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Stroke AND nutrition NOT prevention

Montserrat Fitó, Olle Melander, José Alfredo Martínez, Estefanía Toledo, Christian Carpéné, Dolores Corella
Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mark J Ommerborn, Chad T Blackshear, DeMarc A Hickson, Michael E Griswold, Japneet Kwatra, Luc Djoussé, Cheryl R Clark
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of American Heart Association ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics has not been fully examined in African Americans. This study examines the associations of CVH metrics with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Jackson Heart Study, a longitudinal cohort study of CVD in African Americans. METHODS: Jackson Heart Study participants without CVD (n=4,702) were followed prospectively between 2000 and 2011. Incidence rates and Cox proportional hazard ratios estimated risks for incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac procedures, and CVD mortality) associated with seven CVH metrics by sex...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Paula Lozano, Nora B Henrikson, Caitlin C Morrison, John Dunn, Matt Nguyen, Paula R Blasi, Evelyn P Whitlock
IMPORTANCE: Multifactorial dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is associated with dyslipidemia and markers of atherosclerosis in young adulthood. Screening for dyslipidemia in childhood could delay or reduce cardiovascular events in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence on benefits and harms of screening adolescents and children for multifactorial dyslipidemia for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)...
August 9, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Takahide Nejo, Soichi Oya, Tsuchiya Tsukasa, Naomi Yamaguchi, Toru Matsui
Several bedside approaches used in combination with thoracoabdominal X-ray are widely used to avoid severe complications that have been reported during nasogastric tube management. Although confirmation by X-ray is considered the gold standard, it is not yet perfect. We present 2 cases of rare complications in which the routine verification methods could not detect all the complications related to the nasogastric tube placement. Case 1 was a 17-year-old male who presented with a brain tumor and repeatedly required nasogastric tube placement...
May 13, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Susan E Swithers
Replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with diet soft drinks containing sugar substitutes that provide few or no calories has been suggested as one strategy for promoting improved public health outcomes. However, current scientific evidence indicates that routine consumption of beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners not only fails to prevent disease, but is associated with increases in risks for the same health outcomes associated with sugar-sweetened beverages, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Kufre Joseph Okop, Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Thubelihle Mathole, Naomi Levitt, Thandi Puoane
BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic is associated with rising rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults, particularly in countries undergoing rapid urbanisation and nutrition transition. This study explored the perceptions of body size, obesity risk awareness, and the willingness to lose weight among adults in a resource-limited urban community to inform appropriate community-based interventions for the prevention of obesity. METHOD: This is a descriptive qualitative study...
2016: BMC Public Health
Yong Guo, Peiyu Jia, Junfeng Zhang, Xuemin Wang, Hong Jiang, Wei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the risk factors associated with postoperative delirium (PD) in elderly patients following total hip arthroplasty (THA) for hip fracture. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled elderly patients (≥ 65 years) with hip fractures who underwent THA under general anaesthesia, and who had a complete set of postoperative observations. Detailed medical history and perioperative characteristics were recorded. During the postoperative period, patients were assessed twice daily for PD using the Confusion Assessment Method...
April 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
Francesco Petrocelli, Giancarlo Salsano, Giulio Bovio, Francesco Camerano, Alice Utili, Carlo Ferro
INTRODUCTION: Gastrostomy tube placement for patients requiring long-term nutritional support may be performed using different techniques including endoscopic, surgical, and percutaneous radiologically guided methods. Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG), typically performed when percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is not possible, requires proper gastric distension that is achieved by insufflating air through a nasogastric tube. We describe a simple technique to prevent air escape from the stomach during gastrostomy tube placement...
July 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Karen C Albright, Amelia K Boehme, Rikki M Tanner, Justin Blackburn, George Howard, Virginia J Howard, Monika Safford, T Mark Beasley, Nita Limdi
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent stroke affects 5%-15% of stroke survivors, is higher among Blacks, and preventable with secondary stroke prevention medications. Our study aimed to examine racial differences in risk factors being addressed (defined as either on active treatment or within guideline levels) among stroke survivors and those at risk for stroke. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using NHANES 2009-2010 standardized interviews of Whites and Blacks aged ≥18 years...
2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Meei-Shyuan Lee, Mark L Wahlqvist, Cheau-Jane Peng
The health relevance of dairy products has mostly been judged by their abundant nutrients (protein, calcium and riboflavin) and recommendations for these derived in lactase-persistent Caucasian populations. Extrapolation to Asians who are generally lactase non-persisters may not be biologically, culturally or environmentally sound. A number of studies, especially among north-east Asians as in Taiwan, provide guidance for their optimal dairy intakes. In Taiwan, the NAHSIT (Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan) linked to the National Health Insurance and Death Registry data bases provide most of the evidence...
2015: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Paul N Appleby, Timothy J Key
Vegetarians, who do not eat any meat, poultry or fish, constitute a significant minority of the world's population. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume dairy products and/or eggs, whereas vegans do not eat any foods derived wholly or partly from animals. Concerns over the health, environmental and economic consequences of a diet rich in meat and other animal products have focussed attention on those who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. There has been extensive research into the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets, but less is known about the long-term health of vegetarians and vegans...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
M S Andersen, E F Christensen, S B Jepsen, J Nørtved, J B Hansen, S P Johnsen
BACKGROUND: Emergency Medical Dispatchers make decisions based on limited information. We aimed to investigate if adding demographic and hospitalization history information to the dispatch process improved precision. METHODS: This 30-day follow-up study evaluated time-critical emergencies in contact with the emergency phone number 112 in Denmark during 18 months. 'Time-critical' was defined as suspected First Hour Quintet (FHQ) (cardiac arrest, chest pain, stroke, difficulty breathing, trauma)...
March 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Lucas J Adams, Ghalib Bello, Gerard G Dumancas
The problem of selecting important variables for predictive modeling of a specific outcome of interest using questionnaire data has rarely been addressed in clinical settings. In this study, we implemented a genetic algorithm (GA) technique to select optimal variables from questionnaire data for predicting a five-year mortality. We examined 123 questions (variables) answered by 5,444 individuals in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The GA iterations selected the top 24 variables, including questions related to stroke, emphysema, and general health problems requiring the use of special equipment, for use in predictive modeling by various parametric and nonparametric machine learning techniques...
2015: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Hae-Young Lee, Jeong Bae Park
The Korean Society of Hypertension published new guidelines for the management of hypertension in 2013 which fully revised the first Korean hypertension treatment guideline published in 2004. Due to shortage of Korean data, the Committee decided to establish the guideline in the form of an 'adaptation' of the recently released guidelines. The prevalence of hypertension was 28.5% in the recent Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011, and the awareness, treatment, and control rates are generally improving...
May 2015: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Erik Hanff, Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi, Georgi Radoslavov Yanchev, Norbert Maassen, Arash Haghikia, Dimitrios Tsikas
Low concentrations of L-homoarginine (hArg) in plasma or serum and urine have recently emerged as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. Previously, we reported gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-tandem MS (GC-MS/MS) methods for the quantitative determination of hArg and Arg in plasma, serum, urine and other biological samples. In these methods, plasma and serum are ultrafiltered by means of commercially available cartridges (10 kDa), and 10-µL ultrafiltrate aliquots are subjected to a two-step derivatization procedure, yielding the methyl ester tri(N-pentafluoropropionyl) derivatives...
March 2016: Amino Acids
Adam P Bress, Rikki M Tanner, Rachel Hess, Lisandro D Colantonio, Daichi Shimbo, Paul Muntner
BACKGROUND: In SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial), a systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal of <120 mm Hg resulted in lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared with an SBP goal of <140 mm Hg. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, number, and characteristics of U.S. adults meeting SPRINT eligibility criteria and determine the broader population to whom SPRINT could be generalized. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 to 2012...
February 9, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Min Jung Ko, Chan Mi Park, Yun Jung Kim, Shin Hee Kang, Duk-Woo Park
BACKGROUND: The applicability to real-world hypertensive patients and the potential effects on future cardiovascular events of the 2014 hypertension guidelines of the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC-8) remain to be determined. METHODS: Using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2008 to 2012 (n = 30,697), we estimated the proportion of Korean adults eligible for hypertension therapy under the 2014 JNC-8 and previous JNC-7 guidelines and the changes affected by the 2014 guidelines...
November 2015: American Heart Journal
Soo Joo Lee, Yong-Jin Cho, Jae Guk Kim, Youngchai Ko, Keun-Sik Hong, Jong-Moo Park, Kyusik Kang, Tai Hwan Park, Sang-Soon Park, Kyung Bok Lee, Jae Kwan Cha, Dae-Hyun Kim, Jun Lee, Joon-Tae Kim, Juneyoung Lee, Ji Sung Lee, Myung Suk Jang, Moon-Ku Han, Philip B Gorelick, Hee-Joon Bae
OBJECTIVE: We undertook a population-based, case-control study to examine a dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and risk of ischemic stroke in Koreans who had different alcoholic beverage type preferences than Western populations and to examine the effect modifications by sex and ischemic stroke subtypes. METHODS: Cases (n = 1,848) were recruited from patients aged 20 years or older with first-ever ischemic stroke. Stroke-free controls (n = 3,589) were from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were matched to the cases by age (±3 years), sex, and education level...
December 1, 2015: Neurology
S E Moore
Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a 'mismatch' between the early- and later-life environments...
April 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Jose Lopez-Lopez, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Paul A Camacho, Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Daniel D Cohen
Hypertension affects one billion individuals worldwide and is considered the leading cause of cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction. This increase in the burden of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is principally driven by lifestyle changes such as increased hypercaloric diets and reduced physical activity producing an increase of obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation. Visceral adipocytes are the principal source of proinflammatory cytokines and systemic inflammation participates in several steps in the development of CVD...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
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