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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917611/high-mass-and-spatial-resolution-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-nicolas-poussin-painting-cross-section-by-cluster-tof-sims
#1
M Noun, E Van Elslande, D Touboul, H Glanville, S Bucklow, P Walter, A Brunelle
The painting Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, which hangs in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK, is possibly one of the last figure painting executed by Nicolas Poussin at the very end of his life and is usually dated to the early 1660s. In this perspective special feature, Philippe Walter, Alain Brunelle and colleagues give new insights on the artist's working methods by a careful stateof-the-art imaging ToF-SIMS study of one sample taken on the edge of the painting. This approach allowed for the identification of the pigments used in the painting, their nature and components and those of the ground and preparatory layers, with the identification of the binder(s) and possible other additions of organic materials such as glue...
December 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915182/using-spatial-metrics-and-surveys-for-the-assessment-of-trans-boundary-deforestation-in-protected-areas-of-the-maya-mountain-massif-belize-guatemala-border
#2
S D Chicas, K Omine, J B Ford, K Sugimura, K Yoshida
Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904152/mitochondrial-dna-diversity-of-present-day-aboriginal-australians-and-implications-for-human-evolution-in-oceania
#3
Nano Nagle, Kaye N Ballantyne, Mannis van Oven, Chris Tyler-Smith, Yali Xue, Stephen Wilcox, Leah Wilcox, Rust Turkalov, Roland A H van Oorschot, Sheila van Holst Pellekaan, Theodore G Schurr, Peter McAllister, Lesley Williams, Manfred Kayser, R John Mitchell
Aboriginal Australians are one of the more poorly studied populations from the standpoint of human evolution and genetic diversity. Thus, to investigate their genetic diversity, the possible date of their ancestors' arrival and their relationships with neighboring populations, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in a large sample of Aboriginal Australians. Selected mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the hypervariable segment haplotypes were analyzed in 594 Aboriginal Australians drawn from locations across the continent, chiefly from regions not previously sampled...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880075/holes-in-the-head-the-art-and-archeology-of-trepanation-in-ancient-peru-by-john-w-verano
#4
Stanley Finger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875538/seasonal-cyclicity-in-trace-elements-and-stable-isotopes-of-modern-horse-enamel
#5
Niels J de Winter, Christophe Snoeck, Philippe Claeys
The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864968/taphonomic-effects-of-mechanical-plowing-on-buried-juvenile-sized-remains
#6
Alyssa M Newcomb, James T Pokines, Tara L Moore
Agricultural activity is a worldwide taphonomic process and can present unique challenges in the recovery of buried remains. Previous research has been mostly within the realm of site formation processes of archeological sites utilizing only surface material. This research expands upon the previous research by incorporating the distribution of subsurface material by the use of archeological excavation techniques. An experiment was conducted utilizing juvenile pig (Sus scrofa) skeletons buried in relative anatomical position at two different depths (15 cm below the surface [cmbs] and 22 cmbs)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858983/copper-and-zinc-isotope-ratios-in-human-bone-and-enamel
#7
Klervia Jaouen, Estelle Herrscher, Vincent Balter
OBJECTIVES: Here, we report Cu and Zn isotope ratios of bones and teeth of French people from various historical periods with the aim to understand how Cu and Zn isotope ratios of bone, a tissue that is continuously remodeled throughout life but that is prone to post-mortem diagenesis, compare with that of tooth enamel, a tissue that forms once during childhood but that is more resistant to diagenesis. Specifically, we examine (1) the potential existence of sex-related differences in the Cu isotope ratios (represented as δ(65) Cu) in the tooth enamel of identified men and women, and (2) a decrease of Zn isotope delta ratios (represented as δ(66) Zn) related to the increase of meat and fish consumption during the 20(th) century...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853978/sex-differences-of-dental-pathology-in-early-modern-samurai-and-commoners-at-kokura-in-japan
#8
Joichi Oyamada, Yoshikazu Kitagawa, Masahito Hara, Junya Sakamoto, Takayuki Matsushita, Toshiyuki Tsurumoto, Yoshitaka Manabe
So-called "Ohaguro", teeth blackening, in the married females was a general custom regardless of class in the early modern period. As a result, Ohaguro was thought to have enhanced the acid resistance of tooth substance and tightened gingiva and prevented tooth morbidity due to periodontal disease. For investigation into the influence of Ohaguro, the skeletal remains of early modern samurai and commoners at Kokura were examined for differences in the dental pathology based on sex. Though females from archeological sites have significantly more carious teeth and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) than males in the previous studies, the prevalence of caries and AMTL in males was higher than in females among the early modern samurai and commoners in Kokura...
November 16, 2016: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853133/genetic-trail-for-the-early-migrations-of-aisin-gioro-the-imperial-house-of-the-qing-dynasty
#9
Lan-Hai Wei, Shi Yan, Ge Yu, Yun-Zhi Huang, Da-Li Yao, Shi-Lin Li, Li Jin, Hui Li
The House of Aisin Gioro, the imperial clan of Qing dynasty (1644-1911), affected the history of China and the formation of Manchu ethnicity greatly. However, owing to the lack of historical records and archeological evidences, the origin of the House of Aisin Gioro remains ambiguous. To clarify the origin of Aisin Gioro clan, we conducted whole Y-chromosome sequencing on three samples and Y-single-nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) genotyping on other four samples beside those reported in previous work. We confirmed that the paternal lineage of the Aisin Gioro clan belongs to haplogroup C3b1a3a2-F8951, a brother branch of C3*-Star Cluster (currently named as C3b1a3a1-F3796, once linked to Genghis Khan), which is quite different from the predominant lineage C3c-M48 in other Tungusic-speaking populations...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822080/plant-wealth-of-a-sacred-grove-mallur-gutta-telangana-state-india
#10
Sateesh Suthari, Ramesh Kandagalta, Ajmeera Ragan, Vatsavaya S Raju
The Mallur Gutta (Hill) of Warangal district in Telangana state, India, reputed as a habitat for medicinal plants, was inventoried from 2009 to 2015 for its plant wealth through the traditional knowledge of the local people. The Hindu temples of Lord Sri Laxminarasimha Swamy and Lord Hanuman, and the ethnic worship of mahua trees indicated it was a sacred grove which was selected as a Medicinal Plants Conservation Area. The exploration of Mallur Gutta resulted in the enumeration and documentation of plant wealth representing 470 species of 318 genera pertaining to 95 families of vascular plants...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821901/diffusion-archeology-for-diffusion-progression-history-reconstruction
#11
Emre Sefer, Carl Kingsford
Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state...
November 2016: Knowledge and Information Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806733/ancient-origin-and-recent-range-expansion-of-the-maize-weevil-sitophilus-zeamais-and-its-genealogical-relationship-to-the-rice-weevil-s-oryzae
#12
A S Corrêa, C C Vinson, L S Braga, R N C Guedes, L O de Oliveira
Archeological records attest the early association of Sitophilus with stored cereals from the beginning of agriculture on Asia. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) became particularly damaging to maize, a cereal crop domesticated on Mesoamerica. We investigated the late evolutionary history of the maize weevil to gain insights on its origin, timing of association with maize, and genealogical relationship to the almost morphologically indistinguishable rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae). Two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome oxidase subunit II) and the nuclear ribosomal gene region were partially sequenced...
November 3, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769950/trepanation-in-ancient-china
#13
Leah Hobert, Emanuela Binello
Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese only used traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries...
October 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765985/first-report-of-longidorus-kuiperi-and-rotylenchus-eximius-from-coastal-sand-dunes-in-crete-greece
#14
Emmanuel A Tzortzakakis, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Juan E Palomares-Rius, Pablo Castillo
Plant-parasitic nematode species have been reported on several occasions from coastal sand dunes, including Longidorus and Rotylenchus species (Vovlas et al., 2008; De Luca et al., 2009; Mateille et al., 2014). In April 2016, 10 soil samples of 3 to 4 kg from the rhizosphere of Tamarix smyrnensis with different vegetation around (viz. Elymus farctus, Lycium schweinfurthii, Crithmum maritimum, and Arthrocnemum sp.) were collected for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. The area of sampling was a coastal sand dune near the archeological site of Komos, southwest of Crete, Greece...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762330/strontium-isotope-evidence-for-a-highly-mobile-population-on-the-pamir-plateau-2500-years-ago
#15
Xueye Wang, Zihua Tang, Jing Wu, Xinhua Wu, Yiqun Wu, Xinying Zhou
Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753102/observations-on-a-set-of-greco-roman-eye-ear-nose-and-throat-surgical-instruments
#16
Herbert H Dedo
The tools described in this article are verified to be Greco-Roman medical and surgical instruments for the eye, ear, nose, and throat. They include three myrtle leaf-shaped scalpels, three ear spoons, a "Q-tip," a forceps, a needle, and two arrow-pointed scalpels. One of the arrow-pointed scalpels is nearly identical to a Juerger keratome, suggesting that in Roman times, cataracts were extracted, not just "couched" into the posterior chamber. The description presented here goes beyond traditional archeological claims, because as a head and neck surgeon, I evaluated these instruments from a surgeon's point of view...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741455/freshwater-mussel-shells-unionidae-chronicle-changes-in-a-north-american-river-over-the-past-1000years
#17
Andrea K Fritts, Mark W Fritts, Wendell R Haag, Jason A DeBoer, Andrew F Casper
The Illinois River was substantially altered during the 20th century with the installation of navigational locks and dams, construction of extensive levee networks, and degradation of water quality. Freshwater mussels were affected by these changes. We used sclerochronology and stable isotopes to evaluate changes over time in age-and-growth and food sources for two mussel species: Amblema plicata and Quadrula quadrula. Specimens were collected in years 1894, 1897, 1909, 1912, 1966, and 2013, and archeological specimens were collected circa 850...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736250/olympic-genes-on-the-podium
#18
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Jose A Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jos J de Koning, Alejandro Lucia, Carl Foster
Despite some advances, it remains largely unknown how the millions of variations in the human genome influence athletic performance (especially in endurance events), and no single genetic test can really predict sports talent. However, there is experimental evidence from animal research that selecting for even a simple characteristic such as running ability can produce comparatively large and rapid changes in performance. That such selection has not been specifically documented in humans is more evidence of the limits of physiology-archeology than of the unlikelihood of selection for physical abilities...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683274/reconstructing-demography-and-social-behavior-during-the-neolithic-expansion-from-genomic-diversity-across-island-southeast-asia
#19
François Vallée, Aurélien Luciani, Murray P Cox
Archeology, linguistics and increasingly genetics are clarifying how populations moved from mainland Asia, through Island Southeast Asia, and out into the Pacific during the farming revolution. Yet key features of this process remain poorly understood, particularly how social behaviors intersected with demographic drivers to create the patterns of genomic diversity observed across Island Southeast Asia today. Such questions are ripe for computer modeling. Here, we construct an agent-based model to simulate human mobility across Island Southeast Asia from the Neolithic period to the present, with a special focus on interactions between individuals with Asian, Papuan and mixed Asian-Papuan ancestry...
September 28, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680417/computed-tomography-study-of-the-feet-of-mummy-of-ramesses-iii-new-insights-on-the-harem-conspiracy
#20
Sahar N Saleem, Zahi Hawass
OBJECTIVE: A previous study of the computed tomography (CT) of the neck of mummified Ramesses III (1190-1070 BC) suggested that an assailant slit the Pharaoh's throat with a knife in the plot known as Harem conspiracy. We hypothesized the presence of other injuries in the Pharaoh's body as a result of this fatal attack. METHODS: We analyzed CT images of mummified Ramesses III and reported any finding suggestive of trauma in correlation with archeologic literature...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
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