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Polyunsaturated Fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422962/docosahexaenoic-acid-blocks-progression-of-western-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-obese-ldlr-mice
#1
Kelli A Lytle, Carmen P Wong, Donald B Jump
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern in western societies. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of NAFLD, is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. NASH is a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is predicted to be the leading cause of liver transplants by 2020. Despite this growing public health concern, there remain no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved NASH treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410667/comparative-effects-of-high-oleic-acid-vs-high-mixed-saturated-fatty-acid-obesogenic-diets-upon-pufa-metabolism-in-mice
#2
Matthew J Picklo, Joseph Idso, Drew R Seeger, Harold M Aukema, Eric J Murphy
Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets influences physiologic outcomes. There are scant data regarding how the content of non-essential fatty acids like monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) impact the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this work, we tested the hypothesis that obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid (OA; 18:1n-9) reduce polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels vs an obesogenic diet enriched in SFAs. Adult male mice were fed for eight weeks either (1) a control 16% fat energy (en) diet with 5...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410612/milk-protein-based-formulas-containing-different-oils-affect-fatty-acids-balance-in-term-infants-a-randomized-blinded-crossover-clinical-trial
#3
Carolina Oliveira de Souza, Maria Efigênia Q Leite, John Lasekan, Geraldine Baggs, Lorena Silva Pinho, Janice Izabel Druzian, Tereza Cristina M Ribeiro, Ângela P Mattos, José A Menezes-Filho, Hugo Costa-Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Palm olein is used in infant formula fat blends in order to match the fatty acid profile of human milk. While the effects on fatty acid balance have been evaluated, the use of palm olein in combination with palm kernel oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) has not been similarly assessed in infants. This study evaluated the effects of infant formulas containing different fat compositions on the balance of fat, fatty acids, and calcium...
April 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410426/factors-affecting-human-colostrum-fatty-acid-profile-a-case-study
#4
Vassilia J Sinanoglou, Dionisis Cavouras, Theodora Boutsikou, Despina D Briana, Dimitra Z Lantzouraki, Stella Paliatsiou, Paraskevi Volaki, Sotiris Bratakos, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis
The role of maternal colostrum to infant development has been extensively studied and presented. Among the main factors which contribute to breast milk composition are maternal diet, age and body mass index, parity, duration of pregnancy and stage of lactation. This study aims to investigate the potential impact of several factors including demographic (i.e. maternal age and nationality) on the colostrum fatty acid profile. Colostrum was collected the third day postpartum in a Greek maternity hospital. Certain lipid quality indices and fatty acid ratios were estimated and results were statistically processed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399949/in-ovo-exposure-to-omega-3-fatty-acids-does-not-enhance-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-broiler-chickens
#5
K Kanakri, J Carragher, B Muhlhausler, R Hughes, R Gibson
The content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in chicken meat can be boosted by feeding broilers a diet containing α-linolenic acid (ALA, from flaxseed oil), some of which is converted by hepatic enzymes to n-3 LCPUFA. However, most of the accumulated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in meat tissues is still in the form of ALA. Despite this, the levels of chicken diets are being enhanced by the inclusion of vegetable and marine sources of omega-3 fats. This study investigated whether the capacity of chicken for n-3 LCPUFA accumulation could be enhanced or inhibited by exposure to an increased supply of ALA or n-3 LCPUFA in ovo...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395666/hydroxytyrosol-prevents-reduction-in-liver-activity-of-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-6-desaturases-oxidative-stress-and-depletion-in-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-in-different-tissues-of-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#6
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Francisca Echeverria, Macarena Ortiz, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Alejandra Espinosa, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Paola Illesca, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues...
April 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393852/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-attenuate-fibroblast-activation-and-kidney-fibrosis-involving-mtorc2-signaling-suppression
#7
Zhifeng Zeng, Haiyuan Yang, Ying Wang, Jiafa Ren, Yifan Dai, Chunsun Dai
Epidemiologic studies showed the correlation between the deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and the progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), however, the role and mechanisms for n-3 PUFAs in protecting against kidney fibrosis remain obscure. In this study, NRK-49F cells, a rat kidney interstitial fibroblast cell line, were stimulated with TGFβ1. A Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 transgenic mouse model in which n-3 PUFAs are endogenously produced from n-6 PUFAs owing to the expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase were deployed...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390715/effects-of-feeding-extruded-linseed-on-production-performance-and-milk-fatty-acid-profile-in-dairy-cows-a-meta-analysis
#8
T Meignan, C Lechartier, G Chesneau, N Bareille
The objectives of this study were to quantify the effects on production performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of feeding dairy cows extruded linseed (EL), a feed rich in α-linolenic acid, and to assess the variability of the responses related to the dose of EL and the basal diet composition. This meta-analysis was carried out using only data from trials including a control diet without fat supplementation. The dependent variables were defined by the mean differences between values from EL-supplemented groups and values from control groups...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386616/molecular-adaptations-underlying-the-beneficial-effects-of-hydroxytyrosol-in-the-pathogenic-alterations-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-in-mouse-liver-ppar-%C3%AE-and-nrf2-activation-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-down-regulation
#9
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Paola Illesca, Francisca Echeverría, Alejandra Espinosa, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Macarena Ortiz, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
SCOPE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition characterized by an increment in the liver fat content, with a concomitant reduction in the content of n-3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs), downregulation of PPAR-α activity, and upregulation of NF-κB activity, effects that induce pro-lipogenic and pro-inflammatory responses. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a polyphenol with cytoprotective effects present in extra virgin olive oil, improves the cellular antioxidant capacity for activation of transcription factor Nrf2...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386235/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-stimulate-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-improve-glucose-homeostasis-during-refeeding-with-high-fat-diet
#10
Raffaella Crescenzo, Arianna Mazzoli, Rosa Cancelliere, Francesca Bianco, Antonia Giacco, Giovanna Liverini, Abdul G Dulloo, Susanna Iossa
Aims: The recovery of body weight after a period of caloric restriction is accompanied by an enhanced efficiency of fat deposition and hyperinsulinemia-which are exacerbated by isocaloric refeeding on a high fat diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA-MUFA), and poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and associated with a blunting of de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue and liver. As high fat diets rich in PUFA have been shown to limit the excess fat deposition and improve glucose homeostasis, we investigated here the extent to which de novo lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissues (white and brown), as well as hepatic oxidative stress, are influenced by refeeding on diets rich in PUFA...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381787/effect-of-fatty-acid-chain-length-on-the-crystallization-behavior-of-trans-free-margarine-basestocks-during-storage
#11
Peng Hu, Xuebing Xu, Liangli Lucy Yu
In order to obtain margarine free of trans-fatty acids, four interesterified basestocks were prepared by chemical interesterification (CIE) of oil blends. Different ratios of palm stearin, palm olein and soybean oil were mixed without and with 1) fully hydrogenated Acer truncatum oil (FHATO), 2) fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil or 3) palm kernel oil containing a similar amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, but different saturated fatty acid length for CIE. Compared to the physical blends, the CIE samples demonstrated lower slip melting points and decreased solid fat contents, especially at high temperatures, indicating that the CIE samples might have improved mouthfeel...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380615/impact-of-feeding-de-oiled-wet-distillers-grains-plus-solubles-on-beef-shelf-life
#12
K I Domenech-Pérez, C R Calkins, M D Chao, M E Semler, K A Varnold, G E Erickson
Research was conducted to determine the effect of feeding de-oiled wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) on beef fatty acid profile, retail shelf life and development of oxidation products during retail display (RD). A total of 336 crossbred yearling steers (initial BW = 351.08 ± 19.05 kg) were fed 1 of 7 dietary treatments: an all corn control (1:1 blend of dry rolled and high moisture corn), 35%, 50%, or 65% inclusion of WDGS, either full-fat or de-oiled. Within each treatment 15 Choice carcasses were randomly selected ( = 105), strip loins were obtained, aged 7 and 21 d, and representative steaks from each strip loin were placed in RD conditions for 7 d...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372558/fatty-acid-composition-in-serum-cholesterol-esters-and-phospholipids-is-linked-to-visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-content-in-elderly-individuals-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Fredrik Rosqvist, Helena Bjermo, Joel Kullberg, Lars Johansson, Karl Michaëlsson, Håkan Ahlström, Lars Lind, Ulf Risérus
BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and truncal fat predict cardiometabolic disease. Intervention trials suggest that saturated fatty acids (SFA), e.g. palmitic acid, promote abdominal and liver fat storage whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), e.g. linoleic acid, prevent fat accumulation. Such findings require investigation in population-based studies of older individuals. We aimed to investigate the relationships of serum biomarkers of PUFA intake as well as serum levels of palmitic acid, with abdominal and total adipose tissue content...
April 4, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371258/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-increase-hepatic-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-sensitivity-via-a-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-klotho-pathway
#14
Wenqi Yang, Xu Chen, Yan Liu, Ming Chen, Xinwei Jiang, Tianran Shen, Qing Li, Yan Yang, Wenhua Ling
SCOPE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) participated in fish oil-mediated hepatic lipid-regulation and anti-inflammatory effects in high-fat diet fed-mice. However, fish oil supplementation did not significantly increase FGF21 protein levels. Whether fish oil-induced benefits in the liver are related to hepatic FGF21 sensitivity remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), a high-fat diet (HFD) or a fish oil-supplemented high-fat diet (FOD) for 12 weeks...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364876/alterations-of-fatty-acid-profiles-in-gestational-diabetes-and-influence-of-the-diet
#15
REVIEW
Andréa Taschereau-Charron, Marine S Da Silva, Jean-François Bilodeau, Anne-Sophie Morisset, Pierre Julien, Iwona Rudkowska
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pregnancy-induced complication with increased prevalence, especially in overweight women. Fatty acid (FA) composition in tissues can reflect dietary fat intake, especially essential FA intake. Moreover, it has been shown that FA profiles in blood lipid fractions are altered in diabetic patients. Consequently, women with GDM may also have a distinctive FA profile. The objective of this review is compare FA profiles in different blood lipid fractions and the influence of dietary fat intake in women with GDM or normoglycemic pregnancies...
May 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364488/short-sleep-duration-is-associated-with-eating-more-carbohydrates-and-less-dietary-fat-in-mexican-american-children
#16
Suzanna M Martinez, Jeanne M Tschann, Nancy F Butte, Steve E Gregorich, Carlos Penilla, Elena Flores, Louise C Greenspan, Lauri A Pasch, Julianna Deardorff
Study Objective: Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 year olds. Methods: This cross-sectional study measured diet using two 24-hour recalls and estimated sleep duration using hip-worn accelerometry in MA children (n = 247) who were part of a cohort study...
February 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359208/omega-3-fortified-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement
#17
Shashank Gaur, Elizabeth M Sloffer, Ankur Ojha, Falguni Patra, Dharmendra Shukla, Nicki J Engeseth, Pramthesh R Patel, Juan E Andrade
BACKGROUND: Incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) sources to lipid-based nutrition supplement (LNS) formulations for undernourished populations presents a challenge due to reduced shelf life and poor consumer acceptability. OBJECTIVE: To systematically develop an omega-3-fortified LNS formulation, using flaxseed oil (FO), by optimizing its processing stability and evaluating its sensory acceptance. METHODS: LNS formulations were formulated to yield approximately 452 kcal, 13...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356426/whole-grain-intake-reflected-by-dietary-records-and-biomarkers-is-inversely-associated-with-circulating-insulin-and-other-cardiometabolic-markers-in-8-to-11-year-old-children
#18
Camilla T Damsgaard, Anja Biltoft-Jensen, Inge Tetens, Kim F Michaelsen, Mads V Lind, Arne Astrup, Rikard Landberg
Background: Whole-grain consumption seems to be cardioprotective in adults, but evidence in children is limited.Objective: We investigated whether intakes of total whole grain and dietary fiber as well as specific whole grains were associated with fat mass and cardiometabolic risk profile in children.Methods: We collected cross-sectional data on parental education, puberty, diet by 7-d records, and physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, fat mass index by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure in 713 Danish children aged 8-11 y...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356276/dietary-intake-and-adipose-tissue-content-of-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-subsequent-5-y-change-in-body-weight-and-waist-circumference
#19
Marianne U Jakobsen, Lise Madsen, Flemming Skjøth, Tina L Berentzen, Jytte Halkjær, Anne Tjønneland, Erik B Schmidt, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Karsten Kristiansen, Kim Overvad
Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356271/cashew-consumption-reduces-total-and-ldl-cholesterol-a-randomized-crossover-controlled-feeding-trial
#20
Eunice Mah, Jacqueline A Schulz, Valerie N Kaden, Andrea L Lawless, Jose Rotor, Libertie B Mantilla, DeAnn J Liska
Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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