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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319427/legal-approaches-to-promoting-parental-compliance-with-childhood-immunization-recommendations
#1
Lois A Weithorn, Dorit Rubinstein Reiss
Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases have increased in the United States in recent years, largely due to parental refusals of recommended childhood immunizations. Empirical studies have demonstrated a relationship between nonvaccination rates and permissive state vaccine exemption policies, indicating that legal reforms may promote higher immunization rates. This article reviews relevant data and considers the legal landscape. It analyzes federal and state Constitutional law, concluding that religious and personal belief exemptions to school-entry vaccine mandates are not constitutionally required...
January 10, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304376/hipaa-s-individual-right-of-access-to-genomic-data-reconciling-safety-and-civil-rights
#2
Barbara J Evans
In 2014, the United States granted individuals a right of access to their own laboratory test results, including genomic data. Many observers feel that this right is in tension with regulatory and bioethical standards designed to protect the safety of people who undergo genomic testing. This commentary attributes this tension to growing pains within an expanding federal regulatory program for genetic and genomic testing. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 expanded the regulatory agenda to encompass civil rights and consumer safety...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299754/survey-on-using-ethical-principles-in-environmental-field-research-with-place-based-communities
#3
Dianne Quigley, Alana Levine, David A Sonnenfeld, Phil Brown, Qing Tian, Xiaofan Wei
Researchers of the Northeast Ethics Education Partnership (NEEP) at Brown University sought to improve an understanding of the ethical challenges of field researchers with place-based communities in environmental studies/sciences and environmental health by disseminating a questionnaire which requested information about their ethical approaches to these researched communities. NEEP faculty sought to gain actual field guidance to improve research ethics and cultural competence training for graduate students and faculty in environmental sciences/studies...
January 3, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206796/overlapping-and-concurrent-surgery-a-professional-and-ethical-analysis
#4
Paul E Levin, Daniel Moon, Diane E Payne
Overlapping and concurrent surgeries form a continuum of simultaneous surgical practice in which a single surgeon has 2 or more patients in operating rooms at the same time. Undeniably, in an acute life-or-limb-threatening presentation, it may be essential for a surgeon to care for 2 individual patients simultaneously. These situations are different from scheduled elective surgery. Concurrent surgery is defined as the attending surgeon not being present for "critical and key" portions of a procedure. Billing for concurrent surgical procedures is a violation of the U...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176082/the-best-interest-standard-same-name-but-different-roles-in-pediatric-bioethics-and-child-rights-frameworks
#5
Lainie Friedman Ross, Alissa Hurwitz Swota
This article explores the intersection of pediatric bioethics and child rights by examining the best interest standard as it operates within the pediatric bioethics framework in the United States and the child rights framework based on the UN 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). While the "best interest of the child" standard is central to both pediatric bioethics and the child rights community, it operates only as a guidance principle, and not as an intervention principle, in decision-making within U...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108141/teaching-ob-gyn-residents-bioethics-within-a-catholic-healthcare-context
#6
Andrew Steele
Residents entering training in the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) often have misconceptions as to what medical interventions Roman Catholic healthcare institutions prohibit, and why certain restrictions are placed on the provision of reproductive health options that are otherwise legally available to women. The Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Healthcare Services, produced by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops seeks to provide a stable framework upon which reproductive health decisions can be based...
2017: Issues in Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940345/crispr-becomes-clearer
#7
Andrew W Torrance
In this pivotal year for gene editing, the breakthrough molecular system CRISPR-Cas9 has advanced on three fronts. In under seven months, an influential scientific body-the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine-cracked open the door to human germline gene editing, ownership of patents covering CRISPR-Cas9 came into much sharper focus as a result of a dispute between two parties, and experiments showing proof of concept of the most controversial of uses-altering germlines of humans-were revealed as having been successfully performed by a mainstream laboratory...
September 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890448/a-tale-of-two-disciplines-i-law-and-bioethics-i
#8
Rebecca Dresser
Fascination with In re Quinlan, the first high-profile right-to-die case in the United States, led the author to law school. By the time she received her law degree, bioethics was emerging as a field of study, and law and bioethics became her field. The mission of legal education is to teach students to "think like a lawyer," which can be a productive way to approach issues in many fields, including bioethics. Legal education can also teach individuals to respect people whose views on bioethics issues differ from their own...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543661/building-the-next-bioethics-commission
#9
Alexander M Capron
At every moment, somewhere in the world, a group of men and women are sitting around a table deliberating about an ethical issue posed by medicine and research, whether as a research ethics committee; a hospital or clinical ethics committee; a stem-cell review committee; a gene transfer research committee; a biobank ethics committee; an ethics advisory committee for a medical or nursing association or nongovernmental organization; a state, provincial, national, or intergovernmental bioethics committee; or an ad hoc panel examining a particular development or case...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543660/challenges-working-with-presidential-bioethics-commissions
#10
Ruth Macklin
Presidential commissions come and go by design, and it is reasonable to wonder about the impact of their recommendations. I have been involved in the work of two presidential commissions: as a member of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (from 1994 to 1995) and as senior consultant to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (from 1999 to 2000) for its report on multinational research. I continue to reflect on and look for the impact of both these commissions. ACHRE's charter included the review of experiments with ionizing radiation sponsored or conducted by the United States government since the 1940s...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543654/national-bioethics-commissions-as-educators
#11
Lisa M Lee
As has become tradition, executive directors of United States' presidential bioethics committees offer reflections about their experience shortly after the orderly shutdown of the commission staff. After the records are filed according to government records regulations; after all the staff members, who are hired into temporary positions that must be renewed every two years, have secured permanent employment; after preparations are made to ensure that the next commission staff (should there be one) has a budget and standard operating procedures in order to begin its work in a timely manner; after the lights are turned out for the last time, the executive director makes the final climb up the stairs into the sunlight and reflects on the whirlwind...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543649/a-broader-bioethics-topic-selection-and-the-impact-of-national-bioethics-commissions
#12
Jason L Schwartz
Comparative assessments of national bioethics commissions in the United States commonly look at the differences among these groups over their forty-year history. A particular focus has been differences in the membership, mission, methods, and reports of the President's Council on Bioethics, which was active from 2001 until 2009, compared to those of its predecessors and the recent Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, active from 2009 until 2016. The differences are real, but disproportionate attention to them can obscure the substantial similarities in commissions' structure and function throughout the history of expert bioethics advice to government...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382210/the-global-governance-of-human-cloning-the-case-of-unesco
#13
Adèle Langlois
Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Feelings run strong on both sides. In 2005, the United Nations adopted its Declaration on Human Cloning to try to deal with the issue. The declaration is ambiguously worded, prohibiting "all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life". It received only ambivalent support from UN member states...
March 21, 2017: Palgrave Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301694/bioethics-and-populism-how-should-our-field-respond
#14
Mildred Z Solomon, Bruce Jennings
Across the world, an authoritarian and exclusionary form of populism is gaining political traction. Historically, some populist movements have been democratic and based on a sense of inclusive justice and the common good. But the populism on the rise at present speaks and acts otherwise. It is challenging constitutional democracies. The polarization seen in authoritarian populism goes beyond the familiar left-right political spectrum and generates disturbing forms of extremism, including the so-called alternative right in the United States and similar ethnic and nationalistic political movements in other countries...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060982/-ethical-dilemmas-about-disclosure-of-errors-in-medicine
#15
Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043018/dynamic-axes-of-informed-consent-in-japan
#16
Laura Specker Sullivan
Scholarship in cross-cultural bioethics routinely frames Japanese informed consent in contrast to informed consent in North America. This contrastive analysis foregrounds cancer diagnosis disclosure and physician paternalism as unique aspects of Japanese informed consent that deviate from American practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 Japanese medical professionals obtained during fieldwork in Japan from 2013 to 15, this article complicates the informed consent discourse beyond East-West comparisons premised on Anglo-American ethical frameworks...
December 23, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039957/social-responsibility-and-the-state-s-duty-to-provide-healthcare-an-islamic-ethico-legal-perspective
#17
Aasim I Padela
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes...
December 30, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873139/when-marcel-mauss-s-essai-sur-le-don-becomes-the-gift-variations-on-the-theme-of-solidarity
#18
Simone Bateman
Since the early 1970s, Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don (1923), translated into English as The Gift in 1954, has been a standard reference in the social science and bioethical literature on the use of human body parts and substances for medical and research purposes. At that time, three social scientists-political scientist Richard Titmuss in the United Kingdom and sociologist Renée C. Fox working with historian Judith Swazey in the United States-had the idea of using this concept to highlight the fundamental structure of the biomedical practices they were studying, respectively, blood donation, and hemodialysis and organ transplantation...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716264/current-state-of-ethics-literature-synthesis-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#19
REVIEW
Marcel Mertz, Hannes Kahrass, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed...
October 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321252/jehovah-s-witness-patients-within-the-german-medical-landscape
#20
Małgorzata Rajtar
Blood transfusions belong to standard and commonly utilised biomedical procedures. Jehovah's Witnesses' transfusion refusals are often referred to in bioethical and medical textbooks. Members of this globally active religious organisation do not, however, challenge biomedical diagnosis and treatment as such. A result of both their trust in and their interpretation of the Bible, they question only this medical treatment. In spite of the global presence of this religious community and its uniformly practised teachings, including those pertaining to blood, experiences and choices of Jehovah's Witness patients have been understudied...
August 2016: Anthropology & Medicine
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