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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149743/multigenerational-effects-of-salinity-in-six-clonal-lineages-of-daphnia-longispina
#1
C Venâncio, R Ribeiro, A M V M Soares, I Lopes
Sea level rise, as a consequence of climate changes, is already causing seawater intrusion in some freshwater coastal ecosystems worldwide. The increase in salinity at these freshwater coastal ecosystems may occur gradually (through groundwater) or abruptly (through extreme weather events). Moreover, many of them are also being altered and threatened by anthropogenic activities. Accordingly, the present study aimed at assessing the multigenerational lethal and sublethal effects caused by increased salinity in six clonal lineages of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina differing in their sensitivity to lethal levels of copper...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149672/the-application-of-bacteriophages-as-novel-indicators-of-viral-pathogens-in-wastewater-treatment-systems
#2
Edgard Dias, James Ebdon, Huw Taylor
Many wastewater treatment technologies have been shown to remove bacterial pathogens more effectively than viral pathogens and, in aquatic environments, levels of traditional faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) do not appear to correlate consistently with levels of human viral pathogens. There is, therefore, a need for novel viral indicators of faecal pollution and surrogates of viral pathogens, especially given the increasing importance of indirect and direct wastewater reuse. Potential candidates include bacteriophages (phages) and the study described here sought to elucidate the relationship between three groups of phages (somatic coliphages (SOMPH), F-RNA coliphages (F-RNAPH) and human-specific phages infecting B...
November 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149174/cystatin-b-cathepsin-l-and-d-related-to-surrogate-markers-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-children
#3
Magnus Dencker, Tina Tanha, Magnus K Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Lars B Andersen, Ola Thorsson
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated potential associations between novel biomarkers for cardiovascular disease and other surrogate markers for health. METHODS: Community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass (TBF) and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total body fat was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148907/impact-of-patients-expressed-wishes-on-their-surrogate-decision-makers-preferred-decision-making-roles-in-japan
#4
Shuji Tsuda, Mieko Nakamura, Shigeru Aoki, Hiroshi Ono, Mitsuru Takagi, Hiroki Ohashi, Junichiro Miyachi, Yoshinori Matsui, Toshiyuki Ojima
BACKGROUND: Home medical care (HMC) patients and their families are expected to prepare for end-of-life decision making. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the decision readiness of HMC patients and their family surrogates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING/SUBJECTS: We collected data from dyads, consisting of a HMC patient aged 65 years or older and a family member of the patient, recruited at four Japanese primary care clinics from January 2016 to November 2016...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148535/the-role-of-apc-in-wnt-pathway-activation-in-serrated-neoplasia
#5
Jennifer Borowsky, Troy Dumenil, Mark Bettington, Sally-Ann Pearson, Catherine Bond, Lochlan Fennell, Cheng Liu, Diane McKeone, Christophe Rosty, Ian Brown, Neal Walker, Barbara Leggett, Vicki Whitehall
Conventional adenomas are initiated by APC gene mutation that activates the WNT signal. Serrated neoplasia is commonly initiated by BRAF or KRAS mutation. WNT pathway activation may also occur, however, to what extent this is owing to APC mutation is unknown. We examined aberrant nuclear β-catenin immunolocalization as a surrogate for WNT pathway activation and analyzed the entire APC gene coding sequence in serrated and conventional pathway polyps and cancers. WNT pathway activation was a common event in conventional pathway lesions with aberrant nuclear immunolocalization of β-catenin and truncating APC mutations in 90% and 89% of conventional adenomas and 82% and 70% of BRAF wild-type cancers, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147694/emerging-investigator-series-the-effect-of-wildfire-on-streamwater-mercury-and-organic-carbon-in-a-forested-watershed-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#6
Allison M Jensen, Todd M Scanlon, Ami L Riscassi
Wildfires alter forested ecosystems, which include large stores of mercury (Hg) and organic carbon, two compounds that are closely linked in vegetation, soils, and streamwater. Studies have shown that wildfires release elevated levels of mercury to the atmosphere which can be locally redeposited and leave charred organic material (vegetation and litter) on the soil surface. Both can contribute to the elevated mobilization of Hg into lakes and streams. However, no studies have conducted a detailed examination of hydrological transport of Hg following a wildfire...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147609/tumor-immunology-meets%C3%A2-immunology-modified-cancer-cells-as-professional-apc-for-priming-na%C3%A3-ve-tumor-specific-cd4-t-cells
#7
REVIEW
Farah Bou Nasser Eddine, Elise Ramia, Giovanna Tosi, Greta Forlani, Roberto S Accolla
Although recent therapeutic approaches have revitalized the enthusiasm of the immunological way to combat cancer, still the comprehension of immunity against tumors is largely incomplete. Due to their specific function, CD8+ T cells with cytolytic activity (CTL) have attracted the attention of most investigators because CTL are considered the main effectors against tumor cells. Nevertheless, CTL activity and persistence is largely dependent on the action of CD4+ T helper cells (TH). Thus establishment of tumor-specific TH cell response is key to the optimal response against cancer...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147537/fluorinated-molecular-beacons-as-functional-dna-nanomolecules-for-cellular-imaging
#8
Cheng Jin, Ting Fu, Ruowen Wang, Hui Liu, Jianmei Zou, Zilong Zhao, Mao Ye, Xiaobing Zhang, Weihong Tan
Molecular beacons (MBs) are simple, but practical, fluorescent nanoprobes widely used to detect small molecules, nucleic acids and proteins. However, some challenges still remain when MBs are employed in complex biological environments, such as instability and non-target interference. To meet such challenges, we have designed and synthesized fluorinated molecular beacons (FMBs) as functional DNA nanomolecules for cellular imaging, in which the stem sequence is simply composed of artificial nucleotides with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene (F) as the surrogate base of natural A, T, C and G bases...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146976/association-of-a-variant-in-the-gene-encoding-for-erv1-chemr23-with-reduced-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-morbidly-obese-individuals
#9
Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Ana González-Périz, Ana Isabel Martínez-Puchol, Mireia Casulleras, Marta Duran-Güell, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Ricard Corcelles, Andrés Laguna-Fernández, Magnus Back, Esther Titos, Joan Clària
Obesity comorbidities are closely associated with chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation. A number of SNPs associated with inflammation has been identified, underscoring the impact of genetic determinants on this process. Here, we screened SNPs in genes with pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, STAT3 and JAK2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and SOCS3) and pro-resolving (ERV1/ChemR23) properties in 101 obese and 99 non-obese individuals. Among the SNPs analyzed, we identified that individuals carrying a C allele in the rs1878022 polymorphism of the ERV1/ChemR23 gene, which encodes for the receptor of the pro-resolving mediator RvE1, had increased ERV1/ChemR23 protein expression and reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in adipose tissue...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146419/syncope-on-presentation-is-a-surrogate-for-submassive-and-massive-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#10
Hesham R Omar, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Michael B Weinstock, Garett Enten, Devanand Mangar, Enrico M Camporesi
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting data regarding the prognostic value of syncope in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of 552 consecutive adults with computed tomography pulmonary angiogram-confirmed APE to determine the correlates and outcome of the occurrence of syncope at the time of presentation. RESULTS: Among 552 subjects with APE (mean age 54years, 47% men), syncope occurred in 12...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146349/analysis-of-alternariol-and-alternariol-monomethyl-ether-in-foodstuffs-by-molecularly-imprinted-solid-phase-extraction-and-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
A Rico-Yuste, J Walravens, J L Urraca, R A G Abou-Hany, A B Descalzo, G Orellana, M Rychlik, S De Saeger, M C Moreno-Bondi
Molecularly imprinted porous polymer microspheres selective to Alternaria mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), were synthesized and applied to the extraction of both mycotoxins in food samples. The polymer was prepared using 4-vinylpiridine (VIPY) and methacrylamide (MAM) as functional monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker and 3,8,9-trihydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one (S2) as AOH surrogate template. A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been optimized for the selective isolation of the mycotoxins from aqueous samples coupled to HPLC with fluorescence (λex=258nm; λem=440nm) or MS/MS analysis...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146101/nutrition-epidemiology-of-flavan-3-ols-the-known-unknowns
#12
REVIEW
Gunter G C Kuhnle
Nutritional epidemiology has an important role, as it can provide long-term data from large populations and does not rely on surrogate markers for morbidity/mortality. Meaningful interpretation and applications of outcomes from epidemiological studies depend on the accurate assessment of dietary intake, which is currently mainly based on a combination of self-reporting and food composition data. Flavan-3-ols are a group of bioactives (non-essential dietary components with significant impact on health) that is a possible candidate for the development of dietary recommendations...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146035/renal-outcomes-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
A J Scheen, P Delanaye
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) are increasingly being used in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the effects of DPP-4is on renal outcomes by analyzing the experimental preclinical data, the effects of DPP-4is on urinary albumin-creatinine ratios (UACRs) and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) from observational studies and clinical trials, and renal events (including kidney failure requiring renal replacement therapy) in recent large prospective cardiovascular outcome trials...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145777/a-probability-based-method-for-selecting-the-optimal-personalized-treatment-from-multiple-treatments
#14
Chathura Siriwardhana, Meng Zhao, Somnath Datta, K B Kulasekera
In this work we propose a method for optimal treatment assignment based on individual covariate information for a patient. For the K treatment ([Formula: see text]) scenario, we compare quantities that are suitable surrogates to true conditional probabilities of outcome variable of each treatment dominating outcome variables for all other treatments conditional on patient specific scores constructed from patient-specific covariates. As opposed to methods based on conditional means, our method can be applied for a broad set of models and error structures...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145073/target-induced-proximity-ligation-triggers-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-and-transcription-mediated-amplification-to-detect-tumor-derived%C3%A2-exosomes-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-with-high-sensitivity
#15
Wanli Liu, Jianpei Li, Yixian Wu, Shan Xing, Yanzhen Lai, Ge Zhang
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are extracellular vesicles that are continuously released into the blood by tumor cells and carry specific surface markers of the original tumor cells. Substantial evidence has implicated TEXs as attractive diagnostic markers for cancer. However, the detection of TEXs in blood at an early tumor stage is challenging due to their very low concentration. Here, we established a method called PLA-RPA-TMA assay that allows TEXs to be detected with high sensitivity and specificity. Based on two proximity ligation assay (PLA) probes that recognize a biomarker on a TEX, we generated a unique surrogate DNA signal for the specific biomarker, which was synchronously amplified twice by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) coupled with transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), and then the products of the RPA-TMA reaction were quantitatively detected using a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric assay...
November 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145005/assessment-of-long-term-spatio-temporal-radiofrequency-electromagnetic-field-exposure
#16
Sam Aerts, Joe Wiart, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph
As both the environment and telecommunications networks are inherently dynamic, our exposure to environmental radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) at an arbitrary location is not at all constant in time. In this study, more than a year's worth of measurement data collected in a fixed low-cost exposimeter network distributed over an urban environment was analysed and used to build, for the first time, a full spatio-temporal surrogate model of outdoor exposure to downlink Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) signals...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144790/evaluation-of-ki-67-index-in-core-needle-biopsies-and-matched-breast-cancer-surgical-specimens
#17
Soomin Ahn, Junghye Lee, Min-Sun Cho, Sanghui Park, Sun Hee Sung
CONTEXT: - The Ki-67 index is strongly prognostic and is used as a surrogate marker to distinguish luminal A from luminal B breast cancer types. OBJECTIVE: - To investigate differences in Ki-67 index between core needle biopsy samples and matched surgical samples in breast cancer. DESIGN: - We included patients with invasive breast cancer who did not receive neoadjuvant therapy. A total of 89 pairs of core needle biopsies and surgical specimens were collected, and the Ki-67 index was assessed in hot spot areas using an image analyzer...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144055/confocal-raman-spectroscopic-imaging-for-in-vitro-monitoring-of-active-ingredient-penetration-and-distribution-in-reconstructed-human-epidermis-model
#18
Lynda Miloudi, Franck Bonnier, Ali Tfayli, Florent Yvergnaux, Hugh J Byrne, Igor Chourpa, Emilie Munnier
Topically applied Active Cosmetic Ingredients (ACI) or Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) efficacy is directly related to their efficiency of penetration in the skin. In vitro Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) surrogate models offer in vivo like skin samples for transdermal studies. Using Delipidol®, an ACI currently used in the cosmetics industry, the capabilities to deliver accurate distribution maps and penetration profiles of this molecule by means of Confocal Raman spectroscopic Imaging have been demonstrated...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143810/next-generation-pacemakers-from-small-devices-to-biological-pacemakers
#19
REVIEW
Eugenio Cingolani, Joshua I Goldhaber, Eduardo Marbán
Electrogenesis in the heart begins in the sinoatrial node and proceeds down the conduction system to originate the heartbeat. Conduction system disorders lead to slow heart rates that are insufficient to support the circulation, necessitating implantation of electronic pacemakers. The typical electronic pacemaker consists of a subcutaneous generator and battery module attached to one or more endocardial leads. New leadless pacemakers can be implanted directly into the right ventricular apex, providing single-chamber pacing without a subcutaneous generator...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143626/methodological-challenges-in-appraising-evidence-on-diagnostic-testing-for-who-guidelines-on-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
Roger Chou, Philippa Easterbrook, Margaret Hellard
Linking persons with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection with appropriate prevention and treatment requires that they first be diagnosed. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed its first guidelines on testing for chronic HBV and HCV infection, using a framework based on methods from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group for the formulation of recommendations, including determining the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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