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Archeology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639281/resolving-relationships-between-several-neolithic-and-mesolithic-populations-in-northern-eurasia-using-geometric-morphometrics
#1
Ekaterina Stansfield Bulygina, Anna Rasskasova, Natalia Berezina, Andrei D Soficaru
OBJECTIVES: Remains from several Eastern European and Siberian Mesolithic and Neolithic sites are analysed to clarify their biological relationships. We assume that groups' geographical distances correlate with genetic and, therefore, morphological distances between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Material includes complete male crania from several Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites across Northern Eurasia and from several modern populations. Geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistical techniques are applied to explore morphological trends, group distances, and correlations with their geographical position, climate, and the time of origin...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635867/-the-investigations-into-the-amino-acid-composition-of-the-tooth-for-the-purpose-of-forensic-medical-personality-identification
#2
Yu I Pigolkin, G V Zolotenkova, P S Velenko, B N Izotov
The increasingly greater requirements for the new approaches to the forensic medical personality identification necessitate the extensive search for and the development of the precise methods enabling the experts to determine the general personality signs in the cases of mass mortality and the large number of victims with the conspicuous post-mortem changes in their appearance including those associated with putrefaction and strong fragmentation of the bodies. This article presents the analytical review demonstrating that determination of the victims' age in the combination with the analysis of the amino acid composition of dental tissues provides a promising tool for the investigations not only in the fields of archeology and anthropology but also for the purpose of personality identification in forensic medicine...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625158/a-minimally-invasive-method-for-sampling-human-petrous-bones-from-the-cranial-base-for-ancient-dna-analysis
#3
Kendra A Sirak, Daniel M Fernandes, Olivia Cheronet, Mario Novak, Beatriz Gamarra, Tímea Balassa, Zsolt Bernert, Andrea Cséki, János Dani, József Zsolt Gallina, Gábor Kocsis-Buruzs, Ivett Kővári, Orsolya László, Ildikó Pap, Róbert Patay, Zsolt Petkes, Gergely Szenthe, Tamás Szeniczey, Tamás Hajdu, Ron Pinhasi
Ancient DNA (aDNA) research involves invasive and destructive sampling procedures that are often incompatible with anthropological, anatomical, and bioarcheological analyses requiring intact skeletal remains. The osseous labyrinth inside the petrous bone has been shown to yield higher amounts of endogenous DNA than any other skeletal element; however, accessing this labyrinth in cases of a complete or reconstructed skull involves causing major structural damage to the cranial vault or base. Here, we describe a novel cranial base drilling method (CBDM) for accessing the osseous labyrinth from the cranial base that prevents damaging the surrounding cranial features, making it highly complementary to morphological analyses...
June 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618240/omics-for-precious-rare-biosamples-characterization-of-ancient-human-hair-by-a-proteomic-approach
#4
Margaux Fresnais, Pascale Richardin, Marcela Sepúlveda, Emmanuelle Leize-Wagner, Armelle Charrié-Duhaut
Omics technologies have far-reaching applications beyond clinical medicine. A case in point is the analysis of ancient hair samples. Indeed, hair is an important biological indicator that has become a material of choice in archeometry to study the ancient civilizations and their environment. Current characterization of ancient hair is based on elemental and structural analyses, but only few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of ancient hair proteins-keratins-and their conservation state. In such cases, applied extraction protocols require large amounts of raw hair, from 30 to 100 mg...
June 15, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613037/results-of-a-collaborative-study-on-dna-identification-of-aged-bone-samples
#5
Daniel Vanek, Bruce Budowle, Jitka Dubska-Votrubova, Angie Ambers, Jan Frolik, Martin Pospisek, Ahmed Anwar Al Afeefi, Khalid Ismaeil Al Hosani, Marie Allen, Khudooma Saeed Al Naimi, Dina Al Salafi, Wafa Ali Rashid Al Tayyari, Wendy Arguetaa, Michel Bottinelli, Magdalena M Bus, Jan Cemper-Kiesslich, Olivier Cepil, Greet De Cock, Stijn Desmyter, Hamid El Amri, Hicham El Ossmani, Ruth Galdies, Sebastian Grün, Francois Guidet, Anna Hoefges, Cristian Bogdan Iancu, Petra Lotz, Alessandro Maresca, Marion Nagy, Jindrich Novotny, Hajar Rachid, Jessica Rothe, Marguerethe Stenersen, Mishel Stephenson, Alain Stevanovitch, Juliane Strien, Denilce R Sumita, Joanna Vella, Judith Zander
AIM: A collaborative exercise with several institutes was organized by the Forensic DNA Service (FDNAS) and the Institute of the Legal Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, with the aim to test performance of different laboratories carrying out DNA analysis of relatively old bone samples. METHODS: Eighteen laboratories participating in the collaborative exercise were asked to perform DNA typing of two samples of bone powder...
June 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610786/a-brief-history-of-tuberculosis-in-the-czech-lands
#6
REVIEW
Lenka Vargová, Kateřina Vymazalová, Ladislava Horáčková
Tuberculosis currently remains a serious medical problem, therefore increased attention is being paid to this disease. Paleopathological studies focused on the monitoring of morbid changes in skeletal remains of historical populations facilitate a detailed study of the development of this disease. They provide direct evidence of the existence of tuberculosis and its past forms. In addition to literary and iconographic sources, the present study is focused on recording the findings of bone tuberculosis in historical osteological sets from the Czech Lands and is the starting point for their detailed review...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573969/human-spiruridiasis-due-to-physaloptera-spp-nematoda-physalopteridae-in-a-grave-of-the-shahr-e-sukhteh-archeological-site-of-the-bronze-age-2800-2500-bc-in-iran
#7
Mahsasadat Makki, Jean Dupouy-Camet, Seyed Mansour Seyed Sajjadi, František Moravec, Saied Reza Naddaf, Iraj Mobedi, Hossein Malekafzali, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mehdi Mohebali, Faranak Kargar, Gholamreza Mowlavi
Evidence of rare human helminthiasis in paleoparasitological records is scarce. we report here the finding of Physaloptera spp. eggs in a soil sample collected in the pelvic and sacrum bones area of a skeleton excavated from a grave of Shahr-e Sukhteh archeological site dating back to the Bronze Age. The site is located in southeastern Iran and has attracted the attention of numerous archeological teams owing to its vast expanse and diverse archeological findings since 1997. The spirurid nematodes Physaloptera spp...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542741/age-estimation-of-immature-human-skeletal-remains-from-the-dimensions-of-the-girdle-bones-in-the-postnatal-period
#8
Hugo F V Cardoso, Laure Spake, Louise T Humphrey
OBJECTIVES: This study provides classical calibration regression formulae for age estimation from the dimensions of unfused shoulder and pelvic girdle bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age estimation models were derived from a sample of 160 known age and sex individuals (63 females and 97 males) aged birth to 12 years, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. The sample was divided into two age groups at the age of 2 years, and formulae were obtained for the sexes separately and combined...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521914/the-face-of-conflict-significant-sharp-force-trauma-to-the-mid-facial-skeleton-in-an-individual-of-probable-16th-17th-century-date-excavated-from-byczyna-poland
#9
Agata Izabela Cieślik, Paweł Dąbrowski, Magdalena Anita Przysiężna-Pizarska
A variety of injuries have always been associated with violence, consequences of which people had to deal with. In this paper we present a complex of craniofacial and dental injuries resulted from sharp force trauma. The basis of our study was historical skeletal material excavated from archeological site in Byczyna (11th-17th century), Poland. An individual whose skeleton was exhumed from the grave No. 610 exhibited healed, oblique trauma of the left maxilla, damage to the crowns of right central and lateral incisors and concomitant luxation of the right maxillary central incisor...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521911/developmental-instability-and-its-relationship-to-mental-health-in-two-historic-dutch-populations
#10
Alieske Christiene Hagg, Alie Emily Van der Merwe, Maryna Steyn
This study aimed to assess the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry as an indicator of developmental instability between two urban archeological Dutch populations. The sample comprised of 209 adult individuals representing the general population of Alkmaar, the Netherlands, dating to the 18th to early 19th century (Grote Kerk, n=134), and a psychiatric hospital sample of the 19th to early 20th century (Meerenberg, n=75). Fluctuating asymmetry was assessed from left and right measurements recorded from various traits on the cranium, mandible, and dentition...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515782/ecotypic-differentiation-under-farmers-selection-molecular-insights-into-the-domestication-of-pachyrhizus-rich-ex-dc-fabaceae-in-the-peruvian-andes
#11
Marc Delêtre, Beatriz Soengas, Prem Jai Vidaurre, Rosa Isela Meneses, Octavio Delgado Vásquez, Isabel Oré Balbín, Monica Santayana, Bettina Heider, Marten Sørensen
Understanding the distribution of crop genetic diversity in relation to environmental factors can give insights into the eco-evolutionary processes involved in plant domestication. Yam beans (Pachyrhizus Rich. ex DC.) are leguminous crops native to South and Central America that are grown for their tuberous roots but are seed-propagated. Using a landscape genetic approach, we examined correlations between environmental factors and phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in Pachyrhizus landrace populations...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506043/first-paleoparasitological-report-on-the-animal-feces-of-bronze-age-excavated-from-shahr-e-sukhteh-iran
#12
Mahsasadat Makki, Jean Dupouy-Camet, Seyed Mansour Seyed Sajjadi, Saied Reza Naddaf, Iraj Mobedi, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mehdi Mohebali, Gholamreza Mowlavi
Shahr-e Sukhteh (meaning burnt city in Persian) in Iran is an archeological site dated back to around 3,200-1,800 BC. It is located in Sistan and Baluchistan Province of Iran and known as the junction of Bronze Age trade routes crossing the Iranian plateau. It was appointed as current study area for paleoparasitological investigations. Excavations at this site have revealed various archeological materials since 1967. In the present study, sheep and carnivore coprolites excavated from this site were analyzed by means of rehydration technique using TSP solution for finding helminth eggs...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495480/-fabien-arcelin-1876-1942-or-how-to-become-a-radiation-oncologist-when-born-an-archeologist
#13
N Foray
Fabien Arcelin, physician working in Lyon, pioneer of radiology and radiotherapy, was both mentored by Destot (one of the fathers of the French radiology for his thesis of medicine) and by his own father Adrien Arcelin (one of the two codiscoverers of the prehistorical site of the Roche-de-Solutré in Burgundy) for archeological works. Hence, radiologist in Lyon during the week and archeologist during the weekend, Fabien Arcelin made significant advances in both radiation research and archeology. He was notably the discoverer of the first tombs of Aurignacian men...
May 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492091/the-schizophrenia-stigma-and-mass-media-a-search-for-news-published-by-wide-circulation-media-in-brazil
#14
Francisco Bevilacqua Guarniero, Ruth Helena Bellinghini, Wagner Farid Gattaz
Schizophrenia is the most common illness used today as a metaphor in the media and routinely appears associated with crime and violence with no medical or scientific rigor, reinforcing the stigma against this disorder. Evaluation of the presence of structural stigma in the Brazilian media by means of a survey of printed news and the Internet using the term schizophrenia and its correlates under three aspects: (a) medical and scientific uses, (b) assigning a diagnosis of schizophrenia to crime suspects with little or no medical or scientific rigor, and (c) the metaphorical use...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404240/determination-of-the-post-mortem-interval-in-skeletal-remains-by-the-comparative-use-of-different-physico-chemical-methods-are-they-reliable-as-an-alternative-to-14-c
#15
Alberto Amadasi, Annalisa Cappella, Cristina Cattaneo, Pacifico Cofrancesco, Lucia Cucca, Daniele Merli, Chiara Milanese, Andrea Pinto, Antonella Profumo, Valentina Scarpulla, Emanuela Sguazza
The determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is a challenging aspect in the forensic field. Previous studies focused their attention on different macroscopic and morphological aspects but a thorough and complete evaluation of the potential of chemical and physical analyses in this field of research has not been performed. In addition to luminol test and Oxford histology index (OHI) reported in a recent paper, widely spread and accessible methods based on physical aspect and chemical characteristics of skeletal remains have been investigated as potential alternatives to dating by determination of (14)C...
March 22, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398903/biomechanics-of-microliths-manufacture-a-preliminary-approach-to-neanderthal-s-motor-constrains-in-the-frame-of-embodied-cognition
#16
Francia Patiño, Manuel Luque, Marcos Terradillos-Bernal, Manuel Martín-Loeches
The systems of perception and action of the brain appear as important constraining factors in human evolution under current models of embodied cognition. In this view, the emergence of certain items in the archeological record is not necessarily subsequent to the emergence of a 'symbolic' mind, but instead to the appearance of the sensory-motor systems enabling that behavior. One of the products normally absent in pre- Homo sapiens species is the standardized microlith, whose production seems very demanding for the hand due to their small size and need for fine craft...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397550/the-pillar-of-metropolitan-greatness-the-long-making-of-archeological-objects-in-paris-1711-2001
#17
Stéphane Van Damme
Over three centuries after the 1711 discovery in the choir of Notre-Dame in Paris of a square-section stone bas-relief (the Pillar of the Boatmen) with depictions of several deities, both Gaulish and Roman, the blocks comprising it were analyzed as a symbol of Parisian power, if not autonomy, vis-à-vis the Roman Empire. Variously considered as local, national, or imperial representations, the blocks were a constant object of admiration, interrogation, and speculation among antiquarians of the Republic of Letters...
April 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393087/an-atlas-of-paste-fabrics-and-supplemental-paste-compositional-data-from-late-middle-preclassic-period-ceramics-at-the-maya-site-of-holtun-guatemala
#18
Michael G Callaghan, Daniel Pierce, Brigitte Kovacevich, Michael D Glascock
This data article contains an atlas of paste fabrics and supplemental paste compositional data generated from Late Middle Preclassic-period ceramics at the Maya site of Holtun, Guatemala. The data include maps showing locations of archeological contexts, excavation profiles, photographs and photomicrographs of sherds and paste fabrics, and compositional data produced by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Research Reactor, University of Missouri (MURR). The NAA data include a biplot and table of canonical discriminant analyses, Mahalonobis distance calculations, and Euclidian distance searches between the samples...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368797/-an-archeology-of-parturition-in-prehumans-evolutionary-trends-and-limits
#19
EDITORIAL
P Charlier, Y Coppens, G Chene, A Augias, S Jacqueline, P Froesch, I Huynh-Charlier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366202/human-predatory-behavior-and-the-social-implications-of-communal-hunting-based-on-evidence-from-the-td10-2-bison-bone-bed-at-gran-dolina-atapuerca-spain
#20
Antonio Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Palmira Saladié, Andreu Ollé, Juan Luis Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell
Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification and classification of hunting methods in prehistory. The archeological recognition of communal hunting reflects an interest in evolutionary terms and their inherent implications for anticipatory capacities, social complexity, and the development of cognitive tools, such as articulated language...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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