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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201524/recent-discovery-of-phallic-depictions-in-prehistoric-cave-art-in-asia-minor
#1
Ayhan Verit
It was more recently announced by archeological society that cave art about human being dated back to 8,000 years ago had been discovered at southern Asia Minor. The primitive human figures involved the phallus pointing the ground almost the same size with legs. The cave artists represented their masterpiece without any exaggeration with the exception of extraordinary phallus. The erected penis is regarded as the symbol of giver of life and linked with the creator of the Universe in the initial period of art...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188235/precise-dating-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-in-murcia-spain-supports-late-neandertal-persistence-in-iberia
#2
João Zilhão, Daniela Anesin, Thierry Aubry, Ernestina Badal, Dan Cabanes, Martin Kehl, Nicole Klasen, Armando Lucena, Ignacio Martín-Lerma, Susana Martínez, Henrique Matias, Davide Susini, Peter Steier, Eva Maria Wild, Diego E Angelucci, Valentín Villaverde, Josefina Zapata
The late persistence in Southern Iberia of a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic is supported by the archeological stratigraphy and the radiocarbon and luminescence dating of three newly excavated localities in the Mula basin of Murcia (Spain). At Cueva Antón, Mousterian layer I-k can be no more than 37,100 years-old. At La Boja, the basal Aurignacian can be no less than 36,500 years-old. The regional Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition process is thereby bounded to the first half of the 37th millennium Before Present, in agreement with evidence from Andalusia, Gibraltar and Portugal...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187534/bulk-magnetic-domain-stability-controls-paleointensity-fidelity
#3
Greig A Paterson, Adrian R Muxworthy, Yuhji Yamamoto, Yongxin Pan
Nonideal, nonsingle-domain magnetic grains are ubiquitous in rocks; however, they can have a detrimental impact on the fidelity of paleomagnetic records-in particular the determination of ancient magnetic field strength (paleointensity), a key means of understanding the evolution of the earliest geodynamo and the formation of the solar system. As a consequence, great effort has been expended to link rock magnetic behavior to paleointensity results, but with little quantitative success. Using the most comprehensive rock magnetic and paleointensity data compilations, we quantify a stability trend in hysteresis data that characterizes the bulk domain stability (BDS) of the magnetic carriers in a paleomagnetic specimen...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182674/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-diversity-and-ancestry-of-korean-dogs
#4
Bong Hwan Choi, Hasini I Wijayananda, Soo Hyun Lee, Doo Ho Lee, Jong Seok Kim, Seok Il Oh, Eung Woo Park, Cheul Koo Lee, Seung Hwan Lee
There are various hypotheses on dog domestication based on archeological and genetic studies. Although many studies have been conducted on the origin of dogs, the existing literature about the ancestry, diversity, and population structure of Korean dogs is sparse. Therefore, this study is focused on the origin, diversity and population structure of Korean dogs. The study sample comprised four major categories, including non-dogs (coyotes and wolves), ancient, modern and Korean dogs. Selected samples were genotyped using an Illumina CanineHD array containing 173,662 single nucleotide polymorphisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152566/radiocarbon-chronology-of-manot-cave-israel-and-upper-paleolithic-dispersals
#5
Bridget Alex, Omry Barzilai, Israel Hershkovitz, Ofer Marder, Francesco Berna, Valentina Caracuta, Talia Abulafia, Lauren Davis, Mae Goder-Goldberger, Ron Lavi, Eugenia Mintz, Lior Regev, Daniella Bar-Yosef Mayer, José-Miguel Tejero, Reuven Yeshurun, Avner Ayalon, Mira Bar-Matthews, Gal Yasur, Amos Frumkin, Bruce Latimer, Mark G Hans, Elisabetta Boaretto
The timing of archeological industries in the Levant is central for understanding the spread of modern humans with Upper Paleolithic traditions. We report a high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for Early Upper Paleolithic industries (Early Ahmarian and Levantine Aurignacian) from the newly excavated site of Manot Cave, Israel. The dates confirm that the Early Ahmarian industry was present by 46,000 calibrated years before the present (cal BP), and the Levantine Aurignacian occurred at least between 38,000 and 34,000 cal BP...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151368/the-application-of-scanning-electron-microscopy-with-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy-sem-edx-in-ancient-dental-calculus-for-the-reconstruction-of-human-habits
#6
Dana Fialová, Radim Skoupý, Eva Drozdová, Aleš Paták, Jakub Piňos, Lukáš Šín, Radoslav Beňuš, Bohuslav Klíma
The great potential of scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) is in detection of unusual chemical elements included in ancient human dental calculus to verify hypotheses about life and burial habits of historic populations and individuals. Elemental spectra were performed from archeological samples of three chosen individuals from different time periods. The unusual presence of magnesium, aluminum, and silicon in the first sample could confirm the hypothesis of high degree of dental abrasion caused by particles from grinding stones in flour...
November 20, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139168/hunter-gatherer-dental-pathology-do-historic-accounts-of-aboriginal-australians-correspond-to-the-archeological-record-of-dental-disease
#7
Judith Littleton
OBJECTIVES: Studies of hunter-gatherer oral pathology, particularly in Australia, often focus upon dental wear and caries or assume that historic studies of Aboriginal people reflect the precontact past. Consequently the range of population variation has been underestimated. In this paper dental pathology from human remains from Roonka are compared with a model of dental pathology derived from historic studies. The aim is to identify aspects of dental pathology indicative of regional or intra-population diversity...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116260/the-potential-of-alkyl-amides-as-novel-biomarkers-and-their-application-to-paleocultural-deposits-in-china
#8
Jianjun Wang, Bernd R T Simoneit, Guoying Sheng, Liqi Chen, Libin Xu, Xinming Wang, Yuhong Wang, Liguang Sun
A series of alkyl amides was detected and identified in the sedimentary record from an archaeological site at Yuchisi, Mengcheng, Anhui, China. The alkyl amides profiles change abruptly at the depth corresponding to the transition between two prehistoric cultures, which also corresponds to an abrupt change in the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0. The different patterns of variation of the longer and shorter chain alkyl amides at the depth of the cultural transition may reflect differences in their response to external environmental changes, as well as different sources...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099937/the-paleo-indian-entry-into-south-america-according-to-mitogenomes
#9
Stefania Brandini, Paola Bergamaschi, Marco Fernando Cerna, Francesca Gandini, Francesca Bastaroli, Emilie Bertolini, Cristina Cereda, Luca Ferretti, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Vincenza Battaglia, Antonio Salas, Ornella Semino, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri, Antonio Torroni
Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 thousand years ago (Kya) at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 Kya, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089124/freshwater-mussel-shells-unionidae-describe-anthropogenic-changes-to-trace-element-cycling-within-a-north-american-river
#10
W Aaron Wilson, Andrea K Fritts, Mark W Fritts, Jason M Unrine, Brent N Tweedy, Andrew F Casper
Bivalve shells provide an unparalleled opportunity for understanding the history of bioavailable trace elements in aquatic systems. The present study analyzed the elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, U, V and Zn in freshwater mussel shells collected from a large floodplain river. Shells were collected fresh, sampled from a historic archive, and retrieved from pre-Columbian archeological sites. The elements As, Co, Cu and Ni varied with time over the course of the 20th century. When compared to the pre-Columbian shells, 20th century shell concentrations for these elements were either consistently higher (Co, Cu and Ni) or lower (As)...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073793/infertility-and-surrogacy-first-mentioned-on-a-4000-year-old-assyrian-clay-tablet-of-marriage-contract-in-turkey
#11
Ahmet Berkiz Turp, Ismail Guler, Nuray Bozkurt, Aysel Uysal, Bulent Yilmaz, Mustafa Demir, Onur Karabacak
Mankind has been expressing the breeding topic for thousands of years. Reproduction is the primary instinct of human beings and it is a social, cultural, medical issue. Demographic infertility is one of them, which is defined infertility as the inability to become pregnant with a live birth, within five years of regular sexual contact based upon a consistent union status in marriage maintaining a desire for a child with the lack of contraceptive use and non-lactating. A first mentions about infertility and surrogacy is discovered on a 4000-year-old clay tablet of marriage contract belonging to the Assyrian period exhibited at Istanbul Archeology Museum in Turkey...
October 26, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058106/line-of-fire-what-happened-at-the-wantabadgery-seige
#12
Roger W Byard, Adam Ford, Tony Raymond, Jeremy J Sofonia, Owen Kaluza, David G Barnes
A gunfight between police and a gang of men led by the self-styled "Captain Moonlite", a.k.a. George Scott, occurred on 16th November 1879 at a farmhouse near Wantabadgery Station in the colony of New South Wales. The skirmish resulted in the deaths of two bushrangers and one police officer. As a result, Captain Moonlite and Thomas Rogan were hung in Sydney's Darlinghurst Gaol on 20 January 1880 for the murder of Constable Edward Webb-Bowen. Culpability for firing the fatal shot, however, has remained a source of controversy...
October 23, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053746/external-auditory-exostoses-and-hearing-loss-in-the-shanidar-1-neandertal
#13
Erik Trinkaus, Sébastien Villotte
The Late Pleistocene Shanidar 1 older adult male Neandertal is known for the crushing fracture of his left orbit with a probable reduction in vision, the loss of his right forearm and hand, and evidence of an abnormal gait, as well as probable diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. He also exhibits advanced external auditory exostoses in his left auditory meatus and larger ones with complete bridging across the porus in the right meatus (both Grade 3). These growths indicate at least unilateral conductive hearing (CHL) loss, a serious sensory deprivation for a Pleistocene hunter-gatherer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033780/evolutionary-musicology-meets-embodied-cognition-biocultural-coevolution-and-the-enactive-origins-of-human-musicality
#14
REVIEW
Dylan van der Schyff, Andrea Schiavio
Despite evolutionary musicology's interdisciplinary nature, and the diverse methods it employs, the field has nevertheless tended to divide into two main positions. Some argue that music should be understood as a naturally selected adaptation, while others claim that music is a product of culture with little or no relevance for the survival of the species. We review these arguments, suggesting that while interesting and well-reasoned positions have been offered on both sides of the debate, the nature-or-culture (or adaptation vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027332/demic-and-cultural-diffusion-in-prehistoric-europe-in-the-age-of-ancient-genomes
#15
Eugene E Harris
Ancient genomes can help us detect prehistoric migrations, population contractions, and admixture among populations. Knowing the dynamics of demography is invaluable for understanding culture change in prehistory, particularly the roles played by demic and cultural diffusion in transformations of material cultures. Prehistoric Europe is a region where ancient genome analyses can help illuminate the interplay between demography and culture change. In Europe, there is more archeological evidence, in terms of detailed studies, radiometric dates, and explanatory hypotheses that can be evaluated, than in any other region of the world...
September 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025415/genetic-evidence-of-multiple-invasions-and-a-small-number-of-founders-of-asian-palmyra-palm-borassus-flabellifer-in-thailand
#16
Kwanjai Pipatchartlearnwong, Akarapong Swatdipong, Supachai Vuttipongchaikij, Somsak Apisitwanich
BACKGROUND: Borassus flabellifer or Asian Palmyra palm is an important crop for local economies in the South and Southeast Asia for its fruit and palm sugar production. Archeological and historical evidence indicated the presence of this species in Southeast Asia dating back at least 1500 years. B. flabellifer is believed to be originated in Africa, spread to South Asia and introduced into Southeast Asia through commercial routes and dissemination of cultures, however, the nature of its invasion and settlement in Thailand is unclear...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962010/exome-sequencing-provides-evidence-of-polygenic-adaptation-to-a-fat-rich-animal-diet-in-indigenous-siberian-populations
#17
PingHsun Hsieh, Brian Hallmark, Joseph Watkins, Tatiana M Karafet, Ludmila P Osipova, Ryan N Gutenkunst, Michael F Hammer
Siberia is one of the coldest environments on Earth and has great seasonal temperature variation. Long-term settlement in northern Siberia undoubtedly required biological adaptation to severe cold stress, dramatic variation in photoperiod, and limited food resources. In addition, recent archeological studies show that humans first occupied Siberia at least 45,000 years ago; yet our understanding of the demographic history of modern indigenous Siberians remains incomplete. In this study, we use whole-exome sequencing data from the Nganasans and Yakuts to infer the evolutionary history of these two indigenous Siberian populations...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957506/complex-patterns-of-admixture-across-the-indonesian-archipelago
#18
Georgi Hudjashov, Tatiana M Karafet, Daniel J Lawson, Sean Downey, Olga Savina, Herawati Sudoyo, J Stephen Lansing, Michael F Hammer, Murray P Cox
Indonesia, an island nation as large as continental Europe, hosts a sizeable proportion of global human diversity, yet remains surprisingly undercharacterized genetically. Here, we substantially expand on existing studies by reporting genome-scale data for nearly 500 individuals from 25 populations in Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Oceania, notably including previously unsampled islands across the Indonesian archipelago. We use high-resolution analyses of haplotype diversity to reveal fine detail of regional admixture patterns, with a particular focus on the Holocene...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912770/infectious-agents-as-markers-of-human-migration-toward-the-amazon-region-of-brazil
#19
REVIEW
Ricardo Ishak, Luiz F A Machado, Izaura Cayres-Vallinoto, Marluísa de O Guimarães Ishak, Antonio C R Vallinoto
Infectious agents are common companions of humans and since ancient times they follow human migration on their search for a better place to live. The study of paleomicrobiology was significantly improved in its accuracy of measurement with the constant development of better methods to detect and analyze nucleic acids. Human tissues are constantly used to trace ancient infections and the association of anthropological evidences are important to confirm the microbiological information. Infectious agents which establish human persistent infections are particularly useful to trace human migrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901181/disassembling-archeology-reassembling-the-modern-world
#20
William Carruthers, Stéphane Van Damme
This article provides a substantive discussion of the relevance of the history of archeology to the history of science. At the same time, the article introduces the papers contained in this special issue as exemplars of this relevance. To make its case, the article moves through various themes in the history of archeology that overlap with key issues in the history of science. The article discusses the role and tension of regimes of science in antiquarian and archeological practices, and also considers issues of scale and place, particularly in relation to the field...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
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