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Shawn Dodd, Cailin M Rothwell, Ken Lukowiak
Crowding of snails is a stress that obstructs long-term memory (LTM) formation following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behaviour in Lymnaea stagnalis. In previous experiments, snails of the same strain/population were used for both the crowding and the operant conditioning training. However, there are different strains/populations of Lymnaea stagnalis exhibiting different cognitive abilities. We asked whether Lymnaea of one strain/population are able to determine that they are of a different strain/population...
April 22, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Ryan Tan, Ken Lukowiak
When applied individually, thermal stress (1 hour at 30 °C) and (-)epicatechin (a flavonol found in green tea, e.g.) each enhance long-term memory formation following operant conditioning of Lymnaea aerial respiratory behavior. Snails demonstrate enhanced long-term memory formation when trained in epicatechin-treated pond water or when placed in 30 °C pond water for 1 hour, 1 hour prior to training in pond water. We ask here whether the combined application of epicatechin + thermal stress enhances long-term memory retention length beyond the maximal lengths of the individual factors alone...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
Shimaa Saad El-Din, Hanan Fouad, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Soheir Mahfouz, Rania Elsayed Hussein
Background: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling is recognized as being critical for carcinogenesis. Vitamin D has proved to exert numerous tumor suppressive effects. Effects of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on tumor progression are still controversial. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of BM-MSCs and vitamin D on TGF-β signaling in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on fifty female white albino rats divided equally into 5 groups: controls, HCC induced by diethyl-nitrosamine (DENA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), HCC plus MSCs, HCC plus vitamin D and HCC plus both MSCs and vitamin D...
April 25, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Rooban B Nahomi, Ram H Nagaraj
Human lens epithelial cells (HLE) undergo mesenchymal transition and become fibrotic during posterior capsule opacification (PCO), which is a frequent complication after cataract surgery. TGF-β2 has been implicated in this fibrosis. Previous studies have focused on the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in fibrotic diseases, but the role of HIF-1α in the TGF-β2-mediated fibrosis in HLE is not known. TGF-β2 treatment (10 ng/mL, 48 h) increased the HIF-1α levels along with the EMT markers in cultured human lens epithelial cells (FHL124 cells)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Xiaoyun Song, Xiqiu Zhou, Yuenong Qin, Jianfeng Yang, Yu Wang, Zhenping Sun, Kui Yu, Shuai Zhang, Sheng Liu
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the lowest survival rate of the breast cancer subtypes owing to its aggressive and metastatic behavior. It has been reported that peritumoral adipose tissue contributes to the cell invasiveness and dissemination of TNBC. Emodin is an active anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum, with anticancer properties that have been reported to inhibit lung metastasis in a nude mouse xenograft model. In the present study, the effects of emodin on human TNBC cells and adipocytes were investigated in vivo and in vitro...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ola Lasekan, Megala Muniady, Mee Lin, Fatma Dabaj
BACKGROUND: Food flavor appreciation is one of the first signals along with food appearance and texture encountered by consumers during eating of food. Also, it is well known that flavor can strongly influence consumer's acceptability judgment. The increase in the consumption of snail meat across the world calls for the need to research into the aroma compounds responsible for the distinctive aroma notes of processed snail meat. RESULTS: The odorants responsible for the unique aroma notes in thermally processed giant African snail meats were evaluated by means of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and odor activity values (OAVs) respectively...
April 24, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Jianhui Cai, Limin Xia, Jinlei Li, Shichang Ni, Huayu Song, Xiangbin Wu
Purpose: We investigated the role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) on the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colorectal cancer cells and determined the potential mechanism involved in the metastatic process. Materials and Methods: In this study, flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of target proteins. We used transwell assay to evaluate the migration of cancer cells under specific conditions. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we examined the expressions of cytokines and EMT-related markers in mRNA level...
April 25, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Frank Walther, Marco T Neiber
One of the most mysterious taxa of the terrestrial snail fauna of Turkey is Patula spatiosa Lindholm, 1922. This large species has been described from a single specimen collected in 1914 allegedly in the Kars region (nowadays easternmost Turkey). Up to date, no further specimens have been reported. Its taxonomical position is unclear, even on the family level.
March 16, 2018: Zootaxa
Tsukasa Waki, Shimpei F Hiruta, Satoshi Shimano
A new mite species, Riccardoella (Proriccardoella) tokyoensis n. sp., is described from the lungs of the terrestrial gastropod Tauphaedusa tau (Boettger, 1877) (Clausliidae) collected in a forest city park of Tokyo, Japan. The new species is distinguished from other Riccardoella species by the following morphological characters: tibia II bears 2 setae (vs. 3 setae in other species); femur I bears 5 setae (vs. 4 or 6 setae in other species); seta of trochanter I is absent (vs. 1 seta in other species). Our phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) confirmed that another member of the family Ereynetidae, "Ereynetidae sp...
March 27, 2018: Zootaxa
Svetla Todinova, Yuliana Raynova, Krassimira Idakieva
The thermal unfolding of hemocyanin isoforms, β -HaH and α D + N -HaH, isolated from the hemolymph of garden snails Helix aspersa maxima, was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). One transition, with an apparent transition temperature ( T m ) at 79.88°C, was detected in the thermogram of β -HaH in 20 mM HEPES buffer, containing 0.1 M NaCl, 5 mM CaCl2, and 5 mM MgCl2 , pH 7.0, at scan rate of 1.0°C min-1 . By means of successive annealing procedure, two individual transitions were identified in the thermogram of α D + N -HaH...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Liyang Dong, Xuebang Zhang, Wei Xiang, Junwei Ni, Weizhong Zhou, Haiyan Li
Increasing evidences suggested that radiotherapy can paradoxically promote tumor invasion and metastatic processes, while its detailed mechanism is not well illustrated. Our present study found that radiation can promote the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells via induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was evidenced by the results that radiation induced up regulation of vimentin while down regulation of E-Cadherin. As to the EMT-related transcription factors, radiation increased the expression of Snail, while not Slug, ZEB1 or TWIST...
April 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Antonio A Vázquez, Jorge Sánchez, Annia Alba, Elizabeth Martínez, Luis Alvarez-Lajonchere, Michel Matamoros, James B Coupland
The giant African snail Lissachatina fulica has been reported invading Cuba since 2014 and is now well established in areas of Havana and several nearby regions. This invasive species is of major concern to health authorities given its role as an important vector of parasites such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Here, we update the distribution within Cuba. We also report on our studies of experimental life-history traits to assess the population dynamics and potential for spread of this species in Cuba...
April 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
Laura Devis, Elena Martinez-Garcia, Cristian P Moiola, Maria Teresa Quiles, Maria Antonia Arbos, Tomita Vasilica Stirbat, Françoise Brochard-Wyart, Ángel García, Lorena Alonso-Alconada, Miguel Abal, Berta Diaz-Feijoo, William Thomas, Sylvie Dufour, Gemma Mancebo, Francesc Alameda, Jaume Reventos, Antonio Gil-Moreno, Eva Colas
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the sixth deadliest cancer in women. The depth of myometrial invasion is one of the most important prognostic factors, being directly associated with tumor recurrence and mortality. In this study, ALCAM, a previously described marker of EC recurrence, was studied by immunohistochemistry at the superficial and the invasive tumor areas from 116 EC patients with different degree of myometrial invasion and related to a set of relevant epithelial and mesenchymal markers. ALCAM expression presented a heterogeneous functionality depending on its localization, it correlated with epithelial markers (E-cadherin/β-catenin) at the superficial area, and with mesenchymal markers at the invasive front (COX-2, SNAIL, ETV5, and MMP-9)...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Jih-Tung Pai, Yi-Chin Lee, Si-Ying Chen, Yann-Lii Leu, Meng-Shih Weng
Controlling lung cancer cell migration and invasion via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway has been demonstrated. Searching biological active phytochemicals to repress EGFR-regulated EMT might prevent lung cancer progression. Propolis has been used as folk medicine in many countries and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. In this study, the antimigration and anti-invasion activities of propolin C, a c-prenylflavanone from Taiwanese propolis, were investigated on EGFR-regulated EMT signaling pathway...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Victor Menezes Tunholi, Juberlan Garcia, Esther Maria Mota, Rosane Nora Castro, Emerson Guedes Pontes, Jairo Pinheiro
For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism...
April 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
De la Peña Sol, Santiago-Roque Isela, Olivo-Vidal Zendy, Navarro-Meza Mónica, Xochihua-Rosas Irene, Arroyo-Helguera Omar
Contaminated water with chlorates is a public health problem associated with iodine deficiency. Epidemiological evidence shows that iodine deficiency is a risk factor for preeclampsia (PE). In this study we use human BeWo trophoblast cells exposed to perchlorate (KClO4 ) and changes in gene expression were analyzed by microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblot. The microarray analysis identified 48 transcripts up-regulated and 112 down-regulated in comparison with non-exposed trophoblast. The qRT-PCR analysis confirmed changes in GAS7, PKP2, Emilin, Dynatic 3, protocadherins 11, 15, gamma A12, EGFR, SAFB1, ACE2, ANXA2, Apoliprotein E, SREBF1, and C/EBP-β...
April 16, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Xuelian Cui, Liyan Chen, Jie Sun, Yixuan Wang, Zhenhua Lin
Objective To investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of β-lapachone combined with NVP-BEZ235 on the proliferation and migration of BGC-823 human gastric cancer cells. Methods BGC-823 cells were randomly divided into four groups: control group, 1 μmol/L β-lapachone group, 50 nmol/L NVP-BEZ235 group and 1 μmol/L β-lapachone combined with 50 nmol/L NVP-BEZ235 group. The proliferation of cells was determined using the MTT assay and colony formation assay. The expression levels of proliferation-related proteins phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and cyclin D1 were detected by Western blotting...
February 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Leon Hilgers, Stefanie Hartmann, Michael Hofreiter, Thomas von Rintelen
The radula is the central foraging organ and apomorphy of the Mollusca. However, in contrast to other innovations, including the mollusk shell, genetic underpinnings of radula formation remain virtually unknown. Here we present the first radula formative tissue transcriptome using the viviparous freshwater snail Tylomelania sarasinorum and compare it to foot tissue and the shell-building mantle of the same species. We combine differential expression, functional enrichment, and phylostratigraphic analyses to identify both specific and shared genetic underpinnings of the three tissues as well as their dominant functions and evolutionary origins...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Diego Quintanilla-Ahumada, Pedro A Quijón, Jorge M Navarro, José Pulgar, Cristian Duarte
The transfer of seaweeds from subtidal bottoms to nearby intertidal rocky shores is a common but often overlooked phenomenon. Freshly detached seaweeds often represent critical trophic subsidies for herbivores living in upper-shore rocky intertidal areas, such as the marine snail Diloma nigerrima. This species relies on three species of seaweeds for food and displays feeding strategies to deal with a resource that is scarce and at times unpredictable. This study focused on the nutritional quality of freshly detached algae (Durvillaea antarctica, Lessonia spicata and Lessonia trabeculata) and measured Diloma nigerrima's algal consumption rates in trials with and without choice...
2018: PloS One
Xinzhi Liu, Yimamu Yidayitula, Heng Zhao, Yi Luo, Xiaoqiang Ma, Minhua Xu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) LINC00152 plays important roles in the progression of some tumors. However, the role of LINC00152 in human l glioblastoma is still unknown. In this study, we indicated that LINC00152 expression level was upregulated in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of LINC00152 promoted the U87 and LN229 cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, overexpression of LINC00152 suppressed the E-cadherin expression, where ectopic expression of LINC00152 promoted the N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Snail expression...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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