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Polyunsaturated Fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088291/bcfa-suppresses-lps-induced-il-8-mrna-expression-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#1
Y Yan, Z Wang, J Greenwald, K S D Kothapalli, H G Park, R Liu, E Mendralla, P Lawrence, X Wang, J T Brenna
Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are components of common food fats and are major constituents of the normal term human newborn GI tract. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to reduce the risk and development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); however, little is known about the influence of BCFA on inflammation. We investigated the effect of BCFA on interleukin (IL)-8 and NF-κB production in a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2). Cells were pre-treated with specific BCFA, or DHA, or EPA, and then activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086928/resolvin-rvd2-reduces-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-rescues-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity
#2
Livia B Pascoal, Bruna Bombassaro, Albina F Ramalho, Andressa Coope, Rodrigo F Moura, Felipe Correa-da-Silva, Leticia Ignacio-Souza, Daniela Razolli, Diogo de Oliveira, Rodrigo Catharino, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation is an important mechanism leading to dysfunction of neurons involved in controlling body mass. Studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats can reduce hypothalamic inflammation. Here, we evaluated the presence and function of RvD2, a resolvin produced from docosahexaenoic acid, in the hypothalamus of mice. METHODS: Male Swiss mice were fed either chow or a high-fat diet. RvD2 receptor and synthetic enzymes were evaluated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076613/the-role-of-dietary-fatty-acid-intake-in-inflammatory-gene-expression-a-critical-review
#3
Daniela Mayumi Rocha, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana Hermsdorff
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diet is an important modifiable factor involved in obesity-induced inflammation. We reviewed clinical trials that assessed the effect of consumption of different fatty acids on the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines, adipokines, chemokines and transcription factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review study conducted at a research center. METHODS: This was a review on the effect of fat intake on inflammatory gene expression in humans...
January 5, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068399/effect-of-calf-gender-on-milk-yield-and-fatty-acid-content-in-holstein-dairy-cows
#4
Amy V Gillespie, James L Ehrlich, Dai H Grove-White
The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065757/fats-for-thoughts-an-update-on-brain-fatty-acid-metabolism
#5
Adele Romano, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Daniele Vergara, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti
Brain fatty acid (FA) metabolism deserves a close attention not only for its energetic aspects but also because FAs and their metabolites/derivatives are able to influence many neural functions, contributing to brain pathologies or representing potential targets for pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions. Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the brain, whereas the role of FAs is more marginal. In conditions of decreased glucose supply ketone bodies, mainly formed by FA oxidation, are the alternative main energy source...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060978/-ingesta-de-hidratos-de-carbono-y-%C3%A3-cidos-grasos-de-la-dieta-en-sujetos-con-esquizofrenia-y-trastorno-bipolar-y-su-asociaci%C3%A3-n-con-par%C3%A3-metros-antropom%C3%A3-tricos
#6
Natalia Santillana T, Álvaro Cavieres F, Claudia Vega S
BACKGROUND: People with psychiatric disorders have higher rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. These comorbidities are associated with the underlying psychopathology and drug therapy. AIM: To determine the quality and quantity of carbohydrates and fatty acids in the diet and their association with anthropometric parameters in subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 30 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in treatment with atypical antipsychotics or mood stabilizers...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049895/pathogenesis-of-diet-induced-atopic-dermatitis-in-hairless-mice
#7
Masanori Fujii
 Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common pruritic chronic skin disease. AD pathogenesis remains elusive, but may involve complex interplays among skin barrier dysfunction, Th2 inflammation, and pruritus. Current treatments for AD are still limited to symptomatic therapies. We previously showed that HR-1 hairless mice fed a special diet (HR-AD) develop AD-like symptoms; however, the ingredient(s) causing dermatitis remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the deficiency of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was involved in the diet-induced AD pathogenesis...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048818/su-f-i-65-fatty-acid-quantification-in-high-fat-diet-induced-abnormal-intrahepatic-triglyceride-storage-using-internal-standard-method-at-3-0-t
#8
K-H Song, C-H Yoo, S-I Lim, B-Y Choe
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic changes in a rat model of high-fat-diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using single-voxel 1H-MRS with a 3.0 T MRI scanner. METHODS: The examination were performed on a 3.0T scanner using a 4-channel animal coil for higher resolution. This method used point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) (repetition time (TR)/echo time (TE) = 6000/35 ms; number of signal averages (NSA) = 64)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033135/omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-and-warfarin-a-lethal-combination-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Brian W Gross, Maria Gillio, Cole D Rinehart, Caitlin A Lynch, Frederick B Rogers
Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and omega-6 docosahexaenoic acid, found in over-the-counter fish oil supplements, are often consumed for their beneficial, prophylactic, anti-inflammatory effects. Although the mechanisms of action are not fully known, a diet rich in polyunsaturated fats may reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, hypertension, and inflammatory diseases. Masked by its many benefits, the risks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation are often underappreciated, particularly its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and promote bleeding in patients taking anticoagulant medications...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031376/vitamin-b-6-status-in-unsupplemented-pregnant-women-is-associated-positively-with-serum-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-inversely-with-the-n-6-to-n-3-fatty-acid-ratio
#10
Maria F Mujica-Coopman, Ana B Franco-Sena, Dayana R Farias, Juliana S Vaz, Alex Brito, Gilberto Kac, Yvonne Lamers
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B-6-deficient diets decrease plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in healthy adults. These fatty acids (FAs) are important for fetal neurodevelopment, but the relation between vitamin B-6 status and circulating polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the relation between plasma pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PLP; the active form of vitamin B-6) and serum DHA, EPA, AA, linoleic acid, eicosadienoic, and α-linolenic acid concentrations during pregnancy...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031192/identifying-biomarkers-of-dietary-patterns-by-using-metabolomics
#11
Mary C Playdon, Steven C Moore, Andriy Derkach, Jill Reedy, Amy F Subar, Joshua N Sampson, Demetrius Albanes, Fangyi Gu, Jukka Kontto, Camille Lassale, Linda M Liao, Satu Männistö, Alison M Mondul, Stephanie J Weinstein, Melinda L Irwin, Susan T Mayne, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon
BACKGROUND: Healthy dietary patterns that conform to national dietary guidelines are related to lower chronic disease incidence and longer life span. However, the precise mechanisms involved are unclear. Identifying biomarkers of dietary patterns may provide tools to validate diet quality measurement and determine underlying metabolic pathways influenced by diet quality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the correlation of 4 diet quality indexes [the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), the WHO Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and the Baltic Sea Diet (BSD)] with serum metabolites...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028455/whole-genome-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-snp-marker-discovery-and-association-analysis-with-the-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-content-in-larimichthys-crocea
#12
Shijun Xiao, Panpan Wang, Linsong Dong, Yaguang Zhang, Zhaofang Han, Qiurong Wang, Zhiyong Wang
Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are valuable genetic resources for the association and conservation studies. Genome-wide SNP development in many teleost species are still challenging because of the genome complexity and the cost of re-sequencing. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) provided an efficient reduced representative method to squeeze cost for SNP detection; however, most of recent GBS applications were reported on plant organisms. In this work, we used an EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS protocol to teleost large yellow croaker, an important commercial fish in China and East-Asia, and reported the first whole-genome SNP development for the species...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011301/protection-against-fine-particle-induced-pulmonary-and-systemic-inflammation-by-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#13
Xiang-Yong Li, Lei Hao, Ying-Hua Liu, Chih-Yu Chen, Victor J Pai, Jing X Kang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine particulate matter, such as through air pollution, has been linked to the increased incidence of chronic diseases. However, few measures have been taken to reduce the health risks associated with fine particle exposure. The identification of safe and effective methods to protect against fine particle exposure-related damage is urgently needed. METHODS: We used synthetic, non-toxic, fluorescent fine particles to investigate the physical distribution of inhaled fine particles and their effects on pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice...
December 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005361/lipid-class-specific-quantitative-analysis-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-food-supplements
#14
Laura Kutzner, Annika I Ostermann, Thade Konrad, Dieter Riegel, Stefan Hellhake, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Nils Helge Schebb
Supplementation products containing n-3 PUFA from marine sources serve a large market. Although the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the products is provided by the manufacturer, no or little information is available on their lipid pattern. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed the fatty acid pattern in the lipid fractions triglycerides, phospholipids, ethyl esters, and free fatty acids in supplementation products by means of solid phase extraction and gas chromatography. Twelve products from the European and U...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003715/high-fructose-intake-impairs-the-hepatic-hypolipidemic-effects-of-a-high-fat-fish-oil-diet-in-c57bl-6-mice
#15
Joshua S Wooten, Tayler N Nick, Andrew Seija, Kaylee E Poole, Kelsey B Stout
BACKGROUND: Overnutrition of saturated fats and fructose is one of the major factors for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Because omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3fa) have established lipid lowering properties, we tested the hypothesis that n-3fa prevents high-fat and fructose-induced fatty liver disease in mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to one of the following diet groups for 14 weeks: normal diet (ND), high-fat lard-based diet (HFD), HFD with fructose (HFD + Fru), high-fat fish-oil diet (FOD), or FOD + Fru...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999451/ffar4-gpr120-signaling-is-not-required-for-anti-inflammatory-and-insulin-sensitizing-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids
#16
Simone Isling Pærregaard, Marianne Agerholm, Annette Karen Serup, Tao Ma, Bente Kiens, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech Jensen
Free fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), also known as GPR120, has been reported to mediate the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) by inducing an anti-inflammatory immune response. Thus, activation of FFAR4 has been reported to ameliorate chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance accompanying obesity. However, conflicting reports on the role of FFAR4 in mediating the effects of ω3-PUFAs are emerging, suggesting that FFAR4 may not be the sole effector. Hence analyses of the importance of this receptor in relation to other signaling pathways and prominent effects of ω3-PUFAs remain to be elucidated...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998724/global-deletion-of-glutathione-s-transferase-a4-exacerbates-developmental-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
Martin Ronis, Kelly Mercer, Bridgette Engi, Casey Pulliam, Piotr Zimniak, Leah Hennings, Colin Shearn, Thomas Badger, Dennis Petersen
We established a mouse model of developmental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by feeding a high polyunsaturated fat liquid diet to female glutathione-S-transferase 4-4 (Gsta4(-/-))/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (Ppara(-/-)) double knockout 129/SvJ mice for 12 weeks from weaning. We used it to probe the importance of lipid peroxidation in progression of NASH beyond simple steatosis. Feeding Gsta4(-/-)/Ppara(-/-) double-knockout (dKO) mice liquid diets containing corn oil resulted in a percentage fat-dependent increase in steatosis and necroinflammatory injury (P < 0...
December 17, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990659/oxidative-stability-of-sesame-and-flaxseed-oils-and-their-effects-on-morphometric-and-biochemical-parameters-in-an-animal-model
#18
Priscila S Figueiredo, Camila J Candido, Jeandre As Jaques, Ângela A Nunes, Anderson Rl Caires, Flávio Santana Michels, Jeeser A Almeida, Wander Fo Filiú, Priscila A Hiane, Valter A Nascimento, Octavio L Franco, Rita Ca Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Sesame and flaxseed oils, which are rich in essential n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, are widely consumed. We have determined the optical behavior with the quality and identity of cold-pressed sesame and flaxseed oils. The effects of these oils and their combinations on metabolic parameters in animal models were also measured. RESULTS: Flaxseed oil emitted carotenoid fluorescence (500-650 nm), but it was more unstable than sesame oil, which had a larger induction period by the Rancimat method...
December 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988886/naturally-occurring-high-oleic-acid-cottonseed-oil-identification-and-functional-analysis-of-a-mutant-allele-of-gossypium-barbadense-fatty-acid-desaturase-2
#19
Jay Shockey, Michael Dowd, Brian Mack, Matthew Gilbert, Brian Scheffler, Linda Ballard, James Frelichowski, Catherine Mason
Some naturally occurring cotton accessions contain commercially attractive seed oil fatty acid profiles. The likely causal factor for a high-oleate trait in pima cotton ( Gossypium barbadense ) accession GB-713 is described here. Vegetable oils are broadly used in the manufacture of many human and animal nutritional products, and in various industrial applications. Along with other well-known edible plant oils from soybean, corn, and canola, cottonseed oil is a valuable commodity. Cottonseed oil is a co-product derived from the processing of cottonseed fiber...
December 17, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988126/effect-of-high-oleic-acid-soybeans-on-production-performance-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-enteric-methane-emission-in-dairy-cows
#20
J C Lopes, M T Harper, F Giallongo, J Oh, L Smith, A M Ortega-Perez, S A Harper, A Melgar, D M Kniffen, R A Fabin, A N Hristov
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 soybean sources differing in fatty acid profile and processing method on productivity, milk composition, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane emission in lactating dairy cows. The soybean sources were conventional, high-linoleic-acid variety extruded soybean meal (ESBM; 8.7% ether extract with 15% oleic and 54% linoleic acids); extruded Plenish (DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA), high-oleic-acid variety soybean meal (EPSBM; 8.4% ether extract with 73% oleic and 8% linoleic acids); and whole, heated Plenish soybeans (WPSB; 20...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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