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Olga Puccioni, Antonino Vallesi
The present study investigated effects of cognitive aging on conflict resolution (the ability to suppress prepotent and distracting, irrelevant information) and conflict adaptation (the adjustment of conflict resolution based on previously experienced conflict level). In addition, it aimed at investigating whether Cognitive Reserve (CR) and intelligence play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in both factors. A color-word Stroop task with no feature repetitions (i.e., neither the word nor the color was repeated in two subsequent trials) was administered to 23 older adults with no dimentia (65-79 years old) and 22 younger controls (18-34 years old), in addition to measures of intelligence and CR...
December 2012: Psychology and Aging
Ronald A Cohen, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Assawin Gongvatana, Steven Buchthal, Giovanni Schifitto, Uraina Clark, Robert Paul, Michael Taylor, Paul Thompson, David Tate, Jeffery Alger, Mark Brown, Jianhui Zhong, Thomas Campbell, Elyse Singer, Eric Daar, Deborah McMahon, Yuen Tso, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Bradford Navia
Cerebral metabolite disturbances occur among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, and are thought to reflect neuropathology, including proinflammatory processes, and neuronal loss. HIV-associated cortical atrophy continues to occur, though its basis is not well understood, and the relationship of cerebral metabolic disturbance to structural brain abnormalities in HIV has not been well delineated. We hypothesized that metabolite disturbances would be associated with reduced cortical and subcortical volumes...
November 2010: Journal of Neurovirology
Megan Witte Bewernitz, William C Mann, Patricia Dasler, PatrĂ­cia Belchior
Nearly 14% of people over age 71 have some form of dementia, with prevalence increasing to nearly 40% of those over age 90. As dimentia progresses, it impacts a person's independent functions and can increase the burden on caregivers. The use of assistive devices can help individuals with dementia live more independently. However, older individuals with cognitive impairment have difficulties using assistive technology devices because the devices are not designed to address their needs. The development of "smart devices" has potential in assisting older adults with cognitive impairment...
2009: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Victor Valcour, Priscilla Yee, Andrew E Williams, Bruce Shiramizu, Michael Watters, Ola Selnes, Robert Paul, Cecilia Shikuma, Ned Sacktor
Low CD4 lymphocyte count was a marker for neurological disease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); but is now less common among patients with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this study, the authors determine the reliability of self-reported CD4 nadir and its predictive value for neurological status. The authors identify a high degree of reliability (r = .90). After adjusting for age, current CD4 count, and duration of HIV-1, CD4 nadir relates to a current diagnosis of HIV-associated dimentia (HAD) (odds ratio [OR]: 1...
October 2006: Journal of Neurovirology
Robert K Fujimura, Imad Khamis, Paul Shapshak, Karl Goodkin
Infection of the brain by HIV-1 often results in cognitive- motor disorders, the most severe form being HIV-1 associated dimentia (HAD). However, the etiology and pathogenesis of neuroAIDS at the molecular level is still not fully understood and controversial issues remain, including the significance of abortive infection and localized viral load. This paper proposes that quantitative comparison of HIV-1 proviral and RNAloads across the brain will clarify some of these issues. It was hypothesized that there are differences in ratios of multispliced and unspliced HIV RNA in different regions of brain by analogy with prior findings of brain regional differences in virus and strains of HIV-1...
2004: Journal of Neuro-AIDS
Junko Babasaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2005: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
I S Preobrazhenskaia, A A Strutsenko
Fifty patients diagnosed with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) according to criteria of I. MacKleith et al (2000), mean age 71.1 +/- 6.1 years, have been studied. Severity of dimentia was evaluated using a battery of neuropsychological scales and tests. A state of autonomic nervous system function was determined during clinical examination, the results of which were used as a basis for the Scale of autonomic disorders severity, and by instrumental methods. Most of patients with DLB had autonomic disorders, such as orthostatic hypotension, heat intolerability, dryness of cutaneous epithelium and mouth mucous membranes, urination disorders...
2005: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
S J Murch, P A Cox, S A Banack, J C Steele, O W Sacks
We tested the brain tissues of the Chamorro people of Guam who died of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dimentia complex (ALS/PDC) for the neurotoxin beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA). We used validated high-pressure liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses to test well-characterized archival tissues of the superior frontal gyrus from eight Chamorros from Guam and a comparison group of 15 Canadians. BMAA was found as a free amino acid in 83% of Chamorro ALS/PDC patients (3-10 microg/g) as a protein-associated amino acid in 100% of the Chamorro individuals (149-1190 microg/g)...
October 2004: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
G A Zharikov
95 elderly and senile patients with mild dementia were followed up: 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 25 patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT), 25 patients with vascular dementia (VD), 25 patients with combined vascular and Alzheimer's type of dementia (DAT/VD). Follow-up of patients for 1 and 3 years demonstrated that the diagnosis of mild dementia according to CDR and ICD-10 criteria had a differential-diagnostic specificity and reliability. It was also noticed that the nosologic qualification of mild dimentia syndrome was difficult or even impossible in patients with DAT/VD in conditions of a single examination...
1998: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
K Matsubayashi, T Wada, K Okumiya, M Fujisawa, H Taoka, S Kimura, Y Doi
A comparative community-based study of quality of life (QOL) in the elderly was carried out between two Japanese rural towns, Kahoku and Yaku.QOL, which included the subjective sense of health, appetite, sleep at night, mood, memory, family relationships, friendship, economic condition, life satisfaction and happiness was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) as well a Geriatric depression Scale (GDS), a variety of neurobehavioral function tests, and a questionnaire about activity of daily living (ADL)...
October 1994: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
F J Gillingham, J Yamashita
516 cases of supratentorial glioblastoma, treated in the Department of Surgical Neurology, University of Edinburgh from 1950 through 1970, were analysed with a particular attention to the effect of radiotherapy and the factors contributing to better prognosis. The length of postoperative survival was known in 349 cases and it was more than one month in 238 cases. A megavoltage linear accelerator was introduced in 1955 for radiotherapy of glioblastoma and steroids were started to be used almost routinely in 1966 for pre- and postoperative peritumoral cerebral edema...
April 1975: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
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