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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815962/a-database-of-archeological-evidence-of-representational-behavior
#1
Marc Kissel, Agustin Fuentes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808025/knee-osteoarthritis-has-doubled-in-prevalence-since-the-mid-20th-century
#2
Ian J Wallace, Steven Worthington, David T Felson, Robert D Jurmain, Kimberly T Wren, Heli Maijanen, Robert J Woods, Daniel E Lieberman
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is believed to be highly prevalent today because of recent increases in life expectancy and body mass index (BMI), but this assumption has not been tested using long-term historical or evolutionary data. We analyzed long-term trends in knee OA prevalence in the United States using cadaver-derived skeletons of people aged ≥50 y whose BMI at death was documented and who lived during the early industrial era (1800s to early 1900s; n = 1,581) and the modern postindustrial era (late 1900s to early 2000s; n = 819)...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801843/sex-estimation-of-infants-through-geometric-morphometric-analysis-of-the-ilium
#3
Enrique J Estévez, Sandra López-Lázaro, Claudia López-Morago, Inmaculada Alemán, Miguel C Botella
In archeology or forensics, the analysis of the ilia is often used to determine the age and sex of unknown individuals. However, sex determination using the skeletal remains of individuals who did not develop secondary sexual characteristics remains controversial. Accurately estimating the sex of subadults is hampered by a small number of studies based on identified skeletal collections of juvenile individuals. Here, we analyzed the sexual dimorphism of the subadult ilia using geometric morphometric techniques and individuals from the osteological collection of identified subadults from San José's graveyard (Granada)...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746380/paleoproteomics-of-the-dental-pulp-the-plague-paradigm
#4
Rémi Barbieri, Rania Mekni, Anthony Levasseur, Eric Chabrière, Michel Signoli, Stéfan Tzortzis, Gérard Aboudharam, Michel Drancourt
Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744243/the-odyssey-of-dental-anxiety-from-prehistory-to-the-present-a-narrative-review
#5
REVIEW
Enrico Facco, Gastone Zanette
Dental anxiety (DA) can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723924/a-context-for-the-last-neandertals-of-interior-iberia-los-casares-cave-revisited
#6
Manuel Alcaraz-Castaño, Javier Alcolea-González, Martin Kehl, Rosa-María Albert, Javier Baena-Preysler, Rodrigo de Balbín-Behrmann, Felipe Cuartero, Gloria Cuenca-Bescós, Fernando Jiménez-Barredo, José-Antonio López-Sáez, Raquel Piqué, David Rodríguez-Antón, José Yravedra, Gerd-Christian Weniger
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Although the Iberian Peninsula is a key area for understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition and the demise of the Neandertals, valuable evidence for these debates remains scarce and problematic in its interior regions. Sparse data supporting a late Neandertal persistence in the Iberian interior have been recently refuted and hence new evidence is needed to build new models on the timing and causes of Neandertal disappearance in inland Iberia and the whole peninsula...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723195/lanthanide-labeled-immunochromatographic-strip-assay-for-the-on-site-identification-of-ancient-silk
#7
Qiushi You, Miaomiao Liu, Yang Liu, Hailing Zheng, Zhiwen Hu, Yang Zhou, Bing Wang
The on-site identification of ancient silks has long been a key challenge in archeology. Therefore, a rapid, cost-effective, sensitive analytical approach is highly desirable. In this paper, a lanthanide-labeled immunochromatographic strip which is suitable for the on-site identification of ancient silks is described. Compared with the conventional colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip, this strip shows much higher analytical sensitivity and better quantitative discrimination. The limit of detection (LOD) of the strip for silk fibroin (SF) was calculated as 8...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719964/discovery-of-parasite-eggs-in-archeological-residence-during-the-15th-century-in-seoul-korea
#8
Pyo Yeon Cho, Jung-Min Park, Myeong-Ki Hwang, Seo Hye Park, Yun-Kyu Park, Bo-Young Jeon, Tong-Soo Kim, Hyeong-Woo Lee
During civil engineering construction near Sejong-ro, Jongro-ku, Seoul, cultural sites were found that are thought to have been built in the 15th century. This area was home to many different people as well as the leaders of the Yi dynasty. To gain further insight into the life styles of the inhabitants of the old capital, soil samples were collected from various areas such as toilets, water foundations, and drainage ways. Parasite eggs were examined by microscopy after 5 g soil samples were rehydrated in 0...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718912/survival-of-atherosclerotic-calcifications-in-skeletonized-material-forensic-and-pathological-implications
#9
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Annalisa Cappella, Elisa Castoldi, Laurent Martrille, Cristina Cattaneo
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease creating calcifying plaques in the arterial walls. Because its paleopathological diagnosis remains little studied on skeletal remains, its impact on forensic and archeological data is completely underestimated. Here, 24 skeletal remains from the Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection have been studied to evaluate the chance of atherosclerotic calcification survival, retrieval, and identification. Through direct comparison with a known autopsy collection and literature, the identification and categorization of several types of calcifications were performed...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712568/the-discovery-of-wild-date-palms-in-oman-reveals-a-complex-domestication-history-involving-centers-in-the-middle-east-and-africa
#10
Muriel Gros-Balthazard, Marco Galimberti, Athanasios Kousathanas, Claire Newton, Sarah Ivorra, Laure Paradis, Yves Vigouroux, Robert Carter, Margareta Tengberg, Vincent Battesti, Sylvain Santoni, Laurent Falquet, Jean-Christophe Pintaud, Jean-Frédéric Terral, Daniel Wegmann
For many crops, wild relatives constitute an extraordinary resource for cultivar improvement [1, 2] and also help to better understand the history of their domestication [3]. However, the wild ancestor species of several perennial crops have not yet been identified. Perennial crops generally present a weak domestication syndrome allowing cultivated individuals to establish feral populations difficult to distinguish from truly wild populations, and there is frequently ongoing gene flow between wild relatives and the crop that might erode most genetic differences [4]...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680931/the-use-of-fire-and-human-distribution
#11
REVIEW
Katharine MacDonald
Humans today live in a wide range of environments from the iciest to the hottest, thanks to diverse cultural solutions that buffer temperature extremes. The prehistory of this relationship between human distribution, cultural solutions and temperature conditions may help us to understand the evolution of human biological adaptations to cold temperature. Fire has long been seen as an important factor in human evolution and range expansion, particularly into temperate latitudes. Nevertheless, the earliest evidence for hominin presence in Eurasia, and middle latitudes in northern Europe, substantially predates convincing evidence for fire use in these regions...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680659/proteomic-profiling-of-archaeological-human-bone
#12
Rikai Sawafuji, Enrico Cappellini, Tomohito Nagaoka, Anna K Fotakis, Rosa Rakownikow Jersie-Christensen, Jesper V Olsen, Kazuaki Hirata, Shintaroh Ueda
Ancient protein analysis provides clues to human life and diseases from ancient times. Here, we performed shotgun proteomics of human archeological bones for the first time, using rib bones from the Hitotsubashi site (AD 1657-1683) in Tokyo, called Edo in ancient times. The output data obtained were analysed using Gene Ontology and label-free quantification. We detected leucocyte-derived proteins, possibly originating from the bone marrow of the rib. Particularly prevalent and relatively high expression of eosinophil peroxidase suggests the influence of infectious diseases...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639281/resolving-relationships-between-several-neolithic-and-mesolithic-populations-in-northern-eurasia-using-geometric-morphometrics
#13
Ekaterina Stansfield Bulygina, Anna Rasskasova, Natalia Berezina, Andrei D Soficaru
OBJECTIVES: Remains from several Eastern European and Siberian Mesolithic and Neolithic sites are analysed to clarify their biological relationships. We assume that groups' geographical distances correlate with genetic and, therefore, morphological distances between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Material includes complete male crania from several Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites across Northern Eurasia and from several modern populations. Geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistical techniques are applied to explore morphological trends, group distances, and correlations with their geographical position, climate, and the time of origin...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635867/-the-investigations-into-the-amino-acid-composition-of-the-tooth-for-the-purpose-of-forensic-medical-personality-identification
#14
Yu I Pigolkin, G V Zolotenkova, P S Velenko, B N Izotov
The increasingly greater requirements for the new approaches to the forensic medical personality identification necessitate the extensive search for and the development of the precise methods enabling the experts to determine the general personality signs in the cases of mass mortality and the large number of victims with the conspicuous post-mortem changes in their appearance including those associated with putrefaction and strong fragmentation of the bodies. This article presents the analytical review demonstrating that determination of the victims' age in the combination with the analysis of the amino acid composition of dental tissues provides a promising tool for the investigations not only in the fields of archeology and anthropology but also for the purpose of personality identification in forensic medicine...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625158/a-minimally-invasive-method-for-sampling-human-petrous-bones-from-the-cranial-base-for-ancient-dna-analysis
#15
Kendra A Sirak, Daniel M Fernandes, Olivia Cheronet, Mario Novak, Beatriz Gamarra, Tímea Balassa, Zsolt Bernert, Andrea Cséki, János Dani, József Zsolt Gallina, Gábor Kocsis-Buruzs, Ivett Kővári, Orsolya László, Ildikó Pap, Róbert Patay, Zsolt Petkes, Gergely Szenthe, Tamás Szeniczey, Tamás Hajdu, Ron Pinhasi
Ancient DNA (aDNA) research involves invasive and destructive sampling procedures that are often incompatible with anthropological, anatomical, and bioarcheological analyses requiring intact skeletal remains. The osseous labyrinth inside the petrous bone has been shown to yield higher amounts of endogenous DNA than any other skeletal element; however, accessing this labyrinth in cases of a complete or reconstructed skull involves causing major structural damage to the cranial vault or base. Here, we describe a novel cranial base drilling method (CBDM) for accessing the osseous labyrinth from the cranial base that prevents damaging the surrounding cranial features, making it highly complementary to morphological analyses...
June 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618240/omics-for-precious-rare-biosamples-characterization-of-ancient-human-hair-by-a-proteomic-approach
#16
Margaux Fresnais, Pascale Richardin, Marcela Sepúlveda, Emmanuelle Leize-Wagner, Armelle Charrié-Duhaut
Omics technologies have far-reaching applications beyond clinical medicine. A case in point is the analysis of ancient hair samples. Indeed, hair is an important biological indicator that has become a material of choice in archeometry to study the ancient civilizations and their environment. Current characterization of ancient hair is based on elemental and structural analyses, but only few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of ancient hair proteins-keratins-and their conservation state. In such cases, applied extraction protocols require large amounts of raw hair, from 30 to 100 mg...
July 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613037/results-of-a-collaborative-study-on-dna-identification-of-aged-bone-samples
#17
Daniel Vanek, Bruce Budowle, Jitka Dubska-Votrubova, Angie Ambers, Jan Frolik, Martin Pospisek, Ahmed Anwar Al Afeefi, Khalid Ismaeil Al Hosani, Marie Allen, Khudooma Saeed Al Naimi, Dina Al Salafi, Wafa Ali Rashid Al Tayyari, Wendy Arguetaa, Michel Bottinelli, Magdalena M Bus, Jan Cemper-Kiesslich, Olivier Cepil, Greet De Cock, Stijn Desmyter, Hamid El Amri, Hicham El Ossmani, Ruth Galdies, Sebastian Grün, Francois Guidet, Anna Hoefges, Cristian Bogdan Iancu, Petra Lotz, Alessandro Maresca, Marion Nagy, Jindrich Novotny, Hajar Rachid, Jessica Rothe, Marguerethe Stenersen, Mishel Stephenson, Alain Stevanovitch, Juliane Strien, Denilce R Sumita, Joanna Vella, Judith Zander
AIM: A collaborative exercise with several institutes was organized by the Forensic DNA Service (FDNAS) and the Institute of the Legal Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, with the aim to test performance of different laboratories carrying out DNA analysis of relatively old bone samples. METHODS: Eighteen laboratories participating in the collaborative exercise were asked to perform DNA typing of two samples of bone powder...
June 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610786/a-brief-history-of-tuberculosis-in-the-czech-lands
#18
REVIEW
Lenka Vargová, Kateřina Vymazalová, Ladislava Horáčková
Tuberculosis currently remains a serious medical problem, therefore increased attention is being paid to this disease. Paleopathological studies focused on the monitoring of morbid changes in skeletal remains of historical populations facilitate a detailed study of the development of this disease. They provide direct evidence of the existence of tuberculosis and its past forms. In addition to literary and iconographic sources, the present study is focused on recording the findings of bone tuberculosis in historical osteological sets from the Czech Lands and is the starting point for their detailed review...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573969/human-spiruridiasis-due-to-physaloptera-spp-nematoda-physalopteridae-in-a-grave-of-the-shahr-e-sukhteh-archeological-site-of-the-bronze-age-2800-2500-bc-in-iran
#19
Mahsasadat Makki, Jean Dupouy-Camet, Seyed Mansour Seyed Sajjadi, František Moravec, Saied Reza Naddaf, Iraj Mobedi, Hossein Malekafzali, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mehdi Mohebali, Faranak Kargar, Gholamreza Mowlavi
Evidence of rare human helminthiasis in paleoparasitological records is scarce. we report here the finding of Physaloptera spp. eggs in a soil sample collected in the pelvic and sacrum bones area of a skeleton excavated from a grave of Shahr-e Sukhteh archeological site dating back to the Bronze Age. The site is located in southeastern Iran and has attracted the attention of numerous archeological teams owing to its vast expanse and diverse archeological findings since 1997. The spirurid nematodes Physaloptera spp...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542741/age-estimation-of-immature-human-skeletal-remains-from-the-dimensions-of-the-girdle-bones-in-the-postnatal-period
#20
Hugo F V Cardoso, Laure Spake, Louise T Humphrey
OBJECTIVES: This study provides classical calibration regression formulae for age estimation from the dimensions of unfused shoulder and pelvic girdle bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age estimation models were derived from a sample of 160 known age and sex individuals (63 females and 97 males) aged birth to 12 years, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. The sample was divided into two age groups at the age of 2 years, and formulae were obtained for the sexes separately and combined...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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