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Public policy

Koonal K Shah, Aki Tsuchiya, Allan J Wailoo
A source of debate in the health care priority setting literature is whether to weight health gains to account for equity considerations, such as concern for those with very short life expectancy. This paper reviews the empirical evidence in the published social sciences literature relevant to the following research question: do members of the public wish to place greater weight on a unit of health gain for end-of-life patients than on that for other types of patients? An electronic search of the Social Sciences Citation Index for articles published until October 2017 was conducted, with follow-up of references to obtain additional data...
March 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Xingyu Zhang, Di Chen, Guifeng Xu, Weichun Huang, Xing Wang
Infection by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a public health challenge worldwide, in particular among children, which was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There was limited data in pediatric populations, thus this study aimed to investigate molecular epidemiology and drug resistant mechanism of CR-KP strains from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China. A total of 41 clinical CR-KP isolates from sputum, urine, blood or drainage fluid were collected between July 2014 and May 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center...
2018: PloS One
Rosa Whalen, Joanne Harrold, Simon Child, Jason Halford, Emma Boyland
Monitoring the creative content within food marketing to children is strongly advocated by public health authorities, but few studies address the prevalence of health-related messaging in television adverts. Food and beverage adverts ( n = 18,888 in 2008, n = 6664 in 2010) from UK television channels popular with children were coded and analyzed. Physical-activity depiction displayed an 18.8 percentage point increase from 2008 (4.4%) to 2010 (23.2%). Of the food adverts containing physical-activity depiction in 2010, 81...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Enju Liu, Laura Pimpin, Masha Shulkin, Sarah Kranz, Christopher P Duggan, Dariush Mozaffarian, Wafaie W Fawzi
(1) Background: The effects of zinc supplementation on child growth, and prior reviews of these studies, have shown mixed results. We aim to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of preventive zinc supplementation for 3 months or longer during pregnancy or in children up to age 5 years on pregnancy outcomes and child growth; (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and trial registries for eligible trials up to October 10, 2017...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Sandy K Wurtele
Research with the public suggests that knowledge about sexual offenders, especially child sexual offenders, is limited and often inaccurate. In general, the public tends to believe that adults who commit sex crimes against children are pedophiles or monstrous strangers who cannot be rehabilitated. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these perceptions can be changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether a course on sex crimes against children could influence college students' knowledge and attitudes toward child sexual offenders...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Rohan Hazra, Susan Tenney, Alexandra Shlionskaya, Rajni Samavedam, Kristin Baxter, John Ilekis, Jennifer Weck, Marian Willinger, Gilman Grave, Katerina Tsilou, David Songco
The benefits of data sharing are well-established and an increasing number of policies require that data be shared upon publication of the main study findings. As data sharing becomes the new norm, there is a heightened need for additional resources to drive efficient data reuse. This article describes the development and implementation of the Data and Specimen Hub (DASH) by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to promote data sharing from NICHD-funded studies and enable researchers to comply with NIH data sharing policies...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Data
Maegan V Mazereeuw, Diana R Withrow, E Diane Nishri, Michael Tjepkema, Eduardo Vides, Loraine D Marrett
BACKGROUND: Métis people are 1 of 3 Aboriginal groups recognized by the Canadian constitution. We estimated site-specific incidence rates and survival for the most common cancers among Métis adults in Canada and compared these with rates among non-Aboriginal adults in Canada. METHODS: We examined responses to the 1991 long-form census, including self-reported Métis ancestry linked to national mortality and cancer databases for followup from 1992 to 2009. We estimated age-standardized incidence rates and 5-year relative survival...
March 19, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Douglas Yeung
This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
World Health Organization
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of cholera vaccines excerpted from the Cholera vaccines: WHO position paper, August 2017, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record (Cholera vaccine, 2017) [1]. This position paper replaces the 2010 WHO position paper on cholera vaccines (Cholera vaccine, 2010) [2]. It incorporates the most recent evidence on cholera vaccination and provides revised recommendations on the target populations for cholera immunization. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table...
March 17, 2018: Vaccine
Shanta R Dube
Currently, in the U.S. and worldwide, childhood trauma is a public health crisis. Childhood adversities, such as abuse, neglect, and related household stressors, are common, interrelated and contribute to multiple adverse social, behavioral and health outcomes throughout the lifespan. The present article provides further discussion regarding adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) screening in healthcare utilizing the etic and emic perspectives. Screening in the healthcare system leans toward the etic view: objective observations of symptoms, which may then lead to intervention delivery...
March 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Michael A Preston, Glen P Mays, Zoran Bursac, Billy R Thomas, Jonathan Laryea, J Mick Tilford, Michelle Odlum, Sharla A Smith, Ronda S Henry-Tillman
Precision public health requires research that supports innovative systems and health delivery approaches, programs, and policies that are part of this vision. This study estimated the effects of health insurance mandate (HiM) variations and the effects of physician utilization on moderating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates. A time-series analysis using a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) approach was conducted on CRC screenings (1997-2014) using a multivariate logistic framework. Key variables of interest were HiM, CRC screening status, and physician utilization...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Shannon McGinnis, Susan Spencer, Aaron Firnstahl, Joel Stokdyk, Mark Borchardt, David T McCarthy, Heather M Murphy
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks...
February 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hao Yin, Massimo Pizzol, Jette Bredahl Jacobsen, Linyu Xu
Air pollution from PM2 .5 affects many cities worldwide, causing both health impacts and mood depression. One of the obstacles to implementing environmental regulations for PM2 .5 reduction is that there are limited studies of PM2 .5 welfare loss and few investigations of mood depression caused by PM2 .5 . This article describes a survey study conducted in Beijing, China to estimate the welfare loss due to PM2 .5 . In total, 1709 participants completed either a face-to-face or online survey. A contingent valuation method was applied to elicit people's willingness to pay to avoid PM2 ...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Todd M Olszewski
This article examines the history and effect of the Consensus Development Program (CDP) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Introduced at a time when the relationship between the U.S. public and the medical profession was at a nadir, the CDP frequently placed the NIH in the middle of broader debates in medical practice and health policy during the last quarter of the 20th century. Drawing on published and archival sources, this paper sheds light on the challenges associated with collecting, assessing, and communicating evidence to medical professionals and convincing them to act on it in the name of improved health care...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Malin Bogren, Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy, Kerstin Erlandsson, Halima Akhter, Dalia Akter, Momtaz Begum, Merry Chowdhury, Lucky Das, Rehana Akter, Sufia Begum, Renoara Akter, Syeada Yesmin, Yamin Ara Khatun
OBJECTIVE: using the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) Global Standards for Midwifery Education as a conceptual framework, the aim of this study was to explore and describe important 'must haves' for inclusion in a context-specific accreditation assessment tool in Bangladesh. DESIGN: A questionnaire study was conducted using a Likert rating scale and 111 closed-response single items on adherence to accreditation-related statements, ending with an open-ended question...
February 21, 2018: Midwifery
Maria Luger, Eva Winzer, Manuel Schätzer, Sabine Dämon, Nadine Moser, Karin Blagusz, Barbara Rittmannsberger, Julia Schätzer, Monika Lechleitner, Anita Rieder, Friedrich Hoppichler
Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major source of free sugar intake and contribute to obesity and obesity-related diseases. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of a gradual sugar reduction strategy within the so-called 'beverage checklist' on free sugar content in beverages on sale in Austria. Methods: From 2010 until 2017, data on the amount of free sugar of sweetened beverages (sweetened with sugars, fruit juice and artificial sweeteners) with 0...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Chitra Andrew, Teena Koshy, Shivani Gopal, Solomon Franklin Durairaj Paul
This is a retrospective analysis of the patient demographics and cytogenetic results of patients who underwent prenatal invasive testing for genetic analysis at the Foetal Medicine Division of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute. The main objective of this study was to characterise the changing trends in indications of pregnant women for foetal karyotyping in a 7-year period. A total of 257 procedures were performed in this period, and there was a significant change in the trend of indications for invasive prenatal diagnosis from an advanced maternal age in 2009 to a positive screen test by 2014...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Robin Room, Norman Giesbrecht, Thomas K Greenfield
The emergent and growing body of research on alcohol's harm to others (AHTO), or secondhand effects of drinking, has important implications for prevention, intervention, and policy. Those victimized by other drinkers tend to favor effective alcohol policies more than their nonvictimized peers, but often a community's impulse will be to combat AHTO by targeting and stigmatizing individual heavy drinkers, rather than taking a public health approach to reducing harm. Here we discuss opportunities and challenges in selecting ways of reducing AHTO...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Karuna D Sagili, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit S Chadha, Nevin C Wilson, Ajay M V Kumar, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann, Vineet K Chadha, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Smita Ghosh, Terrence Q Lo, Tyson Volkmann, Matthew Willis, Kalpita Shringarpure, Ravichandra Chinnappa Reddy, Prahlad Kumar, Sreenivas A Nair, Raghuram Rao, Mohammed Yassin, Perry Mwangala, Rony Zachariah, Jamhoih Tonsing, Anthony D Harries, Sunil Khaparde
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice...
2018: Global Health Action
Sarah E Ali-Khan, Antoine Jean, Emily MacDonald, E Richard Gold
Mounting evidence indicates that worldwide, innovation systems are increasing unsustainable. Equally, concerns about inequities in the science and innovation process, and in access to its benefits, continue. Against a backdrop of growing health, economic and scientific challenges global stakeholders are urgently seeking to spur innovation and maximize the just distribution of benefits for all. Open Science collaboration (OS) - comprising a variety of approaches to increase open, public, and rapid mobilization of scientific knowledge - is seen to be one of the most promising ways forward...
2018: MNI Open Res
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