socioeconomic analysis-are those of public health sciences rather than molecular biology. Because these methods are designed to support inferences and interventions addressing population health, the aspirations of this research are expanding from individualized treatment toward precision prevention in public health...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440949/regulations-and-policies-regarding-e-cigarettes
#4
REVIEW
Leila F Barraza, Kim E Weidenaar, Livia T Cook, Andrea R Logue, Michael T Halpern
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a growing public health concern because of a dramatic increase in use by adolescents and the uncertainty of potential health impacts. These health concerns and lack of an established federal regulatory scheme have led many local and state governments to address the regulatory void for e-cigarettes by incorporating them into the statutory definition of tobacco or by passing laws specific to the use of e-cigarettes. In August 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule deeming e-cigarettes within their authority; providing uniform requirements like premarket approval applications, Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents reporting, and warning labels; and establishing 18 years as a minimum age of purchase...
April 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440676/attitudes-of-chinese-adults-to-breastfeeding-in-public-a-web-based-survey
#5
Ya Zhao, Yan-Qiong Ouyang, Sharon R Redding
OBJECTIVE: To explore Chinese adults' perceptions and attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a web-based survey including 10 items on breastfeeding participants (N = 2,021) who were recruited by convenience sampling. RESULTS: Almost 95% believed that public places should have lactation rooms, 86% thought it was acceptable for mothers to breastfeed in this location, and 65% of respondents agreed that it was acceptable for mothers to breastfeed in public...
April 25, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439990/explaining-the-declining-rates-of-past-year-cannabis-use-in-australia-a-first-pass
#6
Alison Ritter, Oluwadamisola Sotade
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Cannabis use rates in Australia have declined since 2001. No research to date has examined possible reasons, despite evident policy interest in understanding such a positive public health outcome. In a 'first pass' examination, five possible reasons are explored: (i) attitudinal shifts regarding the acceptability of cannabis use; (ii) regulatory or policy changes; (iii) supply/market changes; (iv) changes in other drug use that may operate as substitutes or complements to cannabis; and (v) socio-cultural factors...
April 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439544/quantifying-the-negative-impact-of-brain-drain-on-the-integration-of-european-science
#7
Omar A Doria Arrieta, Fabio Pammolli, Alexander M Petersen
The 2004/2007 European Union (EU) enlargement by 12 member states offers a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of EU efforts to expand and integrate the scientific competitiveness of the European Research Area (ERA). We apply two causal estimation schemes to cross-border collaboration data extracted from millions of academic publications from 1996 to 2012, which are disaggregated across 14 subject areas and 32 European countries. Our results illustrate the unintended consequences following the 2004/2007 enlargement, namely, its negative impact on cross-border collaboration in science...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439403/policy-entrepreneurship-and-policy-networks-in-healthcare-systems-the-case-of-israel-s-pediatric-dentistry-reform
#8
Nissim Cohen, Tuvia Horev
BACKGROUND: Can the entry of a policy entrepreneur challenge the equilibrium of a policy network and promote changes that might clash with the goals of powerful civil-servants and/or interest groups and, if so, why and how? Our goal is to examine two sides of the same coin: how does an in-depth analysis of Israel's dental care reform enrich our understanding of policy networks and policy entrepreneurship? Second, how does the literature on policy networks and policy entrepreneurship help us understand this reform? Based on a theoretical framework that appears in the literature of policy entrepreneurship and policy networks, we analyze the motivations, goals and strategies of the main actors involved in the process of reforming pediatric dental care in Israel...
2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439289/bipolarity-and-suicidal-ideation-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Flórido Sampaio das Neves Peixoto, Danilo Ferreira de Sousa, Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira Luz, Nélio Barreto Vieira, Jucier Gonçalves Júnior, Gabriel Cabral Alencar Dos Santos, Flaviane Cristine Troglio da Silva, Modesto Leite Rolim Neto
BACKGROUND: Affective disorders in children and adolescents have received growing attention in the world scenario of mental health. Additionally, there has been an increasing prevalence of suicidal ideation in this population. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to demonstrate the main risk factors regarding the development of suicidal ideation in the bipolar disorder. METHODS: This is a systematic review with meta-analysis using the PRISMA protocol (http://www...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439207/incidence-and-perception-of-nursing-students-academic-incivility-in-oman
#10
Jansi Natarajan, Joshua Kanaabi Muliira, Jacoba van der Colff
BACKGROUND: The incidence of incivility in nursing education is increasing in most countries and it is affecting the culture of safety and the teaching-learning processes. Despite reports of increasing trends, little is known about nursing students' academic incivility in the Middle East. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions and extent of academic incivility among nursing students (NS) and nursing faculty members (NF) in a university based undergraduate nursing program in Oman...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439178/hispanic-residential-isolation-adhd-diagnosis-and-stimulant-treatment-among-medicaid-insured-youth
#11
Dinci Pennap, Mehmet Burcu, Daniel J Safer, Julie M Zito
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate a conceptual framework that assessed the effect of Hispanic residential isolation on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) health service utilization among 2.2 million publicly insured youth. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Medicaid administrative claims data for ambulatory care services from a US Pacific state linked with US census data. PARTICIPANTS: Youth, aged 2-17 years, continuously enrolled in 2009...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438920/conservation-of-biodiversity-as-a-strategy-for-improving-human-health-and-well-being
#12
REVIEW
A Marm Kilpatrick, Daniel J Salkeld, Georgia Titcomb, Micah B Hahn
The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438919/ecosystem-change-and-human-health-implementation-economics-and-policy
#13
REVIEW
S K Pattanayak, R A Kramer, J R Vincent
Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health, EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438914/does-deforestation-promote-or-inhibit-malaria-transmission-in-the-amazon-a-systematic-literature-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-current-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Joanna M Tucker Lima, Amy Vittor, Sami Rifai, Denis Valle
Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438911/human-infectious-disease-burdens-decrease-with-urbanization-but-not-with-biodiversity
#15
Chelsea L Wood, Alex McInturff, Hillary S Young, DoHyung Kim, Kevin D Lafferty
Infectious disease burdens vary from country to country and year to year due to ecological and economic drivers. Recently, Murray et al. (Murray CJ et al 2012 Lancet380, 2197-2223. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4)) estimated country-level morbidity and mortality associated with a variety of factors, including infectious diseases, for the years 1990 and 2010. Unlike other databases that report disease prevalence or count outbreaks per country, Murray et al. report health impacts in per-person disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), allowing comparison across diseases with lethal and sublethal health effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438909/interacting-effects-of-land-use-and-climate-on-rodent-borne-pathogens-in-central-kenya
#16
Hillary S Young, Douglas J McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Charles L Nunn, Michael G Campana, Bernard Agwanda, Erik R Otarola-Castillo, Eric R Castillo, Robert M Pringle, Kari E Veblen, Daniel J Salkeld, Kristin Stewardson, Robert Fleischer, Eric F Lambin, Todd M Palmer, Kristofer M Helgen
Understanding the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on zoonotic disease risk is both a critical conservation objective and a public health priority. Here, we evaluate the effects of multiple forms of anthropogenic disturbance across a precipitation gradient on the abundance of pathogen-infected small mammal hosts in a multi-host, multi-pathogen system in central Kenya. Our results suggest that conversion to cropland and wildlife loss alone drive systematic increases in rodent-borne pathogen prevalence, but that pastoral conversion has no such systematic effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438406/coverage-and-determinants-of-childhood-immunization-in-nigeria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Davies Adeloye, Wura Jacobs, Ann O Amuta, Oluwatomisin Ogundipe, Oluwaseun Mosaku, Muktar A Gadanya, Gbolahan Oni
INTRODUCTION: The proportion of fully immunized children in Nigeria is reportedly low. There are concerns over national immunization data quality, with this possibly limiting country-wide response. We reviewed publicly available evidence on routine immunization across Nigeria to estimate national and zonal coverage of childhood immunization and associated determinants. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and African Journals Online (AJOL) was conducted...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438204/evidence-on-anti-malarial-and-diagnostic-markets-in-cambodia-to-guide-malaria-elimination-strategies-and-policies
#18
Sochea Phok, Dysoley Lek
BACKGROUND: Understanding Cambodia's anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in 2015 is critical for informing and monitoring strategies and policies as Cambodia moves forward with national efforts to eliminate malaria. The aim of this paper is to present timely and key findings on the public and private sector anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in Cambodia. This evidence can serve as a baseline benchmark for guiding implementation of national strategies as well as other regional initiatives to address malaria elimination activities...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438157/age-period-and-cohort-effects-and-the-predictors-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-among-chinese-children-from-2004-to-2011
#19
Xinping Wei, Yu Zang, Xiaodong Jia, Xiangui He, Shurong Zou, Hui Wang, Meihua Shen, Jiajie Zang
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have explored the effects of age, time period, and cohort in association with biological, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors predictors on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) among Chinese children. METHODS: We used data from a cohort study of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) between 2004 and 2011 (2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011). The outcomes of interest were metabolic equivalent of task (MET) hours per week from both active and sedentary activities...
April 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438155/the-malaria-testing-and-treatment-landscape-in-the-southern-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-pdr
#20
Saysana Phanalasy
BACKGROUND: In the context of national and regional goals to eliminate malaria by 2030, the Center for Malaria Parasitology and Entomology in the Lao PDR is implementing strategies to ensure all malaria cases are detected and appropriately treated with first-line artemisinin combination therapy, artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Timely and relevant evidence to inform policies and strategies is needed to ensure the most effective and efficient use of resources, and to accelerate progress towards elimination goals...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
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