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Eosinophillic Colitis

Anna Keppner, Sumedha Malsure, Antoine Nobile, Muriel Auberson, Olivier Bonny, Edith Hummler
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are diseases with impaired epithelial barrier function. We aimed to investigate whether mutated prostasin and thus, reduced colonic epithelial sodium channel activity predisposes to develop an experimentally dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Wildtype, heterozygous (fr/+), and homozygous (fr/fr) prostasin-mutant rats were treated 7 days with DSS followed by 7 days of recovery and analyzed with respect to histology, clinicopathological parameters, inflammatory marker mRNA transcript expression, and sodium transporter protein expression...
October 12, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Peter Nejsum, Rikke Hagemann-Madsen, Andrew R Williams, Jørgen Agnholt, Jens F Dahlerup, Christian L Hvas
Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Sunhee Park, Tsion Abdi, Mark Gentry, Loren Laine
OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic remission in ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with improved clinical outcomes. We assessed whether histological remission predicts clinical outcomes, estimated the magnitude of effect, and determined whether histological remission provides additional prognostic utility beyond clinical or endoscopic remission. METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched for studies in inflammatory bowel disease providing baseline histological status and relation to an outcome of clinical relapse or exacerbation...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Jae Hyon Park, Dong Yeon Jeong, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Michael Eisenhut, Jae Il Shin
Proinflammatory cytokines are thought to modulate pathogeneses of various inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which has been studied in various allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), has been less considered to be involved in IBDs. However, mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) induced by various cytokines including TSLP were reported to cause polarization of T cell toward Th2 response, the differentiation of regulatory T-cell (Treg), and secretion of IgA by B cells...
October 1, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Chiara Rosso, Gian P Caviglia, Rinaldo Pellicano
Calprotectin is a heterodimeric protein which belongs to the calcium-binding protein S100 family. Calprotectin is released by leukocytes at the site of inflammation and it can be detected in the feces where it remains stable for about a week. Hence, increased fecal calprotectin (FC) levels are found in several inflammatory conditions, mainly the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In the setting of pediatric gastroenterology, the importance of FC has increased over time. This review aims to summarize the most recent findings concerning the role of FC in the algorithm of different inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions among pediatric patients...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Michael A Mancano
The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested...
July 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
Samiullah, Hadi Bhurgri, Umair Sohail
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders represent a spectrum of disorders demonstrating gastrointestinal eosinophilia without any known cause for eosinophilia. Pathogenesis is not clearly established, but immune responses to dietary antigens are implicated. These disorders affect children and adults and are seen in association with allergic disorders. Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed in the setting of mucosal eosinophilia on endoscopic biopsy and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is also diagnosed with endoscopic biopsies...
September 2016: Primary Care
S Courtney Frasch, Eóin N McNamee, Douglas Kominsky, Paul Jedlicka, Claudia Jakubzick, Karin Zemski Berry, Matthias Mack, Glenn T Furuta, James J Lee, Peter M Henson, Sean P Colgan, Donna L Bratton
Proinflammatory consequences have been described for lysophosphatidylcholine, a lipid product of cellular injury, signaling via the G protein-coupled receptor G2A on myeloid and lymphoid inflammatory cells. This prompted the hypothesis that genetic deletion of G2A would limit intestinal inflammation in a mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate. Surprisingly, G2A(-/-) mice exhibited significantly worsened colitis compared with wild-type mice, as demonstrated by disease activity, colon shortening, histology, and elevated IL-6 and IL-5 in colon tissues...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yunjian Zhang, Ling Luo, Xiaofang Wang, Xiaoyang Liu, Xiaoyan Wang, Yi Ding
Mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia has been rarely reported. We reported a case of mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia in a 56-year-old female who took mesalazine without a prescription for suspected ulcerative colitis. She had an elevated eosinophil count in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Eosinophil infiltration was also noted in bone marrow aspirates. Chest radiograph and computed tomography demonstrated bilateral upper lung predominant infiltrates and spirometry showed a restrictive ventilatory defect with a reduced diffusion capacity...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Ming Ming Zhang, Yan-Qing Li
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are a series of diseases which include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, and eosinophilic colitis. Among these disorders, eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon and heterogeneous disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes, presenting with a variety of gastrointestinal manifestations. Up to now, epidemiology and pathophysiology of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are still unclear...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Tomoe Kawamura, Atsushi Hiraoka, Akiko Toshimori, Hidetaro Ueki, Miho Kaneto, Toshihiko Aibiki, Tomonari Okudaira, Hiroka Yamago, Hiromasa Nakahara, Hideomi Tomida, Yoshifumi Suga, Nobuaki Azemoto, Kenichiro Mori, Hideki Miyata, Tomoyuki Ninomiya, Masashi Hirooka, Masanori Abe, Bunzo Matsuura, Yoichi Hiasa, Katsumi Kito, Kojiro Michitaka
A 63-year-old Japanese man whose white blood cell count and total-bilirubin and aminotransferase levels were elevated was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography did not reveal any abnormalities, and there was no evidence of gastritis or colitis on esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Although the patient had no history of drug use or allergies, a high concentration of eosinophils (80%) was noted. A liver biopsy revealed hepatitis with eosinophilic infiltration. The patient's alanine aminotransferase and eosinophil levels improved with the administration of steroids...
2016: Internal Medicine
Christer G B Peterson, Maria Lampinen, Tony Hansson, Maria Lidén, Roger Hällgren, Marie Carlson
OBJECTIVE: Simple, objective and inexpensive tools for the assessment of mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) are highly desirable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a broad spectrum of activity markers comparing two sampling methods: fecal samples and the mucosal patch technique. METHODS: Twenty patients with active UC and 14 healthy controls were characterized by means of clinical indices and endoscopy together with histology and immunohistochemistry on colorectal sections...
September 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Vipul Yadav, Felipe Varum, Roberto Bravo, Esther Furrer, Daniela Bojic, Abdul W Basit
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the 2 major phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which are influenced by a complex interplay of immunological and genetic elements, though the precise etiology still remains unknown. With IBD developing into a globally prevailing disease, there is a need to explore new targets and a thorough understanding of the pathophysiological differences between the healthy and diseased gut could unearth new therapeutic opportunities. In this review, we provide an overview of the major aspects of IBD pathogenesis and thereafter present a comprehensive analysis of the gut pathophysiology leading to a discussion on some of the most promising targets and biologic therapies currently being explored...
October 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Kathryn Peterson, Rafael Firszt, John Fang, Jathine Wong, Ken R Smith, Kristina A Brady
OBJECTIVES: Recent genome-wide association studies have suggested possible genetic associations between eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and genes associated with autoimmunity. No studies to date have looked at potential genetic association of EoE with specific autoimmune diseases by evaluating such diagnoses within family members. Investigate the risk of specific autoimmune disease within EoE probands and their extended family members. METHODS: The Utah Population Database offers a unique opportunity to link medical records from over 85% of Utah's population to genealogy records representing Utah...
July 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Susan Hua, Dane Cook, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are increasingly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in the absence of other known causes of eosinophilia. AREAS COVERED: Clinical management of EGIDs is challenging, as there are currently limited therapeutic options available. The most common EGID is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and rarer forms are eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and eosinophilic colitis...
September 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Francisco Contreras, Carolina Prado, Hugo González, Dafne Franz, Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Fabiola Osorio, Valentina Ugalde, Ernesto Lopez, Daniela Elgueta, Alicia Figueroa, Alvaro Lladser, Rodrigo Pacheco
Dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) expressed on CD4(+) T cells is required to promote neuroinflammation in a murine model of Parkinson's disease. However, how DRD3 signaling affects T cell-mediated immunity remains unknown. In this study, we report that TCR stimulation on mouse CD4(+) T cells induces DRD3 expression, regardless of the lineage specification. Importantly, functional analyses performed in vivo using adoptive transfer of OVA-specific OT-II cells into wild-type recipients show that DRD3 deficiency in CD4(+) T cells results in attenuated differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells toward the Th1 phenotype, exacerbated generation of Th2 cells, and unaltered Th17 differentiation...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
J Bengtsson, I Adlerberth, A Östblom, P Saksena, T Öresland, L Börjesson
OBJECTIVE: Poor pouch function after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis is a considerable problem. Pouchitis and functional disorders are the most common reasons. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial effect in pouchitis but have not been assessed in functional pouch disorders. The aim was to analyse the effects of probiotics in patients with poor pouch function. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were randomized to probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum 299 and Bifidobacterium infantis Cure 21) or placebo in a double blinded, 1:1 fashion...
September 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
I Moshkovits, H Reichman, D Karo-Atar, P Rozenberg, E Zigmond, Y Haberman, N Ben Baruch-Morgenstern, M Lampinen, M Carlson, M Itan, L A Denson, C Varol, A Munitz
Eosinophils are traditionally studied in the context of type 2 immune responses. However, recent studies highlight key innate immune functions for eosinophils especially in colonic inflammation. Surprisingly, molecular pathways regulating innate immune activities of eosinophil are largely unknown. We have recently shown that the CD300f is highly expressed by colonic eosinophils. Nonetheless, the role of CD300f in governing innate immune eosinophil activities is ill-defined. RNA sequencing of 162 pediatric Crohn's disease patients revealed upregulation of multiple Cd300 family members, which correlated with the presence of severe ulcerations and inflammation...
April 27, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Zhiyan Li, Yan Long, Mingjian Bai, Junxia Li, Zhenru Feng
BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy can assess disease activity and severity of ulcerative colitis (UC) accurately, but it is invasive and costly. Role of noninvasive biomarkers of intestinal inflammation in evaluation of patients with UC is not well understood. In this study, we assessed fecal eosinophil cationic protein (FECP), fecal myeloperoxidase (FMPO), and fecal calprotectin (FC) as surrogate markers of disease activity and severity in patients with UC, and then evaluated effect of the combination of these markers...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Katarzyna Jakubowska, Anna Pryczynicz, Piotr Iwanowicz, Andrzej Niewiński, Elżbieta Maciorkowska, Jerzy Hapanowicz, Dorota Jagodzińska, Andrzej Kemona, Katarzyna Guzińska-Ustymowicz
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to a group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The study group comprised 34 patients with UC and 10 patients with CD. Evaluation of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 expression in tissue samples was performed using immunohistochemistry. The overexpression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was dominant in both the glandular epithelium and inflammatory infiltration in UC patients...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
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