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Justyna Czaban-Jóźwiak, Rafał Loska, Mieczyslaw Makosza
Readily available ethyl chlorofluoroacetate, when treated with a strong base, forms an -chloro--fluorocarbanion that adds to nitroarenes at position ortho- or para- to the nitro group with formation of anionic sigmaH-adducts. Subsequent base-induced beta-elimination of HCl proceeds selectively to give nitrobenzylic alpha-fluorocarbanions and then, upon protonation, ethyl alpha-fluoro-alpha-nitroarylacetates.
October 26, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
D Möncke, E I Kamitsos, D Palles, R Limbach, A Winterstein-Beckmann, T Honma, Z Yao, T Rouxel, L Wondraczek
A series of transition and post-transition metal ion (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Bi) binary borate glasses was studied with special consideration of the cations impact on the borate structure, the cations cross-linking capacity, and more generally, structure-property correlations. Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies were used for the structural characterization. These complementary techniques are sensitive to the short-range order as in the differentiation of tetrahedral and trigonal borate units or regarding the number of non-bridging oxygen ions per unit...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhunzhun Yu, Yongfeng Li, Jiameng Shi, Ben Ma, Lu Liu, Junliang Zhang
The development of an efficient method for the site-selective substitution of unprotected phenols has long been considered as an attractive but challenging task. Herein, we describe a highly chemo- and ortho-selective substitution reaction of phenols with α-aryl α-diazoacetates with commercially available (C6 F5 )3 B as the catalyst. This reaction proceeds under simple and mild conditions with high efficiency, it features a wide substrate scope and can be easily scaled up.
October 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Tao Yang, Tyler P Troy, Bo Xu, Oleg Kostko, Musahid Ahmed, Alexander M Mebel, Ralf I Kaiser
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are omnipresent in the interstellar medium (ISM) and also in carbonaceous meteorites (CM) such as Murchison. However, the basic reaction routes leading to the formation of even the simplest PAH-naphthalene (C10 H8 )-via the hydrogen-abstraction/acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism still remain ambiguous. Here, by revealing the uncharted fundamental chemistry of the styrenyl (C8 H7 ) and the ortho-vinylphenyl radicals (C8 H7 )-key transient species of the HACA mechanism-with acetylene (C2 H2 ), we provide the first solid experimental evidence on the facile formation of naphthalene in a simulated combustion environment validating the previously postulated HACA mechanism for these two radicals...
October 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Ramulu Akula, Patrick J Guiry
An enantioselective Pd-catalyzed DAAA of α-aryl-β-oxo esters has been developed employing the (R,R)-ANDEN-phenyl Trost ligand to prepare a series of α-aryl-α-allyldihydrocoumarins and 3-isochromanones. A variety of aryl groups were successfully employed to afford the dihydrocoumarin and 3-isochromanone products in high yields up to 95% and ee's up to 96%. Under these conditions, substrates containing di- and mono-ortho-substituted aryl groups gave the highest levels of enantioselectivities. This work represents the first example of the enantioselective preparation of all-carbon quaternary α-allyl-α-aryl dihydrocoumarins and 3-isochromanones...
October 26, 2016: Organic Letters
Xiaochao Shi, Masayoshi Nishiura, Zhaomin Hou
The simultaneous chain-growth and step-growth polymerization of a monomer is of great interest and importance because it can produce unique macromolecules which are difficult to prepare by other means. However, such a transformation is usually difficult to achieve in one polymerization system because chain-growth polymerization and step-growth polymerization proceed by different reaction mechanisms. Reported here is the simultaneous chain-growth and step-growth polymerization of para- and meta-methoxystyrenes catalyzed by half-sandwich rare-earth alkyl complexes, and the step-growth polymerization proceeds by the C-H polyaddition of anisyl units to vinyl groups...
October 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Emilia Kowalska, Piotr Bałczewski
The present work describes the first use of ultrasounds in the Bradsher cyclisation of activated and non-activated ortho-formyl diarylmethanes. This reaction is also the first example of electrophilic, aromatic cyclisation assisted by ultrasounds which leads to pure polycyclic, fused aromatic hydrocarbons containing 3 and 4 fused rings in excellent yields. The reaction proceeds not only in aqueous but also in non-aqueous media at milder conditions (room temperature) and in much shorter reaction times than in conventional protocols...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Rackel Hatice Milhomens Gualberto Erduran, Fernando Akio Maeda, Sandra Regina Mota Ortiz, Tarcila Triviño, Acácio Fuziy, Paulo Eduardo Guedes Carvalho
The present study aimed to evaluate the precision of the torque applied by 0.022" self-ligating brackets of different brands, the precision of parallelism between the inner walls of their slots, and precision of their slot height. Eighty brackets for upper central incisors of eight trademarked models were selected: Abzil, GAC, American Orthodontics, Morelli, Orthometric, Ormco, Forestadent, and Ortho Organizers. Images of the brackets were obtained using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and these were measured using the AutoCAD 2011 software...
October 22, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Johnson Lin
Quantification of gene expression of Acinetobacter strain Y under 1000 mg/l of phenol was investigated using qPCR and proteomic analyses. The results show that Acinetobacter strain Y utilized 100 % of phenol within 18 h of exposure. The results of qPCR and proteomic analyses demonstrate a sequential expression of phenol-degrading genes of Acinetobacter strain Y via the ortho-pathway followed by the β-ketoadipate pathway. Many stress-responsive proteins such as chaperones, chaperonins, porins and the enzymes involved in the signal transduction pathway were upregulated especially in the early stage...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Penghui Du, He Zhao, Chenming Liu, Qingguo Huang, Hongbin Cao
The transformation of captopril (CAP), a widely-used thiol drug, was studied with the presence of dissolved model humic constituents (HCs) in a laccase-catalyzed system. Reaction products were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry and condensed fukui function computation. CAP reacted with different model HCs in the enzymatic system for 1 h, ranging from 75% (syringic acid) to 96% (p-coumaric acid). In the absence of HCs, only 15% of CAP was removed through self-coupling...
October 14, 2016: Water Research
Jiaming Chen, Ying Peng, Jiang Zheng
Saracatinib, is a highly selective Src kinase inhibitor against all Src kinase family members and has demonstrated anti-cancer effects in preclinical models. Unfortunately, it has shown multiple adverse effects during its clinical trials, along with time-dependent inhibition of P450 enzymes. The major objective of this study was to identify reactive metabolites of saracatinib in vitro and in vivo. Four oxidative metabolites (M1-M4) were detected in rat and human liver microsomal incubation systems after exposure to saracatinib...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
The formation of DNA adducts by the attack of intermediates derived from toxic substances at the C8 position of 2-deoxyguanosine (dG) is a common damaging event. Although the majority of studies on C8-dG adducts have focused on lesions containing a C8-N-C tether between the bulky moiety and the nucleobase, the formation of O-linked lesions with a similar tether topology and C-linked adducts involving direct C8-C connectivity have also been uncovered. Several studies have been done to try to better understand the structural impact and mutagenicity of O-linked and C-linked aryl C8-dG adducts, including lesions arising from unsubstituted and chloro substituted phenols, and the food mutagen ochratoxin A (OTA)...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Ji Luo, Qingyang Liu, Kunihiko Morihiro, Alexander Deiters
Using small molecules to control the function of proteins in live cells with complete specificity is highly desirable, but challenging. Here we report a small-molecule switch that can be used to control protein activity. The approach uses a phosphine-mediated Staudinger reduction to activate protein function. Genetic encoding of an ortho-azidobenzyloxycarbonyl amino acid using a pyrrolysyl transfer RNA synthetase/tRNACUA pair in mammalian cells enables the site-specific introduction of a small-molecule-removable protecting group into the protein of interest...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
Juntian Zhang, Dawen Niu, Vincent A Brinker, Thomas R Hoye
Benzynes produced thermally by the cycloisomerization of triyne-containing precursors [i.e., by the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction] react with phenols at the carbon ortho to the hydroxyl in an enelike fashion. Following tautomerization of the intermediate cyclohexadienones, this produces biaryl derivatives. DFT calculations of model reactions support this mechanistic interpretation. Substituted, unsymmetrical phenols and bis-phenols react in a fashion that can be explained by engagement of the most readily available (non-hydrogen-bonded) hydroxyl in the phenol-ene process...
October 21, 2016: Organic Letters
Ivan Ljubic, Aleksandar Sabljic, Marija Bonifacic
The reactions of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals in aqueous medium are of interest because they exhibit a rich variety of fundamentally important competing mechanisms, such as proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), hydrogen atom transfer, free radical substitutions, abstractions and additions etc. We present a theoretical study of the mechanism and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of α-hydroxyisopropyl (2-propanol) radical with four halogenated organic substrates: iodoacetate (IAc), iodoacetamide (IAm), 5-bromouracil (5-BrU), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hai-Tao Yang, Yi-Chen Tan, Jie Ge, He Wu, Jia-Xing Li, Yang Yang, Xiao-Qiang Sun, Chun-Bao Miao
The thermal reaction of C60 with aromatic aldehydes and inactive secondary amines for the stereoselective synthesis of trans-1,2,5-trisubstitutedfulleropyrrolidines has been developed. Moreover, when an ortho-hydroxyl group was located at the phenyl ring of the generated fulleropyrrolidines, the Cu(OAc)2-promoted regioselective intramolecular C-O coupling reaction occurred to generate unique tricycles-fused fullerene derivatives.
October 21, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Agostino Biafora, Thilo Krause, Dagmar Hackenberger, Florian Belitz, Lukas J Gooßen
A system consisting of catalytic amounts of [(p-cym)RuCl2 ]2 /PEt3 ⋅HBF4 , K2 CO3 as the base, and NMP as the solvent efficiently mediates the ortho-C-H arylation of benzoic acids with aryl bromides at 100 °C. Replacing the phosphine ligand with the amino acid dl-pipecolinic acid enables the analogous transformation with aryl chlorides. The key advantage of this broadly applicable transformation is the use of an inexpensive ruthenium catalyst in combination with simple carboxylates as directing groups, which can either be tracelessly removed or used as anchor points for decarboxylative ipso substitutions...
October 21, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Sunday A Adebusoye
Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, previously isolated on polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures, was found to aerobically utilize a wide spectrum of substituted aromatic compounds including 4-fluoro-, 4-chloro- and 4-bromobenzoic acids as a sole carbon and energy source. Other chlorobenzoic acid (CBA) congeners such as 2-, 3-, 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-CBA were all rapidly transformed to respective chlorocatechols (CCs). Under aerobic conditions, strain SK-3 grew readily on 4-CBA to a maximum concentration of 5 mM above which growth became impaired and yielded no biomass...
October 20, 2016: Biodegradation
Song-Lin Zhang, Ze-Long Yu
Divergent synthesis of indoles, oxindoles, isocoumarins and isoquinolinones is described in this report by using a general Pd-catalyzed tandem reaction of β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds with aryl halides bearing an ortho-nitro, -ester or -cyano substituent. A key retro-aldol/α-arylation reaction is involved that merges classic Pd cross-coupling chemistry with novel Pd-promoted retro-aldol C-C activation to produce α-arylated ketones or esters. Subsequent intramolecular condensation of the carbonyl with the ortho-synthon gives target heterocycles...
October 21, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Nicolás Grimblat, Ariel M Sarotti, Teodoro S Kaufman, Sebastian O Simonetti
The Duff reaction is one of the most employed methods for the ortho-formylation of phenols; however, not much is truly known about its mechanism. Using DFT calculations, we disclose the first theoretical study regarding the selectivity-determining step of the reaction. We have found that this stage is governed by a hydrogen bond, that gives rise to a cyclohexa-2,4-dienone intermediate and establishes the position where the formylation will take place. These findings were evaluated by analysis of the reaction outcome of several non-symmetrically substituted phenols...
October 20, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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