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Archeology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446561/the-role-of-play-objects-and-object-play-in-human-cognitive-evolution-and-innovation
#1
Felix Riede, Niels N Johannsen, Anders Högberg, April Nowell, Marlize Lombard
In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life-history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche-construction perspective. Niche-construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures...
January 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430815/microscopic-study-on-the-concretion-of-ceramics-in-the-nanhai-i-shipwreck-of-china-southern-song-dynasty-1-127-1-279-a-d
#2
Xi-Luo Hao, Tie-Quan Zhu, Jin-Jin Xu, Yan-Rong Wang, Xuan-Wei Zhang
"Nanhai I" shipwreck of China Southern Song Dynasty is the oldest and the most integrally preserved shipwreck in the world. The related conservation and archeological research have caught great attention of different experts all over the world. In this study, different types of concretion covered on the surface of the ceramics in "Nanhai I" shipwreck were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer, micro-Raman spectrometer, and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Based on the analyses, we found that the grey concretion was mainly composed of quartz, aragonite, and calcite while the reddish concretion was mainly composed of pyrite and quartz...
February 12, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391430/historical-ecology-reveals-landscape-transformation-coincident-with-cultural-development-in-central-italy-since-the-roman-period
#3
Scott A Mensing, Edward M Schoolman, Irene Tunno, Paula J Noble, Leonardo Sagnotti, Fabio Florindo, Gianluca Piovesan
Knowledge of the direct role humans have had in changing the landscape requires the perspective of historical and archaeological sources, as well as climatic and ecologic processes, when interpreting paleoecological records. People directly impact land at the local scale and land use decisions are strongly influenced by local sociopolitical priorities that change through time. A complete picture of the potential drivers of past environmental change must include a detailed and integrated analysis of evolving sociopolitical priorities, climatic change and ecological processes...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384680/a-comparison-of-common-mass-spectrometry-approaches-for-paleoproteomics
#4
Timothy P Cleland, Elena R Schroeter
The last two decades have seen a broad diversity of methods used to identify and/or characterize proteins in the archeological and paleontological record. Of these, mass spectrometry has opened an unprecedented window into the proteomes of the past, providing protein sequence data from long extinct animals as well as historical and prehistorical artifacts. Thus, application of mass spectrometry to fossil remains has become an attractive source for ancient molecular sequences with which to conduct evolutionary studies, particularly in specimens older than the proposed limit of amplifiable DNA detection...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376123/the-evolution-of-modern-human-brain-shape
#5
Simon Neubauer, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Philipp Gunz
Modern humans have large and globular brains that distinguish them from their extinct Homo relatives. The characteristic globularity develops during a prenatal and early postnatal period of rapid brain growth critical for neural wiring and cognitive development. However, it remains unknown when and how brain globularity evolved and how it relates to evolutionary brain size increase. On the basis of computed tomographic scans and geometric morphometric analyses, we analyzed endocranial casts of Homo sapiens fossils ( N = 20) from different time periods...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355599/stable-isotope-compounds-production-detection-and-application
#6
REVIEW
Vilém Zachleder, Milada Vítová, Monika Hlavová, Šárka Moudříková, Peter Mojzeš, Hermann Heumann, Johannes R Becher, Kateřina Bišová
Stable isotopes are used in wide fields of application from natural tracers in biology, geology and archeology through studies of metabolic fluxes to their application as tracers in quantitative proteomics and structural biology. We review the use of stable isotopes of biogenic elements (H, C, N, O, S, Mg, Se) with the emphasis on hydrogen and its heavy isotope deuterium. We will discuss the limitations of enriching various compounds in stable isotopes when produced in living organisms. Finally, we overview methods for measuring stable isotopes, focusing on methods for detection in single cells in situ and their exploitation in modern biotechnologies...
January 19, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313099/genetic-variation-and-forensic-characterization-of-highland-tibetan-ethnicity-reveled-by-autosomal-str-markers
#7
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Yongdong Su, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Understanding the origin and genetic background of Chinese high-altitude Tibetans play a pivotal role in medical genetics, archeology, anthropology, and forensics. In this study, to investigate the forensic characterization and genetic diversity of Chinese Tibetan, allele frequencies and corresponding forensic statistical parameters of 15 autosomal STRs included in the AmpFℓSTR® Sinofiler™ kit were obtained from 1220 Tibetan individuals residing in Lhasa country, Tibet Autonomous Region. We identified 191 alleles with corresponding allele frequencies varied from 0...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311531/new-perspectives-on-the-origin-of-korean-acupuncture-based-on-materials-from-xiaoyingzi-tomb-yanji-and-neighbouring-region
#8
In Uk Kang, Wung Seok Cha
This article discusses the development of early acupuncture needles as demonstrated by the artifacts excavated from the Northern part of the Yanji district, Jilin, China, during the Japanese colonial era (reported in 1941). Numerous bone needles, stone needles, and other medical devices were found in the Xiaoyingzi excavation. The stone needles from Xiaoyingzi can be categorized into three grades, based on length, of 8cm, 12-15cm, and 18cm. A set of round stones for massage were also discovered, along with obsidian blades...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245697/rediscovery-of-the-type-series-of-the-sacred-shrew-i-sorex-i-i-religiosus-i-i-geoffroy-saint-hilaire-1826-with-additional-notes-on-mummified-shrews-of-ancient-egypt-mammalia-soricidae
#9
Neal Woodman, Claudia Koch, Rainer Hutterer
In 1826, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire described the Sacred Shrew, Sorex religiosus [= Crocidura religiosa] from a series of 22 embalmed individuals that comprised a portion of the Italian archeologist Joseph Passalacqua's collection of Egyptian antiquities from an ancient necropolis near Thebes, central Egypt. Living members of the species were not discovered until the beginning of the 20th century and are currently restricted to the Nile Delta region, well north of the type locality. In 1968, the type series of S...
October 30, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201524/recent-discovery-of-phallic-depictions-in-prehistoric-cave-art-in-asia-minor
#10
Ayhan Verit
It was more recently announced by archeological society that cave art about human being dated back to 8,000 years ago had been discovered at southern Asia Minor. The primitive human figures involved the phallus pointing the ground almost the same size with legs. The cave artists represented their masterpiece without any exaggeration with the exception of extraordinary phallus. The erected penis is regarded as the symbol of giver of life and linked with the creator of the Universe in the initial period of art...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188235/precise-dating-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-in-murcia-spain-supports-late-neandertal-persistence-in-iberia
#11
João Zilhão, Daniela Anesin, Thierry Aubry, Ernestina Badal, Dan Cabanes, Martin Kehl, Nicole Klasen, Armando Lucena, Ignacio Martín-Lerma, Susana Martínez, Henrique Matias, Davide Susini, Peter Steier, Eva Maria Wild, Diego E Angelucci, Valentín Villaverde, Josefina Zapata
The late persistence in Southern Iberia of a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic is supported by the archeological stratigraphy and the radiocarbon and luminescence dating of three newly excavated localities in the Mula basin of Murcia (Spain). At Cueva Antón, Mousterian layer I-k can be no more than 37,100 years-old. At La Boja, the basal Aurignacian can be no less than 36,500 years-old. The regional Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition process is thereby bounded to the first half of the 37th millennium Before Present, in agreement with evidence from Andalusia, Gibraltar and Portugal...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187534/bulk-magnetic-domain-stability-controls-paleointensity-fidelity
#12
Greig A Paterson, Adrian R Muxworthy, Yuhji Yamamoto, Yongxin Pan
Nonideal, nonsingle-domain magnetic grains are ubiquitous in rocks; however, they can have a detrimental impact on the fidelity of paleomagnetic records-in particular the determination of ancient magnetic field strength (paleointensity), a key means of understanding the evolution of the earliest geodynamo and the formation of the solar system. As a consequence, great effort has been expended to link rock magnetic behavior to paleointensity results, but with little quantitative success. Using the most comprehensive rock magnetic and paleointensity data compilations, we quantify a stability trend in hysteresis data that characterizes the bulk domain stability (BDS) of the magnetic carriers in a paleomagnetic specimen...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182674/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-diversity-and-ancestry-of-korean-dogs
#13
Bong Hwan Choi, Hasini I Wijayananda, Soo Hyun Lee, Doo Ho Lee, Jong Seok Kim, Seok Il Oh, Eung Woo Park, Cheul Koo Lee, Seung Hwan Lee
There are various hypotheses on dog domestication based on archeological and genetic studies. Although many studies have been conducted on the origin of dogs, the existing literature about the ancestry, diversity, and population structure of Korean dogs is sparse. Therefore, this study is focused on the origin, diversity and population structure of Korean dogs. The study sample comprised four major categories, including non-dogs (coyotes and wolves), ancient, modern and Korean dogs. Selected samples were genotyped using an Illumina CanineHD array containing 173,662 single nucleotide polymorphisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152566/radiocarbon-chronology-of-manot-cave-israel-and-upper-paleolithic-dispersals
#14
Bridget Alex, Omry Barzilai, Israel Hershkovitz, Ofer Marder, Francesco Berna, Valentina Caracuta, Talia Abulafia, Lauren Davis, Mae Goder-Goldberger, Ron Lavi, Eugenia Mintz, Lior Regev, Daniella Bar-Yosef Mayer, José-Miguel Tejero, Reuven Yeshurun, Avner Ayalon, Mira Bar-Matthews, Gal Yasur, Amos Frumkin, Bruce Latimer, Mark G Hans, Elisabetta Boaretto
The timing of archeological industries in the Levant is central for understanding the spread of modern humans with Upper Paleolithic traditions. We report a high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for Early Upper Paleolithic industries (Early Ahmarian and Levantine Aurignacian) from the newly excavated site of Manot Cave, Israel. The dates confirm that the Early Ahmarian industry was present by 46,000 calibrated years before the present (cal BP), and the Levantine Aurignacian occurred at least between 38,000 and 34,000 cal BP...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151368/the-application-of-scanning-electron-microscopy-with-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy-sem-edx-in-ancient-dental-calculus-for-the-reconstruction-of-human-habits
#15
Dana Fialová, Radim Skoupý, Eva Drozdová, Aleš Paták, Jakub Piňos, Lukáš Šín, Radoslav Beňuš, Bohuslav Klíma
The great potential of scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) is in detection of unusual chemical elements included in ancient human dental calculus to verify hypotheses about life and burial habits of historic populations and individuals. Elemental spectra were performed from archeological samples of three chosen individuals from different time periods. The unusual presence of magnesium, aluminum, and silicon in the first sample could confirm the hypothesis of high degree of dental abrasion caused by particles from grinding stones in flour...
November 20, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139168/hunter-gatherer-dental-pathology-do-historic-accounts-of-aboriginal-australians-correspond-to-the-archeological-record-of-dental-disease
#16
Judith Littleton
OBJECTIVES: Studies of hunter-gatherer oral pathology, particularly in Australia, often focus upon dental wear and caries or assume that historic studies of Aboriginal people reflect the precontact past. Consequently the range of population variation has been underestimated. In this paper dental pathology from human remains from Roonka are compared with a model of dental pathology derived from historic studies. The aim is to identify aspects of dental pathology indicative of regional or intra-population diversity...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116260/the-potential-of-alkyl-amides-as-novel-biomarkers-and-their-application-to-paleocultural-deposits-in-china
#17
Jianjun Wang, Bernd R T Simoneit, Guoying Sheng, Liqi Chen, Libin Xu, Xinming Wang, Yuhong Wang, Liguang Sun
A series of alkyl amides was detected and identified in the sedimentary record from an archaeological site at Yuchisi, Mengcheng, Anhui, China. The alkyl amides profiles change abruptly at the depth corresponding to the transition between two prehistoric cultures, which also corresponds to an abrupt change in the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0. The different patterns of variation of the longer and shorter chain alkyl amides at the depth of the cultural transition may reflect differences in their response to external environmental changes, as well as different sources...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099937/the-paleo-indian-entry-into-south-america-according-to-mitogenomes
#18
Stefania Brandini, Paola Bergamaschi, Marco Fernando Cerna, Francesca Gandini, Francesca Bastaroli, Emilie Bertolini, Cristina Cereda, Luca Ferretti, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Vincenza Battaglia, Antonio Salas, Ornella Semino, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri, Antonio Torroni
Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 thousand years ago (Kya) at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 Kya, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089124/freshwater-mussel-shells-unionidae-describe-anthropogenic-changes-to-trace-element-cycling-within-a-north-american-river
#19
W Aaron Wilson, Andrea K Fritts, Mark W Fritts, Jason M Unrine, Brent N Tweedy, Andrew F Casper
Bivalve shells provide an unparalleled opportunity for understanding the history of bioavailable trace elements in aquatic systems. The present study analyzed the elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, U, V and Zn in freshwater mussel shells collected from a large floodplain river. Shells were collected fresh, sampled from a historic archive, and retrieved from pre-Columbian archeological sites. The elements As, Co, Cu and Ni varied with time over the course of the 20th century. When compared to the pre-Columbian shells, 20th century shell concentrations for these elements were either consistently higher (Co, Cu and Ni) or lower (As)...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073793/infertility-and-surrogacy-first-mentioned-on-a-4000-year-old-assyrian-clay-tablet-of-marriage-contract-in-turkey
#20
Ahmet Berkiz Turp, Ismail Guler, Nuray Bozkurt, Aysel Uysal, Bulent Yilmaz, Mustafa Demir, Onur Karabacak
Mankind has been expressing the breeding topic for thousands of years. Reproduction is the primary instinct of human beings and it is a social, cultural, medical issue. Demographic infertility is one of them, which is defined infertility as the inability to become pregnant with a live birth, within five years of regular sexual contact based upon a consistent union status in marriage maintaining a desire for a child with the lack of contraceptive use and non-lactating. A first mentions about infertility and surrogacy is discovered on a 4000-year-old clay tablet of marriage contract belonging to the Assyrian period exhibited at Istanbul Archeology Museum in Turkey...
October 26, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
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