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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404240/determination-of-the-post-mortem-interval-in-skeletal-remains-by-the-comparative-use-of-different-physico-chemical-methods-are-they-reliable-as-an-alternative-to-14-c
#1
Alberto Amadasi, Annalisa Cappella, Cristina Cattaneo, Pacifico Cofrancesco, Lucia Cucca, Daniele Merli, Chiara Milanese, Andrea Pinto, Antonella Profumo, Valentina Scarpulla, Emanuela Sguazza
The determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is a challenging aspect in the forensic field. Previous studies focused their attention on different macroscopic and morphological aspects but a thorough and complete evaluation of the potential of chemical and physical analyses in this field of research has not been performed. In addition to luminol test and Oxford histology index (OHI) reported in a recent paper, widely spread and accessible methods based on physical aspect and chemical characteristics of skeletal remains have been investigated as potential alternatives to dating by determination of (14)C...
March 22, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398903/biomechanics-of-microliths-manufacture-a-preliminary-approach-to-neanderthal-s-motor-constrains-in-the-frame-of-embodied-cognition
#2
Francia Patiño, Manuel Luque, Marcos Terradillos-Bernal, Manuel Martín-Loeches
The systems of perception and action of the brain appear as important constraining factors in human evolution under current models of embodied cognition. In this view, the emergence of certain items in the archeological record is not necessarily subsequent to the emergence of a 'symbolic' mind, but instead to the appearance of the sensory-motor systems enabling that behavior. One of the products normally absent in pre- Homo sapiens species is the standardized microlith, whose production seems very demanding for the hand due to their small size and need for fine craft...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397550/the-pillar-of-metropolitan-greatness-the-long-making-of-archeological-objects-in-paris-1711-2001
#3
Stéphane Van Damme
Over three centuries after the 1711 discovery in the choir of Notre-Dame in Paris of a square-section stone bas-relief (the Pillar of the Boatmen) with depictions of several deities, both Gaulish and Roman, the blocks comprising it were analyzed as a symbol of Parisian power, if not autonomy, vis-à-vis the Roman Empire. Variously considered as local, national, or imperial representations, the blocks were a constant object of admiration, interrogation, and speculation among antiquarians of the Republic of Letters...
April 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393087/an-atlas-of-paste-fabrics-and-supplemental-paste-compositional-data-from-late-middle-preclassic-period-ceramics-at-the-maya-site-of-holtun-guatemala
#4
Michael G Callaghan, Daniel Pierce, Brigitte Kovacevich, Michael D Glascock
This data article contains an atlas of paste fabrics and supplemental paste compositional data generated from Late Middle Preclassic-period ceramics at the Maya site of Holtun, Guatemala. The data include maps showing locations of archeological contexts, excavation profiles, photographs and photomicrographs of sherds and paste fabrics, and compositional data produced by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Research Reactor, University of Missouri (MURR). The NAA data include a biplot and table of canonical discriminant analyses, Mahalonobis distance calculations, and Euclidian distance searches between the samples...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368797/-an-archeology-of-parturition-in-prehumans-evolutionary-trends-and-limits
#5
EDITORIAL
P Charlier, Y Coppens, G Chene, A Augias, S Jacqueline, P Froesch, I Huynh-Charlier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366202/human-predatory-behavior-and-the-social-implications-of-communal-hunting-based-on-evidence-from-the-td10-2-bison-bone-bed-at-gran-dolina-atapuerca-spain
#6
Antonio Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Palmira Saladié, Andreu Ollé, Juan Luis Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell
Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification and classification of hunting methods in prehistory. The archeological recognition of communal hunting reflects an interest in evolutionary terms and their inherent implications for anticipatory capacities, social complexity, and the development of cognitive tools, such as articulated language...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342040/ancient-parasites-from-endemic-deer-from-cueva-parque-diana-archeological-site-patagonia-argentina
#7
María Ornela Beltrame, Eleonor Tietze, Alberto Enrique Pérez, Agustín Bellusci, Norma Haydée Sardella
The narrow Andean-Patagonian temperate rainforest strip in the west of southern South America is inhabited by two endemic species of cervids, the southern pudu (Pudu puda) and the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), both cataloged as near threatened and threatened species, respectively. One of the possible causes of their declined number is the susceptibility to livestock diseases. Significant zooarchaeological records of both deer have been found throughout the Holocene from Patagonia. The present contribution reports the first paleoparasitological results obtained from coprolites of endemic deer from the archeological site "Cueva Parque Diana," Neuquén Province, Argentina, and discusses the possible diseases found in ancient times...
March 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334006/assessing-various-infrared-ir-microscopic-imaging-techniques-for-post-mortem-interval-evaluation-of-human-skeletal-remains
#8
Claudia Woess, Seraphin Hubert Unterberger, Clemens Roider, Monika Ritsch-Marte, Nadin Pemberger, Jan Cemper-Kiesslich, Petra Hatzer-Grubwieser, Walther Parson, Johannes Dominikus Pallua
Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134435/soybean-domestication-the-origin-genetic-architecture-and-molecular-bases
#9
Eric J Sedivy, Faqiang Wu, Yoshie Hanzawa
Domestication provides an important model for the study of evolution, and information learned from domestication research aids in the continued improvement of crop species. Recent progress in de novo assembly and whole-genome resequencing of wild and cultivated soybean genomes, in addition to new archeological discoveries, sheds light on the origin of this important crop and provides a clearer view on the modes of artificial selection that drove soybean domestication and diversification. This novel genomic information enables the search for polymorphisms that underlie variation in agronomic traits and highlights genes that exhibit a signature of selection, leading to the identification of a number of candidate genes that may have played important roles in soybean domestication, diversification and improvement...
January 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125603/relation-between-the-macroscopic-pattern-of-elephant-ivory-and-its-three-dimensional-micro-tubular-network
#10
Marie Albéric, Mason N Dean, Aurélien Gourrier, Wolfgang Wagermaier, John W C Dunlop, Andreas Staude, Peter Fratzl, Ina Reiche
Macroscopic, periodic, dark and bright patterns are observed on sections of elephant tusk, in the dentin part (ivory). The motifs-also called Schreger pattern-vary depending on the orientation in the tusk: on sections perpendicular to the tusk axis, a checkerboard pattern is present whereas on sections longitudinal to it, alternating stripes are observed. This pattern has been used to identify elephant and mammoth ivory in archeological artifacts and informs on the continuous tissue growth mechanisms of tusk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107034/automated-measurement-of-magnesium-calcium-ratios-in-gastropod-shells-using-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-for-paleoclimatic-applications
#11
Adolfo Cobo, Asier García-Escárzaga, Igor Gutiérrez-Zugasti, Jesús Setién, Manuel R González-Morales, José Miguel López-Higuera
The chemical composition of mollusk shells offers information about environmental conditions present during the lifespan of the organism. Shells found in geological deposits and in many archeological sites can help to reconstruct past climatic conditions. For example, a correlation has been found between seawater temperature and the amount of some substituent elements (e.g., magnesium, strontium) in the biogenerated calcium carbonate matrix of the shell, although it is very species-specific. Here we propose the use laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to estimate Mg/Ca ratios in modern specimens of the common limpet Patella vulgata...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073267/folding-sheets-with-ion-beams
#12
Cheng-Lun Wu, Fang-Cheng Li, Chun-Wei Pao, David J Srolovitz
Focused ion beams (FIBs) are versatile tools with cross-disciplinary applications from the physical and life sciences to archeology. Nevertheless, the nanoscale patterning precision of FIBs is often accompanied by defect formation and sample deformation. In this study, the fundamental mechanisms governing the large-scale plastic deformation of nanostructures undergoing FIB processes are revealed by a series of molecular dynamic simulations. A surprisingly simple linear correlation between atomic volume removed from the film bulk and film deflection angle, regardless of incident ion energy and current, is revealed, demonstrating that the mass transport to the surface of material caused by energetic ion bombardment is the primary cause leading to nanostructure deformation...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072390/a-molecular-portrait-of-maternal-sepsis-from-byzantine-troy
#13
Alison M Devault, Tatum D Mortimer, Andrew Kitchen, Henrike Kiesewetter, Jacob M Enk, G Brian Golding, John Southon, Melanie Kuch, Ana T Duggan, William Aylward, Shea N Gardner, Jonathan E Allen, Andrew M King, Gerard Wright, Makoto Kuroda, Kengo Kato, Derek Eg Briggs, Gino Fornaciari, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar, Caitlin S Pepperell
Pregnancy complications are poorly represented in the archeological record, despite their importance in contemporary and ancient societies. While excavating a Byzantine cemetery in Troy, we discovered calcified abscesses among a woman's remains. Scanning electron microscopy of the tissue revealed 'ghost cells', resulting from dystrophic calcification, which preserved ancient maternal, fetal and bacterial DNA of a severe infection, likely chorioamnionitis. Gardnerella vaginalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus dominated the abscesses...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052096/sex-determination-from-fragmented-and-degenerated-dna-by-amplified-product-length-polymorphism-bidirectional-snp-analysis-of-amelogenin-and-sry-genes
#14
Kotoka Masuyama, Hideki Shojo, Hiroaki Nakanishi, Shota Inokuchi, Noboru Adachi
Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029148/investigating-mitochondrial-dna-relationships-in-neolithic-western-europe-through-serial-coalescent-simulations
#15
Maïté Rivollat, Stéphane Rottier, Christine Couture, Marie-Hélène Pemonge, Fanny Mendisco, Mark G Thomas, Marie-France Deguilloux, Pascale Gerbault
Recent ancient DNA studies on European Neolithic human populations have provided persuasive evidence of a major migration of farmers originating from the Aegean, accompanied by sporadic hunter-gatherer admixture into early Neolithic populations, but increasing toward the Late Neolithic. In this context, ancient mitochondrial DNA data collected from the Neolithic necropolis of Gurgy (Paris Basin, France), the largest mitochondrial DNA sample obtained from a single archeological site for the Early/Middle Neolithic period, indicate little differentiation from farmers associated to both the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithic migration routes, as well as from Western European hunter-gatherers...
February 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004895/cooperation-collective-action-and-the-archeology-of-large-scale-societies
#16
David M Carballo, Gary M Feinman
Archeologists investigating the emergence of large-scale societies in the past have renewed interest in examining the dynamics of cooperation as a means of understanding societal change and organizational variability within human groups over time. Unlike earlier approaches to these issues, which used models designated voluntaristic or managerial, contemporary research articulates more explicitly with frameworks for cooperation and collective action used in other fields, thereby facilitating empirical testing through better definition of the costs, benefits, and social mechanisms associated with success or failure in coordinated group action...
November 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003486/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-cross-species-transmission-implications-for-emergence-of-new-lentiviral-infections
#17
Justin Lee, Jennifer L Malmberg, Britta A Wood, Sahaja Hladky, Ryan Troyer, Melody Roelke, Mark Cunningham, Roy McBride, Winston Vickers, Walter Boyce, Erin Boydston, Laurel Serieys, Seth Riley, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude
Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) for a small number of animals in California and Florida...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998363/non-destructive-micro-chemical-and-micro-luminescence-characterization-of-jadeite
#18
Alejandro Mitrani Viggiano, José Luis Ruvalcaba Sil, Mayra D Manrique Ortega, Victoria Corregidor Berdasco
Jadeite was greatly appreciated by pre-Hispanic cultures in Mesoamerica. Despite its importance, knowledge of its mining sources was lost after the Spanish conquest. In the 1950s the only confirmed jadeite deposits in Mesoamerica were found in the Motagua River Fault (MRF), Guatemala. The aim of this study is to present a methodology that is appropriate for the study of archeological jadeite objects using non-destructive spectroscopic and micro-ion beam analysis techniques. This methodology has been applied to perform mineral, elemental, and luminescence characterization of five jadeite samples from the MRF, with white, lilac, and green colors...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995157/dataset-on-elemental-concentration-and-group-identification-of-ancient-potteries-from-tamil-nadu-india
#19
A Chandrasekaran, A Naseerutheen, R Ravisankar
The dataset contains concentration of major and trace elements of ancient potteries from Tamilnadu and grouping different potteries from the statistical techniques of factor and cluster analysis (Figs. 2, 3 and 4). The major and trace elemental concentration data generated using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) and factor and cluster analysis data obtained using STATISTICA (10.0 version) software. The concentration of major and trace elements determines the type of clay minerals (Calcareous/Non-Calcareous and either low or high refractory) and firing atmosphere adopted by the artisans at the time of manufacture...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917611/high-mass-and-spatial-resolution-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-nicolas-poussin-painting-cross-section-by-cluster-tof-sims
#20
M Noun, E Van Elslande, D Touboul, H Glanville, S Bucklow, P Walter, A Brunelle
The painting Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, which hangs in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK, is possibly one of the last figure painting executed by Nicolas Poussin at the very end of his life and is usually dated to the early 1660s. In this perspective special feature, Philippe Walter, Alain Brunelle and colleagues give new insights on the artist's working methods by a careful stateof-the-art imaging ToF-SIMS study of one sample taken on the edge of the painting. This approach allowed for the identification of the pigments used in the painting, their nature and components and those of the ground and preparatory layers, with the identification of the binder(s) and possible other additions of organic materials such as glue...
December 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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