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Archeology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655998/four-possible-cases-of-osteomalacia-the-value-of-a-multidisciplinary-diagnostic-approach
#1
A E van der Merwe, B Veselka, H A van Veen, R R van Rijn, K L Colman, H H de Boer
Rickets and residual rickets are often encountered in Dutch archeological skeletal samples. However, no archeological Dutch paleopathological case of adult osteomalacia has been described in literature to date. This paper describes the first four archeological Dutch paleopathological cases of osteomalacia and assesses the value of the various modalities (macroscopic assessment, radiology and histology) that may be used for diagnosis. The skeletal remains investigated originate from the Meerenberg psychiatric hospital cemetery in Bloemendaal, the Netherlands, and date from 1891 - 1936...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628901/defending-oneself-from-tourists-the-counter-environmental-bubble
#2
Michela Cortini, Daniela Converso
According to the Environmental Bubble Theory, tourists perform a series of strategies in order to remain anchored to their residential spots. The environmental bubble is constituted by a sort of social pellicule able to immunize tourists from the identity/cultural attacks which the visit to a foreign country implies. Such a pellicule is activated by the tourists themselves as they decide to travel in group or, for example, to eat only at the restaurants proposing their own national cuisine, and so on. Generally the potential cultural shock of residents is not taken into consideration in literature, even if it is plausibile to make the hypothesis of a counter-environmental bubble performed by the residents in order to defend their own culture and their identity from the attacks of mass tourism, especially for cities that live on tourism, as, for example, Florence or Siena do...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627581/extracapsular-fracture-of-the-femur-in-an-elderly-male-from-the-church-of-nossa-senhora-da-anunciada-set%C3%A3%C2%BAbal-portugal
#3
Nathalie Antunes-Ferreira, Carlos Prates, Francisco Curate
In modern populations, hip fractures in older people are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Their incidence is rising; notwithstanding, fractures of the proximal femur are still relatively uncommon in archeological contexts. This case study represents a well-healed hip fracture in an aged male skeleton from Church of Nossa Senhora da Anunciada (16th-19th centuries AD) in Setúbal (Portugal). The individual was also diagnosed with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Fractures of the proximal femur are usually associated with bone loss but in this case other causes are proposed, including the anatomy of the proximal femur, and the potential combined effect of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and falls...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607797/distinguishing-the-signs-of-fungal-and-burial-induced-degradation-in-waterlogged-wood-from-biskupin-poland-by-scanning-electron-microscopy
#4
Diego Tamburini, Caroline R Cartwright, Grzegorz Cofta, Magdalena Zborowska, Miroslava Mamoňová
A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and oak (Quercus sp.) wood samples exposed to various types of natural degradation is presented with the aim of discussing the correct identification of multiple degradation signs in waterlogged wood. This is part of an experiment performed at the archeological site of Biskupin (Poland) to evaluate the dynamics of short-term wood degradation during reburial and the suitability of excavated wood as substrate for the fungal attack. The final aim is to support and inform the in situ conservation strategy currently applied to archeological woods...
April 2, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594348/study-of-a-seventeenth-century-french-artificial-mummy-autopsical-native-and-contrast-injected-ct-investigations
#5
Rozenn Colleter, Fabrice Dedouit, Sylvie Duchesne, Patrice Gérard, Laurent Dercle, Pierre Poilpré, Véronique Gendrot, Hervé Rousseau, Éric Crubézy, Norbert Telmon, Fatima-Zohra Mokrane
BACKGROUND: A lead coffin was fortuitously discovered in a church called "Eglise des Toussaints" in Rennes (French Brittany). A collaborative taskforce investigated this extraordinary discovery. A multi-disciplinary team of experts from the National Institute for Preventive Archeological Research (INRAP) and Rangueil University Hospital of Toulouse was created, including anthropologists, archeologists, forensic pathologists, radiologists, and pathologists. The inscription on the lead coffin specified that the body belonged to "Messer Louys de Bruslon, Lord of Plessis," a nobleman who died on November 1, 1661...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588507/human-mediated-dispersal-of-cats-in-the-neolithic-central-europe
#6
Mateusz Baca, Danijela Popović, Hanna Panagiotopoulou, Adrian Marciszak, Magdalena Krajcarz, Maciej T Krajcarz, Daniel Makowiecki, Piotr Węgleński, Adam Nadachowski
Archeological and genetic evidence suggest that all domestic cats derived from the Near Eastern wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and were first domesticated in the Near East around 10,000 years ago. The spread of the domesticated form in Europe occurred much later, primarily mediated by Greek and Phoenician traders and afterward by Romans who introduced cats to Western and Central Europe around 2000 years ago. We investigated mtDNA of Holocene Felis remains and provide evidence of an unexpectedly early presence of cats bearing the Near Eastern wildcat mtDNA haplotypes in Central Europe, being ahead of Roman period by over 2000 years...
March 28, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568045/tracing-intensive-fish-and-meat-consumption-using-zn-isotope-ratios-evidence-from-a-historical-breton-population-rennes-france
#7
Klervia Jaouen, Rozenn Colleter, Anita Pietrzak, Marie-Laure Pons, Benoît Clavel, Norbert Telmon, Éric Crubézy, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Michael P Richards
Here we report Sr and Zn isotope ratios of teeth of medieval to early modern Breton people a population whose diet is known from historical, archeological and collagen isotope data. Most of the population, buried in the Dominican convent of Rennes, France, consists of parliamentary nobles, wealthy commoners and ecclesiastics, who had a diet rich in animal products. Our aim is to assess how the Zn isotope ratios of their teeth compare to those of other French historical populations previously studied, which were characterized by cereal-based diets, and those of modern French individuals, who daily eat animal products...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552025/new-insights-on-water-buffalo-genomic-diversity-and-post-domestication-migration-routes-from-medium-density-snp-chip-data
#8
Licia Colli, Marco Milanesi, Elia Vajana, Daniela Iamartino, Lorenzo Bomba, Francesco Puglisi, Marcello Del Corvo, Ezequiel L Nicolazzi, Sahar S E Ahmed, Jesus R V Herrera, Libertado Cruz, Shujun Zhang, Aixin Liang, Guohua Hua, Liguo Yang, Xingjie Hao, Fuyuan Zuo, Song-Jia Lai, Shuilian Wang, Ruyu Liu, Yundeng Gong, Mahdi Mokhber, Yongjiang Mao, Feng Guan, Augustin Vlaic, Bogdan Vlaic, Luigi Ramunno, Gianfranco Cosenza, Ali Ahmad, Ihsan Soysal, Emel Ö Ünal, Mariena Ketudat-Cairns, José F Garcia, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Pietro S Baruselli, Maria E J Amaral, Rangsun Parnpai, Marcela G Drummond, Peter Galbusera, James Burton, Eileen Hoal, Yulnawati Yusnizar, Cece Sumantri, Bianca Moioli, Alessio Valentini, Alessandra Stella, John L Williams, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan
The domestic water buffalo is native to the Asian continent but through historical migrations and recent importations, nowadays has a worldwide distribution. The two types of water buffalo, i.e., river and swamp, display distinct morphological and behavioral traits, different karyotypes and also have different purposes and geographical distributions. River buffaloes from Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy, Mozambique, Brazil and Colombia, and swamp buffaloes from China, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and Brazil were genotyped with a species-specific medium-density 90K SNP panel...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545506/environmental-dynamics-during-the-onset-of-the-middle-stone-age-in-eastern-africa
#9
Richard Potts, Anna K Behrensmeyer, J Tyler Faith, Christian A Tryon, Alison S Brooks, John E Yellen, Alan L Deino, Rahab Kinyanjui, Jennifer B Clark, Catherine Haradon, Naomi E Levin, Hanneke J M Meijer, Elizabeth G Veatch, R Bernhart Owen, Robin W Renaut
Development of the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) before 300 thousand years ago (ka) raises the question of how environmental change influenced the evolution of behaviors characteristic of early Homo sapiens We use temporally well-constrained sedimentological and paleoenvironmental data to investigate environmental dynamics before and after the appearance of the early MSA in the Olorgesailie Basin, Kenya. In contrast to the Acheulean archeological record in the same basin, MSA sites are associated with a dramatically different faunal community, more pronounced erosion-deposition cycles, tectonic activity, and enhanced wet-dry variability...
March 15, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544996/the-pathology-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-domesticated-animals-an-evolutionary-and-comparative-overview
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth W Uhl
Although vitamin D is critical to calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, bone formation and remodeling, there is evolution-based variation between species in vitamin D metabolism and susceptibility to rickets and osteomalacia. Most herbivores produce vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, but dogs and cats have generally lost the ability as carnivore diets are rich in vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies and/or poor exposure to sunlight can induce rickets in birds, swine, cattle and sheep, but horses are less susceptible as they have evolved a calcium homeostasis that is quite different than other animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543318/diaphyseal-cross-sectional-geometry-of-the-metatarsal-bones-in-the-jomon-population
#11
Yasuo Hagihara, Takashi Nara
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate differences in the diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry (CSG) of the metatarsal bones (MTs) between two populations with different habitual activities: the Jomon hunter-gatherers and modern Japanese people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the first through fifth MTs of 117 skeleton samples: 59 (33 men and 26 women) were obtained from Late and Final Jomon period archeological sites and 58 (31 men and 27 women) were from modern Japanese people...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519970/accuracy-of-the-demirjian-willems-and-cameriere-methods-of-estimating-dental-age-on-turkish-children
#12
B K Apaydin, F Yasar
Background and Aim: Age estimation plays a significant role in forensic science, archeology, pediatric endocrinology and clinical dentistry. Tooth development is a reliable pathway for age estimation, especially in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Demirjian method (DM), Willems method (WM) and Cameriere method (CM). Materials and Methods: This study included panaramic radiographs of 330 individuals (165 girls, 165 boys) aged between 5 and 15...
March 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500490/investigating-grounded-conceptualization-motor-system-state-dependence-facilitates-familiarity-judgments-of-novel-tools
#13
Heath E Matheson, Ariana M Familiar, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
Theories of embodied cognition propose that we recognize tools in part by reactivating sensorimotor representations of tool use in a process of simulation. If motor simulations play a causal role in tool recognition then performing a concurrent motor task should differentially modulate recognition of experienced vs. non-experienced tools. We sought to test the hypothesis that an incompatible concurrent motor task modulates conceptual processing of learned vs. non-learned objects by directly manipulating the embodied experience of participants...
March 2, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499571/mid-infrared-spectroscopy-for-characterization-of-baltic-amber-succinite
#14
Ewa Wagner-Wysiecka
Natural Baltic amber (succinite) is the most appreciated fossil resin of the rich cultural traditions dating back to prehistoric times. Its unequivocal identification is extremely important in many branches of science and trades including archeology, paleontology, chemistry and finally mineralogical and gemological societies. Current methods of modification of natural succinite are more and more sophisticated making the identification of natural Baltic amber often challenging. In article the systematic analytical approach for identification of natural and modified under different conditions succinite, using mid-infrared spectroscopy (transmission, Drifts and ATR techniques) is presented...
February 21, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496208/developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-in-female-adult-individual-site-tres-cruces-i-salta-argentina-superior-formative-period-400-1000-ad
#15
Marcos Plischuk, María Eugenia De Feo, Bárbara Desántolo
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a developmental defect that prevents normal articulation between the acetabulum and the femoral head. This is an unusual condition, with a prevalence of 1-2 per thousand, and with only two poorly described skeletons documented in South American paleopathological literature. In this work we report an individual with such a condition, from the archeological site Tres Cruces I (Quebrada del Toro, Salta, Argentina). Several radiocarbon dates and associated materials date it to the Superior Formative (400-1000 AD)...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483885/causal-cognition-force-dynamics-and-early-hunting-technologies
#16
Peter Gärdenfors, Marlize Lombard
With this contribution we analyze ancient hunting technologies as one way to explore the development of causal cognition in the hominin lineage. Building on earlier work, we separate seven grades of causal thinking. By looking at variations in force dynamics as a central element in causal cognition, we analyze the thinking required for different hunting technologies such as stabbing spears, throwing spears, launching atlatl darts, shooting arrows with a bow, and the use of poisoned arrows. Our interpretation demonstrates that there is an interplay between the extension of human body through technology and expanding our cognitive abilities to reason about causes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477454/the-three-dimensional-arrangement-of-the-mineralized-collagen-fibers-in-elephant-ivory-and-its-relation-to-mechanical-and-optical-properties
#17
M Albéric, A Gourrier, W Wagermaier, P Fratzl, I Reiche
Elephant tusks are composed of dentin or ivory, a hierarchical and composite biological material made of mineralized collagen fibers (MCF). The specific arrangement of the MCF is believed to be responsible for the optical and mechanical properties of the tusks. Especially the MCF organization likely contributes to the formation of the bright and dark checkerboard pattern observed on polished sections of tusks (Schreger pattern). Yet, the precise structural origin of this optical motif is still controversial...
February 22, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446561/the-role-of-play-objects-and-object-play-in-human-cognitive-evolution-and-innovation
#18
Felix Riede, Niels N Johannsen, Anders Högberg, April Nowell, Marlize Lombard
In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life-history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche-construction perspective. Niche-construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures...
January 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430815/microscopic-study-on-the-concretion-of-ceramics-in-the-nanhai-i-shipwreck-of-china-southern-song-dynasty-1-127-1-279-a-d
#19
Xi-Luo Hao, Tie-Quan Zhu, Jin-Jin Xu, Yan-Rong Wang, Xuan-Wei Zhang
"Nanhai I" shipwreck of China Southern Song Dynasty is the oldest and the most integrally preserved shipwreck in the world. The related conservation and archeological research have caught great attention of different experts all over the world. In this study, different types of concretion covered on the surface of the ceramics in "Nanhai I" shipwreck were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer, micro-Raman spectrometer, and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Based on the analyses, we found that the grey concretion was mainly composed of quartz, aragonite, and calcite while the reddish concretion was mainly composed of pyrite and quartz...
February 12, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391430/historical-ecology-reveals-landscape-transformation-coincident-with-cultural-development-in-central-italy-since-the-roman-period
#20
Scott A Mensing, Edward M Schoolman, Irene Tunno, Paula J Noble, Leonardo Sagnotti, Fabio Florindo, Gianluca Piovesan
Knowledge of the direct role humans have had in changing the landscape requires the perspective of historical and archaeological sources, as well as climatic and ecologic processes, when interpreting paleoecological records. People directly impact land at the local scale and land use decisions are strongly influenced by local sociopolitical priorities that change through time. A complete picture of the potential drivers of past environmental change must include a detailed and integrated analysis of evolving sociopolitical priorities, climatic change and ecological processes...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
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