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Dylan van der Schyff, Andrea Schiavio
Despite evolutionary musicology's interdisciplinary nature, and the diverse methods it employs, the field has nevertheless tended to divide into two main positions. Some argue that music should be understood as a naturally selected adaptation, while others claim that music is a product of culture with little or no relevance for the survival of the species. We review these arguments, suggesting that while interesting and well-reasoned positions have been offered on both sides of the debate, the nature-or-culture (or adaptation vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Eugene E Harris
Ancient genomes can help us detect prehistoric migrations, population contractions, and admixture among populations. Knowing the dynamics of demography is invaluable for understanding culture change in prehistory, particularly the roles played by demic and cultural diffusion in transformations of material cultures. Prehistoric Europe is a region where ancient genome analyses can help illuminate the interplay between demography and culture change. In Europe, there is more archeological evidence, in terms of detailed studies, radiometric dates, and explanatory hypotheses that can be evaluated, than in any other region of the world...
September 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
Kwanjai Pipatchartlearnwong, Akarapong Swatdipong, Supachai Vuttipongchaikij, Somsak Apisitwanich
BACKGROUND: Borassus flabellifer or Asian Palmyra palm is an important crop for local economies in the South and Southeast Asia for its fruit and palm sugar production. Archeological and historical evidence indicated the presence of this species in Southeast Asia dating back at least 1500 years. B. flabellifer is believed to be originated in Africa, spread to South Asia and introduced into Southeast Asia through commercial routes and dissemination of cultures, however, the nature of its invasion and settlement in Thailand is unclear...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genetics
PingHsun Hsieh, Brian Hallmark, Joseph Watkins, Tatiana M Karafet, Ludmila P Osipova, Ryan N Gutenkunst, Michael F Hammer
Siberia is one of the coldest environments on Earth and has great seasonal temperature variation. Long-term settlement in northern Siberia undoubtedly required biological adaptation to severe cold stress, dramatic variation in photoperiod, and limited food resources. In addition, recent archeological studies show that humans first occupied Siberia at least 45,000 years ago; yet our understanding of the demographic history of modern indigenous Siberians remains incomplete. In this study, we use whole-exome sequencing data from the Nganasans and Yakuts to infer the evolutionary history of these two indigenous Siberian populations...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Georgi Hudjashov, Tatiana M Karafet, Daniel J Lawson, Sean Downey, Olga Savina, Herawati Sudoyo, J Stephen Lansing, Michael F Hammer, Murray P Cox
Indonesia, an island nation as large as continental Europe, hosts a sizeable proportion of global human diversity, yet remains surprisingly undercharacterized genetically. Here, we substantially expand on existing studies by reporting genome-scale data for nearly 500 individuals from 25 populations in Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Oceania, notably including previously unsampled islands across the Indonesian archipelago. We use high-resolution analyses of haplotype diversity to reveal fine detail of regional admixture patterns, with a particular focus on the Holocene...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Ricardo Ishak, Luiz F A Machado, Izaura Cayres-Vallinoto, Marluísa de O Guimarães Ishak, Antonio C R Vallinoto
Infectious agents are common companions of humans and since ancient times they follow human migration on their search for a better place to live. The study of paleomicrobiology was significantly improved in its accuracy of measurement with the constant development of better methods to detect and analyze nucleic acids. Human tissues are constantly used to trace ancient infections and the association of anthropological evidences are important to confirm the microbiological information. Infectious agents which establish human persistent infections are particularly useful to trace human migrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
William Carruthers, Stéphane Van Damme
This article provides a substantive discussion of the relevance of the history of archeology to the history of science. At the same time, the article introduces the papers contained in this special issue as exemplars of this relevance. To make its case, the article moves through various themes in the history of archeology that overlap with key issues in the history of science. The article discusses the role and tension of regimes of science in antiquarian and archeological practices, and also considers issues of scale and place, particularly in relation to the field...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Melania Savino
In Turkey, the period after the establishment of the Republic saw archeological representations play an active role in defining the ancient past and producing new disciplinary knowledge. Visual practices emerged as important sites for the formation of a new conception of the ancient past in the larger context of the political and cultural discourse over the modernization of the country. Based on museum guidebooks, official publications, and archival documents, this paper focuses on the İzmir region after the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923 and explores how the ancient past was perceived and displayed in relation to the historical and cultural transformations that occurred in Turkey after the Greco-Turkish War...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
William Carruthers
This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Mirjam Brusius
This afterword comments on the articles gathered together in this special section of History of Science ("Disassembling Archaeology, Reassembling the Modern World"). Criticizing the consistent lack of institutional infrastructure for histories of archaeology in the history of science, the piece argues that scholars should recognize the commonality of archaeology's practices with those of the nineteenth and twentieth century field sciences that have received more historical attention. The piece also suggests avenues to help take this approach further, such as combining expertise from historians of the biological sciences and of antiquarianism and archaeology to look at the history of the understanding of human variation and race...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Zijun Liu, Yu Wang, Xiaoxuan Pan, Qinya Ge, Qinglin Ma, Qiang Li, Tongtong Fu, Cuiting Hu, Xudong Zhu, Jiao Pan
The Mausoleum of the Dingtao King (termed 'M2') is a large-scale huangchang ticou tomb that dates to the Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-25 A.D.). It is the highest-ranking Han Dynasty tomb discovered to date. However, biodeterioration on the surface of the tomb M2 is causing severe damage to its wooden materials. The aim of the present study was to give insight into the fungal communities colonized the wooden tomb. For this purpose, seven samples were collected from different sections of the tomb M2 which exhibited obvious biodeterioration in the form of white spots...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
P Dąbrowski, D Nowakowski, A Gawlikowska-Sroka, I Maciuszczak, S Gronkiewicz
Dental abnormalities in archeological material such us concrescence or odontoma are rare cases often found accidentally, mostly during routine X-ray analysis or during macroscopic examination of the mastication apparatus. In this study, we present a rare case of concrescence between an upper left third molar and a supernumerary fourth molar in a 19th century skull from Uganda. Simultaneously, it is a critical revision of earlier studies on the same object (which considered this abnormality as an odontoma), using dental X-ray imaging and histological analysis...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
Ana Tavares, Calil Makhoul, Mário Monteiro, Francisco Curate
The skeletal remains of seven individuals (five non-adults and two adults) were recovered during an archeological intervention in the township of Carnide (Lisbon, Portugal). Funerary anthropology strongly suggests that the sample is from the Medieval Islamic period (8th - 12th centuries AD). This report presents a case of chronic osteomyelitis in a non-adult individual. The diagnostic is substantiated by the presence of pathognomonic signs of osteomyelitis, including the presence of cloacae and a sequestrum in the left tibia...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
Tiphaine Maurin, Pascal Bertran, Anne Delagnes, Jean-Renaud Boisserie
The Oldowan archeological record of the Shungura Formation, Member F (Lower Omo valley, Ethiopia) comprises more than one hundred occurrences distributed within archeological complexes, where multiple small spots were found in association with one or two larger occurrences. Such spatial patterning could reflect hominin spatial behavior, repeated occupations within a single sedimentary unit, or taphonomic and/or collection biases. Here we test these hypotheses by way of a geoarcheological and taphonomical analysis using four criteria to assess the preservation of the lithic assemblages: (1) size composition, (2) artifact abrasion, (3) bone abrasion, and (4) orientations of lithic artifacts and bones (i...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
Nicole Misarti, Elizabeth Gier, Bruce Finney, Kelli Barnes, Matthew McCarthy
RATIONALE: Reconstructing stable isotope (SI) ratios at the base of paleo-food webs is often challenging. For coastal systems, the SI ratios of organic matter in archeological shell represent a possible solution, providing a direct record of primary consumer SI ratios in the littoral zone. However, shell is often porous, with organic compounds being susceptible to diagenetic alteration or contamination. If molecular isotopic information is well preserved, compound-specific amino acid isotope analysis (CSI-AA) has the potential to provide direct proxies for baseline SI ratios, bypass many contamination issues, and allow assessment of the diagenetic state...
August 22, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Negar Bizhani, Abdol Motalleb Sharifi, Mohmmad Bagher Rokni, Jean Dupouy Camet, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mohammad Fallah Kiapi, Niloofar Paknezhad, Faezeh Najafi, Gholamreza Mowlavi
BACKGROUND: Along with the newly emergence of paleoparasitology research in Iran, findings of parasites from Northern part of the county have not been reported so far. In this study tracking for the lancet liver fluke dates back 250 BC is addressed. METHODS: Samples were taken from grave crypts of the soil layers attached to the pelvic bones from above-mentioned site in 2015. The laboratory examinations were conducted in the Dept. of Medial Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Marc Kissel, Agustin Fuentes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
Ian J Wallace, Steven Worthington, David T Felson, Robert D Jurmain, Kimberly T Wren, Heli Maijanen, Robert J Woods, Daniel E Lieberman
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is believed to be highly prevalent today because of recent increases in life expectancy and body mass index (BMI), but this assumption has not been tested using long-term historical or evolutionary data. We analyzed long-term trends in knee OA prevalence in the United States using cadaver-derived skeletons of people aged ≥50 y whose BMI at death was documented and who lived during the early industrial era (1800s to early 1900s; n = 1,581) and the modern postindustrial era (late 1900s to early 2000s; n = 819)...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Enrique J Estévez, Sandra López-Lázaro, Claudia López-Morago, Inmaculada Alemán, Miguel C Botella
In archeology or forensics, the analysis of the ilia is often used to determine the age and sex of unknown individuals. However, sex determination using the skeletal remains of individuals who did not develop secondary sexual characteristics remains controversial. Accurately estimating the sex of subadults is hampered by a small number of studies based on identified skeletal collections of juvenile individuals. Here, we analyzed the sexual dimorphism of the subadult ilia using geometric morphometric techniques and individuals from the osteological collection of identified subadults from San José's graveyard (Granada)...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Rémi Barbieri, Rania Mekni, Anthony Levasseur, Eric Chabrière, Michel Signoli, Stéfan Tzortzis, Gérard Aboudharam, Michel Drancourt
Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin...
2017: PloS One
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