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Disorders of thoughts and volition

M Bodatsch, J Kuhn
Alienation, i. e. disorders of the inner experience of integrity, continuity, and agency, represents a feature of both psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. Thereby, ego disturbances are thought to be specific for schizophrenia. Depersonalisation, in contrast, has been reported in schizophrenia as well as a neurotic, probably distinct syndrome. The differentiation of psychotic vs. non-psychotic alienation is often all but trivial. The present paper provides an overview of the historical roots and the psychopathological conceptualizations of alienation...
November 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
E David Klonsky, Tianyou Qiu, Boaz Y Saffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes findings from recent studies (published since 2015) examining differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators. RECENT FINDINGS: Converging evidence suggests that the capability to attempt suicide (e.g., acquired capability, painful and provocative experiences, high tolerance for pain and distress) is higher in suicide attempters than suicide ideators. Other psychosocial and biological differences have also been identified but require replication...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler
Importance: This article aims to determine the degree to which modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia reflect the main clinical features of the disorder as described historically by diagnostic experts. Observations:, the National Library of Medicine, and were searched for articles written or translated into English from 1900 to 1960. Clinical descriptions of schizophrenia or dementia praecox appearing in 16 textbooks or review articles published between 1899 and 1956 were reviewed and compared with the criteria for schizophrenia from 6 modern US operationalized diagnostic systems...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Maria Seidel, Juliane Petermann, Stefan Diestel, Franziska Ritschel, Ilka Boehm, Joseph A King, Daniel Geisler, Fabio Bernardoni, Veit Roessner, Thomas Goschke, Stefan Ehrlich
In anorexia nervosa (AN), volitional inhibition of rewarding behaviors, such as eating, involves a conflict between the desire to suppress appetite and the inherent motive to consume. This conflict is thought to have costs that carry over into daily life, e.g., triggering negative affect and/or recurring ruminations, which may ultimately impact long term outcome. Hence, increasing research effort is being dedicated to understand the link between emotional and ruminative processes in the etiology and maintenance of AN...
November 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Walter Glannon
OBJECTIVE: Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss...
April 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Larry Vandervert
BACKGROUND: Following in the vein of studies that concluded that music training resulted in plastic changes in Einstein's cerebral cortex, controlled research has shown that music training (1) enhances central executive attentional processes in working memory, and (2) has also been shown to be of significant therapeutic value in neurological disorders. Within this framework of music training-induced enhancement of central executive attentional processes, the purpose of this article is to argue that: (1) The foundational basis of the central executive begins in infancy as attentional control during the establishment of working memory, (2) In accordance with Akshoomoff, Courchesne and Townsend's and Leggio and Molinari's cerebellar sequence detection and prediction models, the rigors of volitional control demands of music training can enhance voluntary manipulation of information in thought and movement, (3) The music training-enhanced blending of cerebellar internal models in working memory as can be experienced as intuition in scientific discovery (as Einstein often indicated) or, equally, as moments of therapeutic advancement toward goals in the development of voluntary control in neurological disorders, and (4) The blending of internal models as in (3) thus provides a mechanism by which music training enhances central executive processes in working memory that can lead to scientific discovery and improved therapeutic outcomes in neurological disorders...
2015: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Tracey Coussens, Forrest J Ellis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brown syndrome is an ocular motility disorder characterized by limited volitional and passive elevation of the eye in adduction. Although originally thought due to abnormalities in the trochlea or tendon sheath (limiting the free movement of the tendon through the trochlea), recent evidence suggests that some cases of congenital Brown syndrome may be related to neurodevelopmental abnormalities of the extraocular muscles (congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders, CCDD)...
July 2015: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
David B Fischer, Robert D Truog
Uncertainty in diagnosing disorders of consciousness, and specifically in determining whether consciousness has been lost or retained, poses challenging scientific and ethical questions. Recent neuroimaging-based tests for consciousness have cast doubt on the reliability of behavioral criteria in assessing states of consciousness and generate new questions about the assumptions used in formulating coherent diagnostic criteria. The reflex, a foundational diagnostic tool, offers unique insight into these disorders; behaviors produced by unconscious patients are thought to be purely reflexive, whereas those produced by conscious patients can be volitional...
August 11, 2015: Neurology
Thomas Goschke
Disadvantageous decision-making and impaired volitional control over actions, thoughts, and emotions are characteristics of a wide range of mental disorders such as addiction, eating disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders and may reflect transdiagnostic core mechanisms and possibly vulnerability factors. Elucidating the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms is a precondition for moving from symptom-based to mechanism-based disorder classifications and ultimately mechanism-targeted interventions. However, despite substantial advances in basic research on decision-making and cognitive control, there are still profound gaps in our current understanding of dysfunctions of these processes in mental disorders...
January 2014: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Michael Esterman, Joseph DeGutis, Rogelio Mercado, Andrew Rosenblatt, Jennifer J Vasterling, William Milberg, Regina McGlinchey
Research has shown that attention can be abnormally drawn to salient threat- or trauma-related information in individuals with posttraumatic stress and related psychological symptoms. The nature of this attentional bias is thought to derive from capture of attention toward potential threat overpowering the volitional, goal-directed attentional system. However, it is unclear whether this pattern of attentional dysregulation generalizes to salient, but non-emotional types of information. Using a well-established and sensitive measure of attentional capture, the current study demonstrates that posttraumatic psychological symptom severity is associated with the capture of attention by visually salient, non-emotional distractors...
August 2013: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Lisa A Vinney, Lyn S Turkstra
Self-regulation (SR) is the ability to voluntarily control one's thinking and behavior and is a core construct in research on learning and behavior. SR plays a significant role in mastering and generalizing new skills, including skills such as those taught in voice therapy. The ability to self-regulate thoughts and behaviors varies widely across adults, changes in response to factors such as the cognitive load of the task, and predicts the likelihood of pursuing goals and maintaining behavior change over time...
May 2013: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Akihiro Yugeta, William D Hutchison, Clement Hamani, Utpal Saha, Andres M Lozano, Mojgan Hodaie, Elena Moro, Bogdan Neagu, Robert Chen
Increased oscillations in the beta band are thought to be related to motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have shown that beta-band desynchronization in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is reduced just before and during limb movements. While the STN is part of the basal ganglia (BG)-thalamocortical circuit controlling limb movements, it is also part of the BG-brainstem projection controlling saccadic eye movements. Late-stage PD patients have deficits in saccades in addition to difficulties with limb movements arising from impaired functions of the BG...
April 17, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
S Bouhlel, Y Jones, E Khelifa, M Msolly, W Melki, Z El-Hechmi
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic psychiatric disorder. After recovery from a first psychotic episode, 70% of patients have exacerbations. These exacerbations are preceded in 66 to 100% of cases by early signs. Prevention of relapses is the main object of dealing with schizophrenia. In fact, after a psychotic relapse, 17% of patients develop residual symptoms which did not exist before the relapse. Moreover, symptoms resistant to antipsychotics appear in 35% of patients after a relapse...
October 2012: L'Encéphale
Margherita Melloni, Claudia Urbistondo, Lucas Sedeño, Carlos Gelormini, Rafael Kichic, Agustin Ibanez
In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition...
2012: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jan Alexander Golembiewski
The symptoms of psychiatric illness are diverse, as are the causes of the conditions that cause them. Yet, regardless of the heterogeneity of cause and presentation, a great deal of symptoms can be explained by the failure of a single perceptual function--the reprocessing of ecological perception. It is a central tenet of the ecological theory of perception that we perceive opportunities to act. It has also been found that perception automatically causes actions and thoughts to occur unless this primary action pathway is inhibited...
January 2012: Medical Hypotheses
Brian D Berman, Silvina G Horovitz, Brent Morel, Mark Hallett
Neuroimaging studies have elucidated some of the underlying physiology of spontaneous and voluntary eye blinking; however, the neural networks involved in eye blink suppression remain poorly understood. Here we investigated blink suppression by analyzing fMRI data in a block design and event-related manner, and employed a novel hypothetical time-varying neural response model to detect brain activations associated with the buildup of urge. Blinks were found to activate visual cortices while our block design analysis revealed activations limited to the middle occipital gyri and deactivations in medial occipital, posterior cingulate and precuneus areas...
January 16, 2012: NeuroImage
Anna Christina Rose
In the latter decades of the 19th century, European physicians debated a controversial practice that mixed placebos with suggestion therapy to treat children diagnosed with neurotic disorders and behavioral problems. Designed to optimize suggestibility in juvenile patients, this "moral orthopedics" offered parents and therapists the message that children could be saved from becoming victims of their own personalities, of familial neuroses, or even of public health problems. Case studies, published in medical journals and books, circulated accounts of innovative strategies to treat childhood hysteria and to change habits that were considered destructive...
February 2011: History of Psychology
Christopher K Thompson, Arun Jayaraman, Catherine Kinnaird, T George Hornby
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating disorder, which produces profound deficits in volitional motor control. Following medical stabilization, recovery from SCI typically involves long term rehabilitation. While recovery of walking ability is a primary goal in many patients early after injury, those with a motor incomplete SCI, indicating partial preservation of volitional control, may have the sufficient residual descending pathways necessary to attain this goal. However, despite physical interventions, motor impairments including weakness, and the manifestation of abnormal involuntary reflex activity, called spasticity or spasms, are thought to contribute to reduced walking recovery...
2011: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jinnan Liu, Jiaming Liu, Yi Zhou, Siyue Li, Yi Li, Xingbo Song, Jun Wang, Lanlan Wang, Binwu Ying
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, association between single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-18 and the risk of schizophrenia has not been clarified. This study examined whether two promoter polymorphisms -137 G/C (rs187238) and -607 C/A (rs1946518) of IL-18 were associated with schizophrenia and six clinical symptoms (disorder of perception, thought disorder, disturbance of emotion, disorder of behavior and volition, suicide action, and aggressive action) to provide data for screening high-risk Han Chinese individuals...
November 2011: DNA and Cell Biology
Marco Mula, Francesco Monaco
Patients with epilepsy may experience psychiatric symptoms preceding the seizure (pre-ictal), following the seizure (post-ictal), independently of seizure occurrence (interictal), or as an expression of the seizure (ictal). Compared to interictal, peri-ictal psychiatric symptoms are less investigated and recognized. However, they contribute substantially to disability and distress among people with epilepsy. The relationship between interictal and peri-ictal symptoms is still largely unknown but it seems that they are intimately related in epilepsy...
2011: Behavioural Neurology
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