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Polyunsaturated Fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679742/adaptive-thermogenesis-by-dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-emerging-evidence-and-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Rong Fan, Karsten Koehler, Soonkyu Chung
Brown/beige fat plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis through non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold temperature and excess nutrition (adaptive thermogenesis). Although numerous molecular and genetic regulators have been identified, relatively little information is available regarding thermogenic dietary molecules. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that high consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or activation of GPR120, a membrane receptor of n-3 PUFA, stimulate adaptive thermogenesis...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679557/acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-is-attenuated-in-transgenic-fat-1-mice-endogenously-synthesizing-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acids
#2
Ruibing Feng, Yang Wang, Conghui Liu, Chunyan Yan, Hang Zhang, Huanxing Su, Jing X Kang, Chang-Zhen Shang, Jian-Bo Wan
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose-caused hepatotoxicity is the most commonly cause of drugs-induced liver failurecharacterized by oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell damage. Therapeutic efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in several models of liver disease is well documented. However, the impacts of n-3 PUFA on APAP hepatotoxicity are not adequately addressed. In this study, the fat-1 transgenic mice that synthesize endogenous n-3 PUFA and wild type (WT) littermates were injected intraperitoneally with APAP at the dose of 400 mg/kg to induce liver injury, and euthanized at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h post APAP injection for sampling...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674850/effect-of-dietary-oils-on-peripheral-neuropathy-related-endpoints-in-dietary-obese-rats
#3
Lawrence Coppey, Eric Davidson, Hanna Shevalye, Michael E Torres, Mark A Yorek
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary oils (olive, safflower, evening primrose, flaxseed, or menhaden) enriched in different mono unsaturated fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids on peripheral neuropathies in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats. Materials and methods: Rats at 12 weeks of age were fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal) for 16 weeks. Afterward, the rats were fed diets with 50% of the kilocalories of fat derived from lard replaced by the different dietary oils...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668980/effects-of-full-fat-rice-bran-and-defatted-rice-bran-on-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-growing-finishing-pigs
#4
Gloria A Casas, Martin F Overholt, Anna C Dilger, Dustin D Boler, Hans H Stein
The objective was to test the hypothesis that increasing inclusion levels of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) are not detrimental to growth or carcass characteristics, longissimus muscle (LM) quality, or fat quality when fed to growing-finishing pigs. A total of 224 barrows and gilts were randomly allotted to 7 treatments, with 4 pigs per pen and 8 pen replicates per treatment. Pigs had an average initial BW of 28.2 ± 4.1 kg and a 3-phase feeding program was used. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal, 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB, and 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were formulated within each phase...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663401/variants-in-the-ppargc1a-gene-may-influence-the-effect-of-fat-intake-on-resting-metabolic-rate-in-obese-women
#5
Sajjad Moradi, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Zhila Maghbooli, Ahmed A Abdurahman, Seyed Ali Keshavarz
Recent studies have shown that dietary intake and genetic variants play a decisive role in the risk of obesity. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the interaction between dietary fat and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on the level of resting metabolic rate (RMR). We enrolled 288 Iranian overweight and obese women in this cross-sectional study. We sequenced the 648 b.p. DNA in Exon 8 of PPARGC1A gene. We analyzed the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, namely rs11290186 and rs2970847, in this region. All participants were assessed for RMR, dietary intake, and body composition...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660045/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-moringa-oleifera-leaf-on-performance-meat-quality-and-oxidative-stability-of-meat-in-broilers
#6
Yao-Ming Cui, Jing Wang, Wei Lu, Hai-Jun Zhang, Shu-Geng Wu, Guang-Hai Qi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and oxidative stability of breast muscle in broilers. A total of 720 1-d-old male Arbor Acres birds were randomly divided into 6 dietary groups, which were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15% MOL, respectively. Each group had 6 replicates of 20 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 42 d. The results showed dietary MOL supplementation linearly and quadratically decreased body weight and average daily gain (P < 0...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659963/saturated-fats-from-butter-but-not-from-cheese-increase-hdl-mediated-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-from-j774-macrophages-in-men-and-women-with-abdominal-obesity
#7
Didier Brassard, Benoît J Arsenault, Marjorie Boyer, Daniela Bernic, Maude Tessier-Grenier, Denis Talbot, Angelo Tremblay, Emile Levy, Bela Asztalos, Peter J H Jones, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
Background: Recent evidence suggests that the association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and coronary artery disease risk varies according to food sources. How SFAs from butter and cheese influence HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), a key process in reverse cholesterol transport, is currently unknown. Objective: In a predefined secondary analysis of a previously published trial, we have examined how diets rich in SFAs from either cheese or butter influence HDL-mediated CEC, compared with diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659487/cultivar-and-harvest-month-influence-the-nutrient-content-of-opuntia-spp-cactus-pear-cladode-mucilage-extracts
#8
Alba du Toit, Maryna de Wit, Arno Hugo
Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo) and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta) cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659013/dietary-fat-and-fiber-interact-to-uniquely-modify-global-histone-post-translational-epigenetic-programming-in-a-rat-colon-cancer-progression-model
#9
Karen Triff, Mathew W McLean, Evelyn Callaway, Jennifer Goldsby, Ivan Ivanov, Robert S Chapkin
Dietary fermentable fiber generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), e.g., butyrate, in the colonic lumen which serves as a chemoprotective histone deacetylase inhibitor and/or as an acetylation substrate for histone acetylases. In addition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in fish oil can affect the chromatin landscape by acting as ligands for tumor suppressive nuclear receptors. In an effort to gain insight into the global dimension of post-translational modification of histones (including H3K4me3 and H3K9ac) and clarify the chemoprotective impact of dietary bioactive compounds on transcriptional control in a preclinical model of colon cancer, we generated high-resolution genome-wide RNA (RNA-Seq) and "chromatin-state" (H3K4me3-seq and H3K9ac-seq) maps for intestinal (epithelial colonocytes) crypts in rats treated with a colon carcinogen and fed diets containing bioactive (i) fish oil, (ii) fermentable fiber (a rich source of SCFA), (iii) a combination of fish oil plus pectin or (iv) control, devoid of fish oil or pectin...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652940/functionality-of-cow-milk-naturally-enriched-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-polyphenols-in-diets-for-diabetic-rats
#10
Emerson H Yoshimura, Nadine W Santos, Erica Machado, Bruna C Agustinho, Lucelia M Pereira, Sílvia C de Aguiar, Anacharis B Sá-Nakanishi, Cecília E Mareze-da-Costa, Lucia M Zeoula
The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious threat to human health in various parts of the world. Studies with dairy products have shown a potential beneficial effect against diabetes. This experiment evaluated the supplementation of milk naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Forty male 28-day-old Wistar rats were distributed in four experimental treatments of diabetic animals (streptozotocin induction) and a normal group (non-induced)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652436/quick-changes-of-milk-fatty-acids-after-inclusion-or-suppression-of-linseed-oil-in-the-diet-of-goats
#11
Pilar Gómez-Cortés, Alfonso Cívico, Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Nieves Núñez Sánchez, Manuela Juárez, Francisco Peña Blanco, Andrés L Martínez Marín
BACKGROUND: Lipid supplementation of ruminant diet is an excellent tool to improve the nutritional quality of dairy fat. The purpose of this research was to monitor in detail the goat milk fatty acid (FA) profile during the first 24 h after linseed oil (LO) supplementation or suppression in the diet. Particular emphasis was placed in the changes of FA with bioactive properties. Milk fat was analysed by gas chromatography from milkings at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after diet shift. RESULTS: The α-linolenic acid levels increased 12 h after LO incorporation in the diet and decreased 3 h after oil suppression...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643271/japan-diet-intake-changes-serum-phospholipid-fatty-acid-compositions-in-middle-aged-men-a-pilot-study
#12
Yuri Shijo, Chizuko Maruyama, Eri Nakamura, Rena Nakano, Mitsuha Shima, Asumi Mae, Yuuna Okabe, Sunmi Park, Noriko Kameyama, Satomi Hirai
AIM: The Japan Diet nutritional education program effects on serum fatty acid compositions for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men brought up in the westernized dietary environment of modern Japan were examined. METHODS: Thirty-three men, 30-49 years of age, attended a nutrition education class and were recommended to consume Japan Diet volumes (more fish, soybeans and soy products, vegetables, seaweed, konjak, mushrooms, and unrefined cereals and less animal fat, meat and poultry with fat, sweets, desserts and snacks, and alcoholic drinks) for 6 weeks...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628045/musings-about-the-role-dietary-fats-after-40-years-of-fatty-acid-research
#13
REVIEW
Robert A Gibson
Since the 1950's nutrition recommendations have focussed on the replacement of saturated fats in the diet with polyunsaturated fats, a strategy that continues to this day. Despite supporting evidence from clinical trials for the advantages of Mediterranean diets, there has been less attention paid to the role of monounsaturated fats. It has been known for many years that diets high in linoleic acid (LA) compete for the incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids into tissues. What is also clear is that diets rich in LA are not free from concerns and the discovery of oxlams, oxygenated derivatives of LA, having potent inflammatory effects may help us question the dogma of LA rich diets...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627255/continuous-11-week-feeding-of-reduced-fat-distillers-grains-with-and-without-monensin-reduces-lactation-performance-of-dairy-cows
#14
D L Morris, S H Kim, P J Kononoff, C Lee
This study investigated the effects of continuous feeding of high inclusion of reduced-fat corn distillers grains with solubles with and without monensin on dry matter intake (DMI), production, milk fatty acid profile, and plasma AA profile in lactating cows. The experiment was conducted for 12 wk (1-wk covariate, 2-wk diet adaptation, and 9-wk experimental period of data collection) with 36 Holstein cows in a randomized complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, and milk yield and assigned to the following diets: (1) control (CON), (2) CON with reduced-fat corn distillers grains with solubles included at 28...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626526/differential-modulation-of-white-adipose-tissue-endocannabinoid-levels-by-n-3-fatty-acids-in-obese-mice-and-type-2-diabetic-patients
#15
Martin Rossmeisl, Jana Pavlisova, Petra Janovska, Ondrej Kuda, Kristina Bardova, Jana Hansikova, Michaela Svobodova, Marina Oseeva, Jiri Veleba, Jan Kopecky, Petr Zacek, Eva Fiserova, Terezie Pelikanova, Jan Kopecky
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) might regulate metabolism by lowering endocannabinoid levels. We examined time-dependent changes in adipose tissue levels of endocannabinoids as well as in parameters of glucose homeostasis induced by n-3 PUFA in dietary-obese mice, and compared these results with the effect of n-3 PUFA intervention in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 8, 16 or 24 weeks a high-fat diet alone (cHF) or supplemented with n-3 PUFA (cHF + F). Overweight/obese, T2DM patients on metformin therapy were given for 24 weeks corn oil (Placebo; 5 g/day) or n-3 PUFA concentrate as above (Omega-3; 5 g/day)...
April 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621669/omega-3-fatty-acids-in-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-mechanistic-update
#16
REVIEW
Kembra Albracht-Schulte, Nishan Sudheera Kalupahana, Latha Ramalingam, Shu Wang, Shaikh Mizanoor Rahman, Jacalyn Robert-McComb, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Strategies to reduce obesity have become public health priorities as the prevalence of obesity has risen in the United States and around the world. While the anti-inflammatory and hypotriglyceridemic properties of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are well known, their antiobesity effects and efficacy against metabolic syndrome, especially in humans, are still under debate. In animal models, evidence consistently suggests a role for n-3 PUFAs in reducing fat mass, particularly in the retroperitoneal and epididymal regions...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616827/dietary-fats-and-cardiovascular-health-a-summary-of-the-scientific-evidence-and-current-debate
#17
Elena Fattore, Elena Massa
This narrative review summarises the main studies of the role of the different fatty acids in coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the current scientific debate on dietary recommendations. Reduction and substitution of the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are still the main dietary recommendation to prevent CHD and CVD. In the last few years, however, the strength of the scientific evidence underlying this dietary advice has been questioned...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606145/are-dietary-inequalities-among-australian-adults-changing-a-nationally-representative-analysis-of-dietary-change-according-to-socioeconomic-position-between-1995-and-2011-13
#18
Dana Lee Olstad, Rebecca M Leech, Katherine M Livingstone, Kylie Ball, Beth Thomas, Jane Potter, Xenia Cleanthous, Rachael Reynolds, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Increasing inequalities in rates of obesity and chronic disease may be partly fuelled by increasing dietary inequalities, however very few nationally representative analyses of socioeconomic trends in dietary inequalities exist. The release of the 2011-13 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data allows investigation of change in dietary intake according to socioeconomic position (SEP) in Australia using a large, nationally representative sample, compared to the previous national survey in 1995...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605251/protein-engineering-regulatory-perspectives-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase
#19
REVIEW
Shagufta Kamal, Ayesha Saleem, Saima Rehman, Ismat Bibi, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Stearoyl Co A desaturase (SCD) is a rate-limiting lipogenic enzyme that plays an integral role in catalyzing the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, chiefly oleate and palmitoleate. Both contribute a major part of the biological membrane. Numerous SCD isoforms exist in mouse and humans, i.e., SCD-1 to SCD-4 and SCD-1 and SCD-5, respectively. From the biological viewpoint, hyperexpression of SCD1 cause many metabolic disorders including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia, etc...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602230/alterations-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-ovarian-tissues-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-rats
#20
Rong Huang, Xinli Xue, Shengxian Li, Yuying Wang, Yun Sun, Wei Liu, Huiyong Yin, Tao Tao
The metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remains poorly characterized in ovarian tissues of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study aimed to explore alterations in the levels of PUFAs and their metabolites in serum and ovarian tissues in a PCOS rat model treated with a high-fat diet and andronate. Levels of PUFAs and their metabolites were measured using gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after the establishment of a PCOS rat model. Only 3 kinds of PUFAs [linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid] were detected in both the circulation and ovarian tissues of the rats, and their concentrations were lower in ovarian tissues than in serum...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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