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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543661/building-the-next-bioethics-commission
#1
Alexander M Capron
At every moment, somewhere in the world, a group of men and women are sitting around a table deliberating about an ethical issue posed by medicine and research, whether as a research ethics committee; a hospital or clinical ethics committee; a stem-cell review committee; a gene transfer research committee; a biobank ethics committee; an ethics advisory committee for a medical or nursing association or nongovernmental organization; a state, provincial, national, or intergovernmental bioethics committee; or an ad hoc panel examining a particular development or case...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543660/challenges-working-with-presidential-bioethics-commissions
#2
Ruth Macklin
Presidential commissions come and go by design, and it is reasonable to wonder about the impact of their recommendations. I have been involved in the work of two presidential commissions: as a member of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (from 1994 to 1995) and as senior consultant to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (from 1999 to 2000) for its report on multinational research. I continue to reflect on and look for the impact of both these commissions. ACHRE's charter included the review of experiments with ionizing radiation sponsored or conducted by the United States government since the 1940s...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543654/national-bioethics-commissions-as-educators
#3
Lisa M Lee
As has become tradition, executive directors of United States' presidential bioethics committees offer reflections about their experience shortly after the orderly shutdown of the commission staff. After the records are filed according to government records regulations; after all the staff members, who are hired into temporary positions that must be renewed every two years, have secured permanent employment; after preparations are made to ensure that the next commission staff (should there be one) has a budget and standard operating procedures in order to begin its work in a timely manner; after the lights are turned out for the last time, the executive director makes the final climb up the stairs into the sunlight and reflects on the whirlwind...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543649/a-broader-bioethics-topic-selection-and-the-impact-of-national-bioethics-commissions
#4
Jason L Schwartz
Comparative assessments of national bioethics commissions in the United States commonly look at the differences among these groups over their forty-year history. A particular focus has been differences in the membership, mission, methods, and reports of the President's Council on Bioethics, which was active from 2001 until 2009, compared to those of its predecessors and the recent Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, active from 2009 until 2016. The differences are real, but disproportionate attention to them can obscure the substantial similarities in commissions' structure and function throughout the history of expert bioethics advice to government...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382210/the-global-governance-of-human-cloning-the-case-of-unesco
#5
Adèle Langlois
Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Feelings run strong on both sides. In 2005, the United Nations adopted its Declaration on Human Cloning to try to deal with the issue. The declaration is ambiguously worded, prohibiting "all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life". It received only ambivalent support from UN member states...
March 21, 2017: Palgrave Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301694/bioethics-and-populism-how-should-our-field-respond
#6
Mildred Z Solomon, Bruce Jennings
Across the world, an authoritarian and exclusionary form of populism is gaining political traction. Historically, some populist movements have been democratic and based on a sense of inclusive justice and the common good. But the populism on the rise at present speaks and acts otherwise. It is challenging constitutional democracies. The polarization seen in authoritarian populism goes beyond the familiar left-right political spectrum and generates disturbing forms of extremism, including the so-called alternative right in the United States and similar ethnic and nationalistic political movements in other countries...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060982/-ethical-dilemmas-about-disclosure-of-errors-in-medicine
#7
Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043018/dynamic-axes-of-informed-consent-in-japan
#8
Laura Specker Sullivan
Scholarship in cross-cultural bioethics routinely frames Japanese informed consent in contrast to informed consent in North America. This contrastive analysis foregrounds cancer diagnosis disclosure and physician paternalism as unique aspects of Japanese informed consent that deviate from American practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 Japanese medical professionals obtained during fieldwork in Japan from 2013 to 15, this article complicates the informed consent discourse beyond East-West comparisons premised on Anglo-American ethical frameworks...
December 23, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039957/social-responsibility-and-the-state-s-duty-to-provide-healthcare-an-islamic-ethico-legal-perspective
#9
Aasim I Padela
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes...
December 30, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873139/when-marcel-mauss-s-essai-sur-le-don-becomes-the-gift-variations-on-the-theme-of-solidarity
#10
Simone Bateman
Since the early 1970s, Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don (1923), translated into English as The Gift in 1954, has been a standard reference in the social science and bioethical literature on the use of human body parts and substances for medical and research purposes. At that time, three social scientists-political scientist Richard Titmuss in the United Kingdom and sociologist Renée C. Fox working with historian Judith Swazey in the United States-had the idea of using this concept to highlight the fundamental structure of the biomedical practices they were studying, respectively, blood donation, and hemodialysis and organ transplantation...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716264/current-state-of-ethics-literature-synthesis-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#11
REVIEW
Marcel Mertz, Hannes Kahrass, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed...
October 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321252/jehovah-s-witness-patients-within-the-german-medical-landscape
#12
Małgorzata Rajtar
Blood transfusions belong to standard and commonly utilised biomedical procedures. Jehovah's Witnesses' transfusion refusals are often referred to in bioethical and medical textbooks. Members of this globally active religious organisation do not, however, challenge biomedical diagnosis and treatment as such. A result of both their trust in and their interpretation of the Bible, they question only this medical treatment. In spite of the global presence of this religious community and its uniformly practised teachings, including those pertaining to blood, experiences and choices of Jehovah's Witness patients have been understudied...
August 2016: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194404/circumcision-of-male-infants-and-children-as-a-public-health-measure-in-developed-countries-a-critical-assessment-of-recent-evidence
#13
Morten Frisch, Brian D Earp
In December of 2014, an anonymous working group under the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a draft of the first-ever federal recommendations regarding male circumcision. In accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics' circumcision policy from 2012 - but in contrast to the more recent 2015 policy from the Canadian Paediatric Society as well as prior policies (still in force) from medical associations in Europe and Australasia - the CDC suggested that the benefits of the surgery outweigh the risks...
May 19, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192126/a-comparative-analysis-of-the-legal-and-bioethical-frameworks-governing-the-secondary-use-of-data-for-research-purposes
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Anne-Marie Tassé
The secondary use of research and health data for purposes that differ from the original purpose of the collection is becoming a major trend in research, since it allows for the optimal use of already available resources, and reduces the costs of research activities. However, the consent provided at the time of the initial data collection might not have foreseen these new uses of the data. This is especially true for biobanks having collected data under a restricted or a disease-specific consent, and for data linkage, which allows researchers to combine research data with information from the medical record of participants...
June 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178191/structural-competency-in-the-u-s-healthcare-crisis-putting-social-and-policy-interventions-into-clinical-practice
#15
H Hansen, J Metzl
This symposium of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry illustrates structural competency: how clinical practitioners can intervene on social and institutional determinants of health. It will require training clinicians to see and act on structural barriers to health, to adapt imaginative structural approaches from fields outside of medicine, and to collaborate with disciplines and institutions outside of medicine. Case studies of effective work on all of these levels are presented in this volume. The contributors exemplify structural competency from many angles, from the implications of epigenetics for environmental intervention in personalized medicine to the ways clinicians can act on fundamental causes of disease, address abuses of power in clinical training, racially desegregate cities to reduce health disparities, address the systemic causes of torture by police, and implement harm-reduction programs for addiction in the face of punitive drug laws...
June 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157355/child-rights-and-clinical-bioethics-historical-reflections-on-modern-medicine-and-ethics
#16
Jeffrey P Brosco
Why might pediatric bioethicists in the United States reject the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as a framework for resolving ethical issues? The essays in this issue present arguments and counterarguments regarding the usefulness of the CRC in various clinical and research cases. But underlying this debate are two historical factors that help explain the seeming paradox of pediatric bioethicists' arguing against child's rights. First, the profession of clinical bioethics emerged in the 1970s as one component of modern medicine's focus on improving health through the application of technologically sophisticated treatments...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157345/actions-speak-louder-than-words-the-u-n-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child-and-u-s-pediatric-bioethicists
#17
Kellie R Lang, Cheryl D Lew
In exploring the relationship between "child rights" and "pediatric bioethics" and how these disciplines might provide mutual support in advancing the health and wellness of children around the world, our article responds to the questions of whether the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) could be of any benefit in the United States, the only country that has not yet ratified this international treaty, and whether the CRC has any value for addressing clinical pediatric bioethics' questions. We describe the considerable influence that the United States had in developing significant components of the CRC, and we argue that the CRC may be useful for U...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109939/organ-allocation-policies-10%C3%A2-years-after-unesco-s-universal-declaration-on-bioethics-and-human-rights
#18
C Petrini
BACKGROUND: October 19, 2015, marked the 10th anniversary of the adoption by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) of the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights," which was signed by representatives of the 191 member states of the conference. The declaration is of major importance: it was the first legally binding document approved by a global organization to address the whole range of subjects covered by bioethics...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982911/bioethicists-can-and-should-contribute-to-addressing-racism
#19
Marion Danis, Yolonda Wilson, Amina White
The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it...
2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957445/vulnerability
#20
Thiago Cunha, Volnei Garrafa
Collating the concepts of vulnerability through five regional perspectives on bioethics from the United States, Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia, this article proposes a means of integration between the different approaches in order to seek a theoretical and normative basis for the field of global bioethics. It argues that only through opening continuous, critical, and self-critical dialogue within the international bioethical community will it be possible to achieve a sufficiently global understanding of vulnerability that is capable of identifying the means needed for addressing the conditions that leave certain groups and individuals more susceptible to "wounding" than others...
April 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
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