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Stewart T Chang, Violet N Chihota, Katherine L Fielding, Alison D Grant, Rein M Houben, Richard G White, Gavin J Churchyard, Philip A Eckhoff, Bradley G Wagner
BACKGROUND: Gold mines represent a potential hotspot for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission and may be exacerbating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa. However, the presence of multiple factors complicates estimation of the mining contribution to the TB burden in South Africa. METHODS: We developed two models of TB in South Africa, a static risk model and an individual-based model that accounts for longer-term trends. Both models account for four populations - mine workers, peri-mining residents, labor-sending residents, and other residents of South Africa - including the size and prevalence of latent TB infection, active TB, and HIV of each population and mixing between populations...
April 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
Ruidong Yang, Zhi Xu, Shixuan Zeng, Wenheng Jing, Adam Trontz, Junhang Dong
Fiber optic interferometer (FOI) sensors have been fabricated by directly growing pure-silica MFI-type zeolite (i.e., silicalite) films on straight-cut endfaces of single-mode communication optical fibers. The FOI sensor has been demonstrated for determining molecular diffusivity in the zeolite by monitoring the temporal response of light interference from the zeolite film during the dynamic process of gas adsorption. The optical thickness of the zeolite film depends on the amount of gas adsorption that causes the light interference to shift upon loading molecules into the zeolitic channels...
April 4, 2018: Sensors
Alba Cuena-Lombraña, Mauro Fois, Giuseppe Fenu, Donatella Cogoni, Gianluigi Bacchetta
Increases in temperature have been predicted and reported for the Mediterranean mountain ranges due to global warming and this phenomenon is expected to have profound consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We hereby present the case of Gentiana lutea L. subsp. lutea, a rhizomatous long-lived plant living in Central-Southern Europe, which is at the edge of its ecological and distributional range in Sardinia. Concretely, we analysed the reproductive success experienced during three phenological cycles (2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016) in four representative populations, with particular attention to the phenological cycle of 2014/2015, which has been recorded as one of the warmest periods of the last decades...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Alessandro G Fois, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Salvatore Sotgia, Arduino A Mangoni, Elisabetta Zinellu, Pietro Pirina, Ciriaco Carru, Angelo Zinellu
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal lung disease of unknown origin, is characterized by chronic and progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia which progressively impairs lung function. Oxidative stress is one of the main pathogenic pathways in IPF. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the type of markers of oxidative stress identified in different biological specimens and the effects of antioxidant therapies in patients with IPF. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of publications listed in electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar) from inception to October 2017...
March 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
Mitchell L Worley, Evan M Graboyes, Julie Blair, Suhael Momin, Kent E Armeson, Terry A Day, Andrew T Huang
Objective To describe swallowing outcomes in elderly patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract and identify risk factors for poor postoperative swallowing function. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Sixty-six patients aged ≥70 years underwent microvascular reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract. The primary outcome measure was the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS); preoperative and postoperative scores were dichotomized to define "good swallowing" and "poor swallowing...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Khoi Anh Nguyen, Truong Xuan Bui, Hue Van Nguyen, Richard O Wein
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of the study was to evaluate for the functional improvement of outcomes of patients undergoing surgical management for tongue cancer at varying periods after surgery. DESIGN: Case series with intervention. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty consecutive patients, from 2011 to 2015, with carcinoma of the tongue undergoing surgical resection and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap. MAIN MEASURES: The Speech Intelligibility Test (SIT) is used for objective evaluation of speech function...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Tiina Ihalainen, Teemu M Luoto, Irina Rinta-Kiikka, Antti Ronkainen, Anna-Maija Korpijaakko-Huuhka
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the recovery of penetration/aspiration and functional feeding outcome in patients with acute TCSCI. SETTING: Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland METHODS: Forty-six patients with TCSCI were enrolled. All the patients received speech therapeutic interventions based on their clinical needs and were examined with a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) at enrollment...
March 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
Hyojun Kim, Ho Jun Lee, Jin-Woo Park
Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical course and final outcome in patients afflicted with severe dysphagia following a diagnosis of lateral medullary syndrome (LMS). Methods: The patients with severe dysphagia after LMS admitted to a rehabilitation unit were included and their respective clinical data were prospectively collected. The criteria of 'severe dysphagia' was defined as the condition that showed decreased pharyngeal constriction with no esophageal passage in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and initially required enteral tube feeding...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Angelo Zinellu, Alessandro Giuseppe Fois, Elisabetta Zinellu, Elisabetta Sotgiu, Salvatore Sotgia, Dionigia Arru, Arduino A Mangoni, Ciriaco Carru, Pietro Pirina
AIM: Since an increase in kynurenine (Kyn) plasma concentrations has been proposed as marker of immune system activation, we studied the associations between the Kyn levels and presence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS & RESULTS: Plasma Kyn, tryptophan (Trp) and Kyn/Trp ratio were measured in 43 COPD patients with clinically defined mild (n = 29) or moderate (n = 14) disease and 43 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
March 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
Snežana Medić, Michalis Katsilieris, Zagorka Lozanov-Crvenković, Constantinos I Siettos, Vladimir Petrović, Vesna Milošević, Snežana Brkić, Nick Andrews, Milan Ubavić, Cleo Anastassopoulou
This study aimed at establishing baseline key epidemiological parameters for varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in Vojvodina, Serbia, with the ultimate goal to quantify the VZV transmission potential in the population. Seroprevalence data generated during the first large cross-sectional VZV serosurvey were modelled, using a two-tiered modelling approach to calculate age-specific forces of infection (FOI), the basic reproduction number (R0) and herd immunity threshold (H). Seroprevalence and modelling data were compared with corresponding pre-vaccination epidemiological parameters from 11 countries participating in the European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2 (ESEN2) project...
2018: PloS One
Hugo Morales-Briceño, Beatriz E Sanchez-Hernandez, Esther Meyer, Manju A Kurian, Alessandro F Fois, Mayela Rodriguez-Violante, Roberto Leal-Ortega, Christian Perez-Lohman, Shekeeb Mohammad, Victor S C Fung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Ashok K Singh, Umesh Kumar, Vinit Raj, Vimal Maurya, Dinesh Kumar, Biswanath Maity, Anand Prakash, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Sudipta Saha
AIMS: In quest for alternative drugs to the well known paullones, recently we synthesized novel paullone-like scaffold, 5H-benzo [2,3][1,4]oxazepino[5,6-b]indoles, where compounds 13a (Ta) and 14a (Tb) attenuated liver cancer specific Hep-G2 cells in vitro and formed stable binding complex with IL-6. Henceforth, we hypothesized that this action is probably due to the blockade of IL-6 mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling cascade. Other objective was to explore the ability of FOIs to regulate metabolic perturbations during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
February 24, 2018: Life Sciences
Claudia Collu, Alessandro Fois, Paola Crivelli, Gianni Tidore, Claudio Fozza, Giovanni Sotgiu, Pietro Pirina
Clinical and radiological manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) are heterogeneous and differential diagnosis can include both benign and malignant diseases (e.g., sarcoidosis, metastatic diseases, and lymphoma). Diagnostic dilemmas can delay appropriate therapy, favoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission.
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Marco Fabbiani, Marco Pazzi, Marco Vincenti, Gloria Tabacch, Ettore Fois, Gianmario Martra
The oligomerization of non-activated amino acids catalyzed by nanostrucrured mineral oxide surfaces holds promises as a sustainable route for the industrial production of polypeptides. To analyze the influence of the surface type on the catalytic process, we performed, via a mild Chemical Vapor Deposition approach, the oligomerization of Glycine on two samples of TiO2 nanoparticles characterized by different relative amounts of defective surface terminations. Based on infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data, we show herein that the formation of peptide bonds on titania nanoparticles does not require highly energetic surface terminations, but can occur also on the most abundant and thermodynamically most stable {101} facets of nanosized anatase...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Alessandro G Fois, Salvatore Sotgia, Arduino A Mangoni, Elisabetta Zinellu, Pietro Pirina, Silvia Negri, Ciriaco Carru, Angelo Zinellu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disabling condition that is characterised by poorly reversible airflow limitation and inflammation. Acute exacerbations of COPD are a common cause of hospitalisation and death among COPD patients. Several biochemical markers have been studied as outcome predictors in COPD; however, their measurement often requires significant time and resources. Relatively simple biomarkers of inflammation calculated from routine complete blood count tests, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), might also predict COPD progression and outcomes...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Katherine J Baxter, Lauren M Baxter, April M Landry, Mark L Wulkan, Amina M Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Long-term dysphagia occurs in up to 50% of repaired esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) patients. The underlying factors are unclear and may include stricture, esophageal dysmotility, or associated anomalies. Our purpose was to determine whether structural airway abnormalities (SAA) are associated with dysphagia in EA/TEF. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of children who underwent EA/TEF repair in our hospital system from 2007 to 2016...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Catriona M Steele, Ashwini M Namasivayam-MacDonald, Brittany T Guida, Julie A Y Cichero, Janice Duivestein, Ben Hanson, Peter Lam, Luis F Riquelme
OBJECTIVE: To assess consensual validity, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative Functional Diet Scale (IDDSI-FDS), a new functional outcome scale intended to capture the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia, as represented by the degree of diet texture restriction recommended for the patient. DESIGN: Participants assigned IDDSI-FDS scores to 16 clinical cases. Consensual validity was measured against reference scores determined by an author reference panel...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Angela Baralla, Alessandro G Fois, Elisabetta Sotgiu, Elisabetta Zinellu, Arduino A Mangoni, Salvatore Sotgia, Angelo Zinellu, Pietro Pirina, Ciriaco Carru
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to inhaled noxious particles or gases. We used a proteomic approach with 2-DE followed by MALDI TOF-MS analyses in order to identify potential biomarkers in the early stages of the disease: GOLD stage mild and moderate. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Blood plasma was collected from 43 patients with mild and moderate COPD as well as from 43 age and sex matched control subjects...
February 7, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Mydhili Mayadevi, Krishnakumar Thankappan, Shashikant Vishnubhai Limbachiya, Sivakumar Vidhyadharan, Brenda Villegas, Melody Ouyoung, Deepak Balasubramanian, Jayakumar R Menon, Uttam Sinha, Subramania Iyer
The study considered the feasibility and impact of interdisciplinary telemedicine discussions in the management of post-treatment dysphagia in patients with head and neck tumors. This is a retrospective analysis of patients with persistent dysphagia after treatment for head and neck pathology, at an institute in India. The cases were discussed in the telemedicine meeting conducted between host institute and a second unit in the United States. A monthly meeting was organized, using an internet-based video conference system...
February 5, 2018: Dysphagia
Jan Neumann, Christoph Schmaderer, Sebastian Finsterer, Alexander Zimmermann, Dominik Steubl, Anne Helfen, Markus Berninger, Fabian Lohöfer, Ernst J Rummeny, Reinhard Meier, Moritz Wildgruber
BACKGROUND: Quantitative Imaging of microcirculatory disorders is challenging. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of 2D Fluorescence Optical Imaging (FOI) for characterization and quantification of microcirculatory disorders in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) of the upper extremity. METHODS: 9 patients with various clinical presentations of PAOD of the upper extremity were included. Quantitative analysis of both hands was performed by assessing the fluorescence intensity of Indocyanine Green (ICG) dynamically over a time period of 360 seconds...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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