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Stroke AND nutrition NOT prevention

Dolores Corella, Oscar Coltell, George Mattingley, José V Sorlí, Jose M Ordovas
Personalized diets based on an individual's genome to optimize the success of dietary intervention and reduce genetic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, is one of the challenges most frequently discussed in the scientific community. Areas covered: The authors gathered literature-based evidence on nutritional genomics and CVD phenotypes, our own results and research experience to provide a critical overview of the current situation of using nutritional genomics to tailor diets for CVD prevention and to propose guidelines for future studies and implementations...
March 24, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Naofumi Isono, Yuki Imamura, Keiko Ohmura, Norihide Ueda, Shinji Kawabata, Motomasa Furuse, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
OBJECTIVE: For stroke patients, intensive nutritional management is an important and effective component of inpatient rehabilitation. Accordingly, acute care hospitals must detect and prevent malnutrition at an early stage. Blood transthyretin levels are widely used as a nutritional monitoring index in critically ill patients. Here, we had analyzed the relationship between the transthyretin levels during the acute phase and Functional Independence Measure in stroke patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
David S Siscovick, Thomas A Barringer, Amanda M Fretts, Jason H Y Wu, Alice H Lichtenstein, Rebecca B Costello, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Terry A Jacobson, Mary B Engler, Heather M Alger, Lawrence J Appel, Dariush Mozaffarian
Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined, RCTs have assessed the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and those with prevalent coronary heart disease...
March 13, 2017: Circulation
Mohsen Mazidi, Mohsen Nematy, Ali Reza Heidari-Bakavoli, Zahra Namadchian, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon A Ferns
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required.We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and other cardiovascular risk factors with blood pressure in individuals without a history of a cardiovascular event in an Iranian cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 5670 healthy subjects [approximately 40% (n=2179) males and 60% (n=3491) females] was undertaken in a sample from northeastern Iran...
December 9, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
David B Agus, Étienne Gaudette, Dana P Goldman, Andrew Messali
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of aspirin to defend against cardiovascular disease in both primary and secondary settings is well recognized by the medical profession. Multiple studies also have found that daily aspirin significantly reduces cancer incidence and mortality. Despite these proven health benefits, aspirin use remains low among populations targeted by cardiovascular prevention guidelines. This article seeks to determine the long-term economic and population-health impact of broader use of aspirin by older Americans at higher risk for cardiovascular disease...
2016: PloS One
H K Nedergaard, H I Jensen, P Toft
BACKGROUND: Critical illness is associated with cognitive impairments. Effective treatment or prevention has not been established. The aim of this review was to create a systematic summary of the current evidence concerning clinical interventions during intensive care admission to reduce cognitive impairments after discharge. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, PsycInfo and Cinahl were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies assessing the effect of interventions during intensive care admission on cognitive function in adult patients...
February 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Elisa Lucas, Rocio Vila-Bedmar, Alba C Arcones, Marta Cruces-Sande, Victoria Cachofeiro, Federico Mayor, Cristina Murga
BACKGROUND: The leading cause of death among the obese population is heart failure and stroke prompted by structural and functional changes in the heart. The molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related cardiac remodeling are complex, and include hemodynamic and metabolic alterations that ultimately affect the functionality of the myocardium. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is an ubiquitous kinase able to desensitize the active form of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and is known to play an important role in cardiac GPCR modulation...
November 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Montserrat Fitó, Olle Melander, José Alfredo Martínez, Estefanía Toledo, Christian Carpéné, Dolores Corella
Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known...
September 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mark J Ommerborn, Chad T Blackshear, DeMarc A Hickson, Michael E Griswold, Japneet Kwatra, Luc Djoussé, Cheryl R Clark
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of American Heart Association ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics has not been fully examined in African Americans. This study examines the associations of CVH metrics with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Jackson Heart Study, a longitudinal cohort study of CVD in African Americans. METHODS: Jackson Heart Study participants without CVD (n=4,702) were followed prospectively between 2000 and 2011. Incidence rates and Cox proportional hazard ratios estimated risks for incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac procedures, and CVD mortality) associated with seven CVH metrics by sex...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Paula Lozano, Nora B Henrikson, Caitlin C Morrison, John Dunn, Matt Nguyen, Paula R Blasi, Evelyn P Whitlock
IMPORTANCE: Multifactorial dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is associated with dyslipidemia and markers of atherosclerosis in young adulthood. Screening for dyslipidemia in childhood could delay or reduce cardiovascular events in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence on benefits and harms of screening adolescents and children for multifactorial dyslipidemia for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)...
August 9, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Takahide Nejo, Soichi Oya, Tsuchiya Tsukasa, Naomi Yamaguchi, Toru Matsui
Several bedside approaches used in combination with thoracoabdominal X-ray are widely used to avoid severe complications that have been reported during nasogastric tube management. Although confirmation by X-ray is considered the gold standard, it is not yet perfect. We present 2 cases of rare complications in which the routine verification methods could not detect all the complications related to the nasogastric tube placement. Case 1 was a 17-year-old male who presented with a brain tumor and repeatedly required nasogastric tube placement...
May 13, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Susan E Swithers
Replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with diet soft drinks containing sugar substitutes that provide few or no calories has been suggested as one strategy for promoting improved public health outcomes. However, current scientific evidence indicates that routine consumption of beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners not only fails to prevent disease, but is associated with increases in risks for the same health outcomes associated with sugar-sweetened beverages, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Kufre Joseph Okop, Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Thubelihle Mathole, Naomi Levitt, Thandi Puoane
BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic is associated with rising rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults, particularly in countries undergoing rapid urbanisation and nutrition transition. This study explored the perceptions of body size, obesity risk awareness, and the willingness to lose weight among adults in a resource-limited urban community to inform appropriate community-based interventions for the prevention of obesity. METHOD: This is a descriptive qualitative study...
2016: BMC Public Health
Yong Guo, Peiyu Jia, Junfeng Zhang, Xuemin Wang, Hong Jiang, Wei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the risk factors associated with postoperative delirium (PD) in elderly patients following total hip arthroplasty (THA) for hip fracture. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled elderly patients (≥ 65 years) with hip fractures who underwent THA under general anaesthesia, and who had a complete set of postoperative observations. Detailed medical history and perioperative characteristics were recorded. During the postoperative period, patients were assessed twice daily for PD using the Confusion Assessment Method...
April 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
Francesco Petrocelli, Giancarlo Salsano, Giulio Bovio, Francesco Camerano, Alice Utili, Carlo Ferro
INTRODUCTION: Gastrostomy tube placement for patients requiring long-term nutritional support may be performed using different techniques including endoscopic, surgical, and percutaneous radiologically guided methods. Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG), typically performed when percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is not possible, requires proper gastric distension that is achieved by insufflating air through a nasogastric tube. We describe a simple technique to prevent air escape from the stomach during gastrostomy tube placement...
July 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Karen C Albright, Amelia K Boehme, Rikki M Tanner, Justin Blackburn, George Howard, Virginia J Howard, Monika Safford, T Mark Beasley, Nita Limdi
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent stroke affects 5%-15% of stroke survivors, is higher among Blacks, and preventable with secondary stroke prevention medications. Our study aimed to examine racial differences in risk factors being addressed (defined as either on active treatment or within guideline levels) among stroke survivors and those at risk for stroke. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using NHANES 2009-2010 standardized interviews of Whites and Blacks aged ≥18 years...
January 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Meei-Shyuan Lee, Mark L Wahlqvist, Cheau-Jane Peng
The health relevance of dairy products has mostly been judged by their abundant nutrients (protein, calcium and riboflavin) and recommendations for these derived in lactase-persistent Caucasian populations. Extrapolation to Asians who are generally lactase non-persisters may not be biologically, culturally or environmentally sound. A number of studies, especially among north-east Asians as in Taiwan, provide guidance for their optimal dairy intakes. In Taiwan, the NAHSIT (Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan) linked to the National Health Insurance and Death Registry data bases provide most of the evidence...
2015: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Paul N Appleby, Timothy J Key
Vegetarians, who do not eat any meat, poultry or fish, constitute a significant minority of the world's population. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume dairy products and/or eggs, whereas vegans do not eat any foods derived wholly or partly from animals. Concerns over the health, environmental and economic consequences of a diet rich in meat and other animal products have focussed attention on those who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. There has been extensive research into the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets, but less is known about the long-term health of vegetarians and vegans...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
M S Andersen, E F Christensen, S B Jepsen, J Nørtved, J B Hansen, S P Johnsen
BACKGROUND: Emergency Medical Dispatchers make decisions based on limited information. We aimed to investigate if adding demographic and hospitalization history information to the dispatch process improved precision. METHODS: This 30-day follow-up study evaluated time-critical emergencies in contact with the emergency phone number 112 in Denmark during 18 months. 'Time-critical' was defined as suspected First Hour Quintet (FHQ) (cardiac arrest, chest pain, stroke, difficulty breathing, trauma)...
March 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Lucas J Adams, Ghalib Bello, Gerard G Dumancas
The problem of selecting important variables for predictive modeling of a specific outcome of interest using questionnaire data has rarely been addressed in clinical settings. In this study, we implemented a genetic algorithm (GA) technique to select optimal variables from questionnaire data for predicting a five-year mortality. We examined 123 questions (variables) answered by 5,444 individuals in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The GA iterations selected the top 24 variables, including questions related to stroke, emphysema, and general health problems requiring the use of special equipment, for use in predictive modeling by various parametric and nonparametric machine learning techniques...
2015: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
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