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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873139/when-marcel-mauss-s-essai-sur-le-don-becomes-the-gift-variations-on-the-theme-of-solidarity
#1
Simone Bateman
Since the early 1970s, Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don (1923), translated into English as The Gift in 1954, has been a standard reference in the social science and bioethical literature on the use of human body parts and substances for medical and research purposes. At that time, three social scientists-political scientist Richard Titmuss in the United Kingdom and sociologist Renée C. Fox working with historian Judith Swazey in the United States-had the idea of using this concept to highlight the fundamental structure of the biomedical practices they were studying, respectively, blood donation, and hemodialysis and organ transplantation...
November 21, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716264/current-state-of-ethics-literature-synthesis-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#2
Marcel Mertz, Hannes Kahrass, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed...
October 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321252/jehovah-s-witness-patients-within-the-german-medical-landscape
#3
Małgorzata Rajtar
Blood transfusions belong to standard and commonly utilised biomedical procedures. Jehovah's Witnesses' transfusion refusals are often referred to in bioethical and medical textbooks. Members of this globally active religious organisation do not, however, challenge biomedical diagnosis and treatment as such. A result of both their trust in and their interpretation of the Bible, they question only this medical treatment. In spite of the global presence of this religious community and its uniformly practised teachings, including those pertaining to blood, experiences and choices of Jehovah's Witness patients have been understudied...
August 2016: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194404/circumcision-of-male-infants-and-children-as-a-public-health-measure-in-developed-countries-a-critical-assessment-of-recent-evidence
#4
Morten Frisch, Brian D Earp
In December of 2014, an anonymous working group under the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a draft of the first-ever federal recommendations regarding male circumcision. In accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics' circumcision policy from 2012 - but in contrast to the more recent 2015 policy from the Canadian Paediatric Society as well as prior policies (still in force) from medical associations in Europe and Australasia - the CDC suggested that the benefits of the surgery outweigh the risks...
May 19, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192126/a-comparative-analysis-of-the-legal-and-bioethical-frameworks-governing-the-secondary-use-of-data-for-research-purposes
#5
Anne-Marie Tassé
The secondary use of research and health data for purposes that differ from the original purpose of the collection is becoming a major trend in research, since it allows for the optimal use of already available resources, and reduces the costs of research activities. However, the consent provided at the time of the initial data collection might not have foreseen these new uses of the data. This is especially true for biobanks having collected data under a restricted or a disease-specific consent, and for data linkage, which allows researchers to combine research data with information from the medical record of participants...
June 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178191/structural-competency-in-the-u-s-healthcare-crisis-putting-social-and-policy-interventions-into-clinical-practice
#6
H Hansen, J Metzl
This symposium of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry illustrates structural competency: how clinical practitioners can intervene on social and institutional determinants of health. It will require training clinicians to see and act on structural barriers to health, to adapt imaginative structural approaches from fields outside of medicine, and to collaborate with disciplines and institutions outside of medicine. Case studies of effective work on all of these levels are presented in this volume. The contributors exemplify structural competency from many angles, from the implications of epigenetics for environmental intervention in personalized medicine to the ways clinicians can act on fundamental causes of disease, address abuses of power in clinical training, racially desegregate cities to reduce health disparities, address the systemic causes of torture by police, and implement harm-reduction programs for addiction in the face of punitive drug laws...
June 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157355/child-rights-and-clinical-bioethics-historical-reflections-on-modern-medicine-and-ethics
#7
Jeffrey P Brosco
Why might pediatric bioethicists in the United States reject the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as a framework for resolving ethical issues? The essays in this issue present arguments and counterarguments regarding the usefulness of the CRC in various clinical and research cases. But underlying this debate are two historical factors that help explain the seeming paradox of pediatric bioethicists' arguing against child's rights. First, the profession of clinical bioethics emerged in the 1970s as one component of modern medicine's focus on improving health through the application of technologically sophisticated treatments...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157345/actions-speak-louder-than-words-the-u-n-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child-and-u-s-pediatric-bioethicists
#8
Kellie R Lang, Cheryl D Lew
In exploring the relationship between "child rights" and "pediatric bioethics" and how these disciplines might provide mutual support in advancing the health and wellness of children around the world, our article responds to the questions of whether the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) could be of any benefit in the United States, the only country that has not yet ratified this international treaty, and whether the CRC has any value for addressing clinical pediatric bioethics' questions. We describe the considerable influence that the United States had in developing significant components of the CRC, and we argue that the CRC may be useful for U...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109939/organ-allocation-policies-10%C3%A2-years-after-unesco-s-universal-declaration-on-bioethics-and-human-rights
#9
C Petrini
BACKGROUND: October 19, 2015, marked the 10th anniversary of the adoption by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) of the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights," which was signed by representatives of the 191 member states of the conference. The declaration is of major importance: it was the first legally binding document approved by a global organization to address the whole range of subjects covered by bioethics...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982911/bioethicists-can-and-should-contribute-to-addressing-racism
#10
Marion Danis, Yolonda Wilson, Amina White
The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it...
2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957445/vulnerability
#11
Thiago Cunha, Volnei Garrafa
Collating the concepts of vulnerability through five regional perspectives on bioethics from the United States, Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia, this article proposes a means of integration between the different approaches in order to seek a theoretical and normative basis for the field of global bioethics. It argues that only through opening continuous, critical, and self-critical dialogue within the international bioethical community will it be possible to achieve a sufficiently global understanding of vulnerability that is capable of identifying the means needed for addressing the conditions that leave certain groups and individuals more susceptible to "wounding" than others...
April 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912540/the-evolving-ethics-of-dialysis-in-the-united-states-a-principlist-bioethics-approach
#12
Catherine R Butler, Rajnish Mehrotra, Mark R Tonelli, Daniel Y Lam
Throughout the history of dialysis, four bioethical principles - beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice - have been weighted differently based upon changing forces of technologic innovation, resource limitation, and societal values. In the 1960s, a committee of lay people in Seattle attempted to fairly distribute a limited number of maintenance hemodialysis stations guided by considerations of justice. As technology advanced and dialysis was funded under an amendment to the Social Security Act in 1972, focus shifted to providing dialysis for all in need while balancing the burdens of treatment and quality of life, supported by the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence...
April 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892881/when-and-why-is-research-without-consent-permissible
#13
Luke Gelinas, Alan Wertheimer, Franklin G Miller
The purpose of consent is to let a person waive her rights of control over some aspects of her life. But becoming part of a research study does not always seriously undermine one's control.
March 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26652336/moral-dilemmas-in-pediatric-orthopedics
#14
John J Mercuri, Jonathan M Vigdorchik, Norman Y Otsuka
All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines...
December 2015: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26539979/clinical-criteria-for-physician-aid-in-dying
#15
David Orentlicher, Thaddeus Mason Pope, Ben A Rich
More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington...
March 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26514048/-clinical-introduction-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-major-depression-in-japan
#16
REVIEW
Motoaki Nakamura
Therapeutic applications of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have long been awaited for not only neurological but also psychiatric disorders as a low-invasive transcranial brain stimulation. In 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States finally approved repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for medication-resistant patients with major depression. More recently, at the beginning of 2013, a deep TMS device with the H-coil received FDA approval as the second TMS device for major depression...
2015: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26424211/opportunities-in-reform-bioethics-and-mental-health-ethics
#17
Arthur Robin Williams
Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians...
May 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26036057/approaches-to-death-and-dying-a-cultural-comparison-of-turkey-and-the-united-states
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Darla D Beaty
Three principles that guide the bioethics movement in the United States and other Western societies apply to the approaches of death and dying in both the United States and Turkey. These three principles, Autonomy, Beneficence, and justice, are reflected in the practices of people in both countries. The issue of autonomy is of greater concern to those in the United States, while decisions are made entirely with family and physician involvement in Turkey. Beneficence and Justice can be identified as ethical issues in both countries...
2015: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25574289/using-a-popular-science-nonfiction-book-to-introduce-biomedical-research-ethics-in-a-biology-majors-course
#19
Kristen L W Walton
Although bioethics is an important topic in modern society, it is not a required part of the curriculum for many biology degree programs in the United States. Students in our program are exposed to biologically relevant ethical issues informally in many classes, but we do not have a requirement for a separate bioethics course. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is a recent nonfiction book that describes the life of the woman whose cervical cancer biopsy gave rise to the HeLa cell line, as well as discussing relevant medical, societal, and ethical issues surrounding human tissue use for research...
December 2014: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25514525/federalism-and-bioethics
#20
Alisa Von Hagel
The absence of comprehensive federal oversight of human biotechnologies in the United States continues to stimulate academic discourse on the relative merits of European-style regulatory agencies as compared to the current, decentralized approach. Many American bioethicists support the latter, maintaining that the key features of federalism--policy experimentation and moral pluralism--allows for the efficient regulation of these complex and contentious issues. This paper examines state-level regulation of oocyte donation to assess claims regarding the superiority of this decentralized regulatory approach...
2014: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
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