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Felix Vaux, Steve A Trewick, James S Crampton, Bruce A Marshall, Alan G Beu, Simon F K Hills, Mary Morgan-Richards
The relationship between morphology and inheritance is of perennial interest in evolutionary biology and palaeontology. Using three marine snail genera Penion, Antarctoneptunea and Kelletia, we investigate whether systematics based on shell morphology accurately reflect evolutionary lineages indicated by molecular phylogenetics. Members of these gastropod genera have been a taxonomic challenge due to substantial variation in shell morphology, conservative radular and soft tissue morphology, few known ecological differences, and geographical overlap between numerous species...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Skylar R Hopkins, Cari M McGregor, Lisa K Belden, Jeremy M Wojdak
All dynamic species interaction models contain an assumption that describes how contact rates scale with population density. Choosing an appropriate contact-density function is important, because different functions have different implications for population dynamics and stability. However, this choice can be challenging, because there are many possible functions, and most are phenomenological and thus difficult to relate to underlying ecological processes. Using one such phenomenological function, we described a nonlinear relationship between field transmission rates and host density in a common snail-oligochaete symbiosis...
June 16, 2018: Oecologia
Yue Chen, Cheng Zhang, Jing Chen, Bohan Zhang, Hongqi Zhang, Xuetao Yang, Jingshu Liu, Qingchen Wu
BACKGROUND Transcription factor 21 (TCF21), a member of the class A of basic helix-loop-helix family, has been widely identified as a tumor suppressor. Growing evidence has demonstrated the downregulation of TCF21 in distinct cancers. The aim of this study was to explore the expression and biological functions of TCF21 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS TCF21 expression in esophageal cancer cell lines and carcinomas tissues were detected, and its associations with clinical characteristics were analyzed...
June 17, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Bethany L Reinhart, Karen A Kidd, R Allen Curry, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Scott A Pavey
Although estuaries are critical habitats for many aquatic species, the spatial trends of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in biota from fresh to marine waters are poorly understood. Our objective was to determine if MeHg concentrations in biota changed along a salinity gradient in an estuary. Fourspine Stickleback (Apeltes quadracus), invertebrates (snails, amphipods, and chironomids), sediments, and water were collected from ten sites along the Saint John River estuary, New Brunswick, Canada in 2015 and 2016, with salinities ranging from 0...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Juan Li, Yuting He, Yuan Cao, Yan Yu, Xiaolong Chen, Xiaojuan Gao, Qiuyue Hu
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while its detailed mechanisms are not well illustrated. Our present study revealed that the expression of Gli1, while not Gli2 or Gli3, is significantly increased in HCC cell lines and 20/28 (71.4%) HCC tissues as compared with their corresponding controls. Over expression of Gli1 can promote the migration, invasion, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells. Gli1 can increase the expression of Twist, while not other EMT transcription factors such as Snail, ZEB1, or Slug...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Weerachai Saijuntha, Kanyarat Duenngai, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Trevor N Petney, Ross H Andrews, Paiboon Sithithaworn
Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by infection with the fish-borne trematode Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato that afflicts more than 10million people in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The disease is characterized by a chronic infection that induces hepatobiliary inflammation, especially periductal fibrosis, which can be detected by ultrasonography. This chronic inflammation eventually leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a usually fatal bile duct cancer that develops in approximately 1% of O...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Trevor N Petney, Ross H Andrews, Weerachai Saijuntha, Smarn Tesana, Sattrachai Prasopdee, Nadda Kiatsopit, Paiboon Sithithaworn
There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the systematics and ecology of Opisthorchis viverrini; however, this new knowledge has not only clarified but also complicated the situation. We now know that what was once considered to be a single species is, in fact, a species complex, with the individual species being confined to specific wetland areas. There is also a strong genetic association between the members of the O. viverrini species complex and their Bithynia snail intermediate hosts...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Jacqueline J Janse, Marijke C C Langenberg, Janneke Kos-Van Oosterhoud, Arifa Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Eric A T Brienen, Béatrice M F Winkel, Marianne A A Erkens, Martha T van der Beek, Lisette van Lieshout, Hermelijn H Smits, Bonnie L Webster, Maarten L Zandvliet, Richard Verbeek, Inge M Westra, Pauline Meij, Leo G Visser, Angela van Diepen, Cornelis H Hokke, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Meta Roestenberg
To accelerate the development of novel vaccines for schistosomiasis, we set out to develop a human model for Schistosoma mansoni infection in healthy volunteers. During natural infections, female schistosomes produce eggs that give rise to morbidity. Therefore, we produced single-sex, male Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for human infection without egg production and associated pathology. Cercariae were produced in their intermediate snail hosts in accordance with the principles of good manufacturing practice (GMP)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
R L Crane, S M Cox, S A Kisare, S N Patek
Many predators fracture strong mollusk shells, requiring specialized weaponry and behaviors. The current shell fracture paradigm is based on jaw- and claw-based predators that slowly apply forces (high impulse, low peak force). However, predators also strike shells with transient intense impacts (low impulse, high peak force). Toward the goal of incorporating impact fracture strategies into the prevailing paradigm, we measured how mantis shrimp ( Neogonodactylus bredini ) impact snail shells, tested whether they strike shells in different locations depending on prey shape ( Nerita spp...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Teng Xue, Xiaoyan Xu, Yanqiu Xia, Ya'nan Ren, Fang Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of NADPH oxidase 4( NOX4) in transforming growth factor-β( TGF-β)-induced A549 cells migration. METHODS: The A549 cells were allocated into five groups: TGF-β( stimulation) group, Normal control group, DPI( NOX4 inhibitor) group, TGF-β + DPI group, and DMSO( solvent control)group. The level of ROS were detected by flow cytometry instrument. The level of NOX4, snail and E-cadherin protein were detected by western blot. Use scratches experiment to express the change of A549 cells migration...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Ziyi Yu, Longquan Lou, Yi Zhao
Fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) increases cell motility and invasion in colon tumors, and is linked with ovarian and lung tumors. Furthermore, the increased expression of FGF18 mRNA and protein has been associated with poor overall survival in cancer patients. However, its function has not been investigated in breast cancer. In the present study, we demonstrated that FGF18 promoted cell growth and metastasis in vitro and stimulated tumor growth in xenograft models in vivo. FGF18 mediated the proliferation of MDA‑MB‑231 cells via the ERK/c‑Myc signaling pathway and induced epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) factors to promote cancer migration and invasion...
June 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
Evelyn G Reátegui-Zirena, Christopher J Salice
Diet quality has a strong impact on life history traits but it is not usually considered as a factor in toxicity tests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how diets differing in nutritional content affect sensitivity to cadmium, pyraclostrobin and tributyltin in Lymnaea stagnalis offspring. Three groups were fed a different diet each; lettuce, high-caloric pellets, or a combination of both. Snails fed pellets and both diets had similar growth; however, snails fed lettuce showed lower growth until the 4th month...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Mostafa Karimaei, Mohammad Maroosi, Mansour Baziar, Hamed Biglari, Hooshmand Sharafi, Nezam Mirzaei, Amir Hossein Mahvi
The aquatic ecosystems are continuously endangered due to variety of hazardous chemicals containing different toxic agents which can be emitted from anthropogenic sources. Besides the increasing of human population, various kinds of contaminants enter into the surface water resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate the abundance and diversity of macro invertebrates in two permanent streams located in the northern part of Tehran. The biological integrity of the streams was determined by manual sampling approach at five points...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Surendra R Punganuru, Hanumantha Rao Madala, Constantinos M Mikelis, Anshuman Dixit, Viswanath Arutla, Kalkunte S Srivenugopal
Tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance pose severe limitations to chemotherapy of colorectal cancers (CRCs) necessitating innovative approaches to trigger multiple cytocidal events for increased efficacy. Here, we developed a hybrid drug called KSS19 by combining the COX-2 selective NSAID rofecoxib with the cis-stilbene found in combretastatin A4 (CA4), a problematic, but potent antimicrotubule and anti-angiogenesis agent. The structural design of KSS19 completely prevented the isomerization of CA4 its biologically inactive trans-form...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Anaïs Portet, Richard Galinier, Silvain Pinaud, Julien Portela, Fanny Nowacki, Benjamin Gourbal, David Duval
Insect thioester-containing protein (iTEP) is the most recently defined group among the thioester-containing protein (TEP) superfamily. TEPs are key components of the immune system, and iTEPs from flies and mosquitoes were shown to be major immune weapons. Initially characterized from insects, TEP genes homologous to iTEP were further described from several other invertebrates including arthropods, cniderians, and mollusks albeit with few functional characterizations. In the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata , a vector of the schistosomiasis disease, the presence of a TEP protein (BgTEP) was previously described in a well-defined immune complex involving snail lectins (fibrinogen-related proteins) and schistosome parasite mucins (SmPoMuc)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lu Wang, Guo Dai, Jian Yang, Wanrong Wu, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND The Notch signaling pathway has been reported to play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that the Notch signaling pathway regulates several cellular processes. The present study investigated the effect of the Notch signaling pathway on cell growth, invasiveness, and drug resistance, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), of cervical cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis to measure the expression level of Notch2...
June 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Nikita Abraham, Richard J Lewis
Marine cone snails are a large family of gastropods that have evolved highly potent venoms for predation and defense. The cone snail venom has exceptional molecular diversity in neuropharmacologically active compounds, targeting a range of receptors, ion channels, and transporters. These conotoxins have helped to dissect the structure and function of many of these therapeutically significant targets in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as unravelling the complex cellular mechanisms modulated by these receptors and ion channels...
June 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Chaoju Gong, Jie Shen, Zejun Fang, Lei Qiao, Ruifang Feng, Xianmi Lin, Suyan Li
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults and it carries a high risk of metastasis and mortality. Various pro-inflammatory cytokines have been found to be significantly increased in the aqueous humor or vitreous fluid of UM patients; however, the role of these cytokines in UM metastasis remains elusive. In this study, we found that long-term IL-6 exposure promoted the migration and invasion of UM cells, diminished cell-cell adhesion, and enhanced focal adhesion. Moreover, IL-6 treatment decreased the membranous epithelial marker TJP1 and increased the cytoplasmic mesenchymal marker Vimentin...
June 13, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Shuai Lv, Meng Guan
Previous literatures have reported the role of human micro RNA-1284 (hsa-miR-1284, in short miR-1284) in diverse cancers. However, its biological function in osteosarcoma pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential role of miR-1284 in osteosarcoma. Expression of miR-1284 and HMGB1 were examined in 80 tissues obtained from 40 patients. MiR-1284 level was measured in 5 osteosarcoma cell lines. Relative luciferase activity and HMGB1 expression were examined in MG-63 and U2OS cells transfected with wild type or mutant 3'-UTR of HMGB1 in the presence of miR-1284 mimics or miR-NC...
June 13, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Naomi Sato, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Yayoi Aoyama, Yoshiaki Onodera, Yohei Ozawa, Ken Ito, Hirotaka Ishida, Takashi Kamei, Mika Watanabe, Hironobu Sasano
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is highly malignant. Recently, the expression of myosin 5a, a member of the myosin superfamily, was reported to be associated with increased invasiveness and metastasis in many tumor types. Moreover, myosin 5a is upregulated by Snail and activated by Akt2, both of which are epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. In this study, we confirmed the expression of myosin 5a in ESCC surgical specimens and cell lines, revealing its correlation with tumor invasion, migration, patient prognosis, and expression of EMT-related proteins...
June 10, 2018: Human Pathology
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