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Tony Lin-Wei Chen, Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Zhi Xu, Qitao Tan, Yan Wang, Ameersing Luximon, Ming Zhang
Flip-flops may change walking gait pattern, increase muscle activity and joint loading, and predispose wearers to foot problems, despite that quantitative evidence is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower limb muscle co-contraction and joint contact force in flip-flops gait, and compare with those of barefoot and sports shoes walking. Ten healthy males were instructed to perform over-ground walking at self-selected speed under three footwear conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) sports shoes, and 3) thong-type flip-flops...
2018: PloS One
Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
I V Damulin
The article addresses gait disturbances in the elderly. It emphasizes that the system that maintains the balance in resting conditions and gait is based on the hierarchical principle and its function depends on the maintenance of integration between vestibular, visual and somatosensory information as well as on cognitive functions. Walking depends on the integrity of frontal-subcortical neuronal circles that support regulatory functions. The main pathogenetic mechanisms of age-related disturbances of balance and gait are a decrease in the efficacy of spinal motorneurons activation caused by Ia-afferentation, a decrease in cortical activation and excitability of corticospinal pathways and in the intensity of intracortical inhibition...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
L A Kalashnikova, T S Gulevskaya, L A Dobrynina
Cerebral microangiopathy (small vessels disease) is a cause of diffuse changes of brain tissue (encephalopathy) denoted in Russian literature by the term dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DE). The main cause of microangiopathy leading to encephalopathy is arterial hypertension, less frequently - cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. The diagnosis of encephalopathy in patients with microangiopathy is based on the combination of clinical manifestations (mainly, cognitive impairment of varying severity and disorders of gait) with the neuroimaging changes (white matter hyperintensity, multiple lacunar infarcts on MRI)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Lara Bieler, Lukas Grassner, Pia Zaunmair, Christina Kreutzer, Lukas Lampe, Eugen Trinka, Julia Marschallinger, Ludwig Aigner, Sebastien Couillard-Despres
Following spinal cord injury, severe deficits result from damages to ascending and descending tracts, such as the corticospinal tract (CST) which is highly relevant for the motor execution in humans. Unfortunately, no curative treatment is available and intensive efforts are deployed in animal models, such as the CST transection model, to identify interventions providing functional regeneration after spinal cord injury. The CatWalk XT is a system for multi-parameter gait analysis of voluntary locomotion. In this study, the performance of the CatWalk XT for monitoring of functional deficits associated with dorsal CST lesion in rats was compared to skilled locomotion tests...
February 2018: Heliyon
Swati Chopra, Michael Taunton, Kenton Kaufman
Muscle activation following total hip arthroplasty with a direct anterior approach has not previously been reported in the literature. This case report details the electromyography outcome of a 60-year-old male patient with unilateral direct anterior approach-total hip arthroplasty during walking and stair activities. Outcome reports the continuation of altered muscle activation 12 months postoperatively, even with a good clinical outcome.
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Chang Hyun Lee, Jong Kyu Kim, Hyun Jung Jun, Duk-Joo Lee, Wook Namkoong, Jae Ho Oh
Objective: To evaluate the compliance and satisfaction of rehabilitation recommendations for advanced cancer patients hospitalized in the palliative care unit. Methods: Advanced cancer patients admitted to a hospice palliative care unit were recruited. Patients with advanced cancer and a life expectancy of less than 6 months, as assumed by the oncologist were included. Patients who were expected to die within 3 days were excluded. ECOG and Karnofsky performance scales, function ambulatory category, level of ambulation, and survival days were evaluated under the perspective of comprehensive rehabilitation...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Minsik Kong, Hongsik Jo, Chang Han Lee, Se-Woong Chun, Chulho Yoon, Heesuk Shin
Objective: To evaluate femoral anteversion angle (FAA) change in children with intoeing gait depending on age, gender, and initial FAA using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Methods: The 3D-CT data acquired between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Children 4 to 10 years of age with symptomatic intoeing gait with follow-up interval of at least 1 year without active treatment were enrolled. Subjects were divided into three groups based on age: group 1 (≥4 and <6 years), group 2 (≥6 and <8 years), and group 3 (≥8 and <10 years)...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Junghyun Baek, Nohkyoung Park, Bongju Lee, Sungju Jee, Shinseung Yang, Sangkuk Kang
Objective: To investigate the effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) on the vastus lateralis (VL) in the early stage after hip replacement surgery. Methods: Twenty-two patients who underwent hip replacement after proximal femur fracture were included in this study. After hip surgery, the experimental group was applied with 15 sessions of 10 Hz rPMS over the VL 5 times per week for 3 weeks, while the control group took sham stimulation. All patients were also given conventional physical therapy...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Seung Yeol Lee, Hyun Seok, Sang-Hyun Kim, Mingeun Park, Jihoon Kim
Objective: To investigate the immediate therapeutic effects of mental singing while walking intervention on gait disturbances in hemiplegic stroke patients. Methods: Eligible, post-stroke, hemiplegic patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of hemiplegia due to stroke, and ability to walk more than 10 m with or without gait aids. Each patient underwent structured music therapy sessions comprising 7 consecutive tasks, and were trained to sing in their mind (mental singing) while walking...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Robert Gürkov
Background: Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) is a debilitating disorder characterized by the hypofunction of both vestibular end organs or nerves. The most frequent identifiable causes of BVP are ototoxic drug effects, infectious and autoimmune disorders. However, the majority of cases remain idiopathic. Very recently, the first discovery of a clinical case of Amiodarone-associated BVP has been reported. Methods: An overview of the literature concerning the relation between amiodarone toxicity and BVP is presented and discussed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jordi Boix, Daniela von Hieber, Bronwen Connor
Computer-supported gait analysis has proven to be effective for the comprehensive assessment of gait changes in rodent models of neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. However, full characterization of individual gait parameters is required for specific neurological or neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Gait disturbances in particular present as the most constraining set of symptoms in PD, finally depriving patients from most activities of normal daily living. In this study, we have characterized the gait pattern abnormalities observed in two rat models of PD: the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) 6-OHDA lesion model and the striatal 6-OHDA lesion model...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
C Ladha, Z Belshaw, J O'Sullivan, L Asher
BACKGROUND: Accelerometer-based technologies could be useful in providing objective measures of canine ambulation, but most are either not tailored to the idiosyncrasies of canine gait, or, use un-validated or closed source approaches. The aim of this paper was to validate algorithms which could be applied to accelerometer data for i) counting the number of steps and ii) distance travelled by a dog. To count steps, an approach based on partitioning acceleration was used. This was applied to accelerometer data from 13 dogs which were walked a set distance and filmed...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Bradley Fawver, Jaimie A Roper, Carolina Sarmento, Chris J Hass
We investigated the impact of initial body position on the displacement and velocity of center of pressure adjustments made during gait initiation. Twenty-nine healthy adults (21 ± 1y) initiated forward gait following six seconds of sustained forward posture based on percentage of their forward maximum voluntary lean (0, 5, 10, 20, 50%). Final center of pressure positions for each trial were back-calculated, as a percentage of maximum voluntary lean, using average anteroposterior constant error to the target during the last second of feedback...
March 17, 2018: Human Movement Science
He Zhou, Hyoki Lee, Jessica Lee, Michael Schwenk, Bijan Najafi
Practical tools which can be quickly administered are needed for measuring subtle changes in cognitive-motor performance over time. Frailty together with cognitive impairment, or 'cognitive frailty', are shown to be strong and independent predictors of cognitive decline over time. We have developed an interactive instrumented trail-making task (iTMT) platform, which allows quantification of motor planning error (MPE) through a series of ankle reaching tasks. In this study, we examined the accuracy of MPE in identifying cognitive frailty in older adults...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Ilaria Mileti, Marco Germanotta, Enrica Di Sipio, Isabella Imbimbo, Alessandra Pacilli, Carmen Erra, Martina Petracca, Stefano Rossi, Zaccaria Del Prete, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Luca Padua, Eduardo Palermo
Monitoring gait quality in daily activities through wearable sensors has the potential to improve medical assessment in Parkinson's Disease (PD). In this study, four gait partitioning methods, two based on thresholds and two based on a machine learning approach, considering the four-phase model, were compared. The methods were tested on 26 PD patients, both in OFF and ON levodopa conditions, and 11 healthy subjects, during walking tasks. All subjects were equipped with inertial sensors placed on feet. Force resistive sensors were used to assess reference time sequence of gait phases...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Beatrice Emmanouil, Katherine Browne, Dorothy Halliday, Allyson Parry
PURPOSE: Patients with Neurofibromatosis type 2 often experience debilitating neuro-otological problems which affect their mobility and balance. This study examined the efficacy of a personalised program of vestibular rehabilitation for patients with Neurofibromatosis type 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational cohort study analysing routinely collected data for 21 patients in a highly specialised Neurofibromatosis type 2 service. Vestibular rehabilitation comprised an initial one-hour assessment followed by a patient-specific exercise program reviewed in person and by email consultations...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Cynthia Campos, Vincent G DePaul, Svetlana Knorr, Jennifer S Wong, Avril Mansfield, Kara K Patterson
Background Slow and asymmetric gait post-stroke may reduce the accuracy of accelerometers (e.g. ActiGraph [AG]) to measure activity. Objectives To (1) determine the validity of AG step counts post-stroke; (2) develop guidelines for low frequency extension filter (LFE) use; and (3) determine the feasibility of daily accelerometer wear. Methods Adults with (n = 33) and without stroke (n = 20) wore three devices for approximately 7 h on a single day: ankle AG, waist AG, and a reference accelerometer at the ankle (REFA)...
March 20, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Koji Murakami, Satoshi Hamai, Ken Okazaki, Satoru Ikebe, Hidehiko Higaki, Takeshi Shimoto, Yasuharu Nakashima
PURPOSE: Neutral lower limb alignment does not necessarily produce a horizontal joint line after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The orientation of the pre- and postoperative tibial mechanical axes (TMAs-G), tibial component, and joint line relative to the ground were evaluated. METHODS: The study group included 46 knees, 23 posterior-stabilized (PS) and 23 bicruciate-stabilized (BCS) TKAs. Using whole-leg standing radiographs, the static orientation of the pre- and postoperative TMAs-G and the tibial component as well as the postoperative alignment were measured...
March 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Shuo-Hsiu Chang, Taimoor Afzal, Jeffrey Berliner, Gerard E Francisco
Background: Robotic wearable exoskeletons have been utilized as a gait training device in persons with spinal cord injury. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of offering exoskeleton-assisted gait training (EGT) on gait in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) in preparation for a phase III RCT. The objective was to assess treatment reliability and potential efficacy of EGT and conventional physical therapy (CPT). Methods: Forty-four individuals were screened, and 13 were eligible to participate in the study...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
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