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Polyunsaturated Fat

Felipe Azevedo Ribeiro, Katherine Ivette Domenech-Pérez, Carmen Josefina Contreras-Castillo, Emery Karoline Wilkerson, Hope Reneé Voegele, Kellen Ballard Hart, Nicolas Jens Herrera, Chris Richard Calkins
The effects of feeding different dietary fat sources with modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) on beef display life were evaluated. Steers (n = 256) were fed for 134 d on either a corn, 40% full-fat MDGS, 40% de-oiled MDGS, or 38% de-oiled MDGS plus 2% corn oil diet. Twenty-four United States Department of Agriculture Choice carcasses (3 head/pen) were randomly selected within each dietary treatment and strip loins were collected and aged for 2, 9, 16, or 23 d. Steaks from each aging period were placed under retail display (RD) conditions for 0, 4, and 7 d...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Kathy Musa-Veloso, Carolina Venditti, Han Youl Lee, Maryse Darch, Seth Floyd, Spencer West, Ryan Simon
Context: Treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are needed. Objective: The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effects of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, on liver-related and metabolic outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with NAFLD. Data Sources: The online information service ProQuest Dialog was used to search 8 literature databases...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
K E Kliem, D J Humphries, P Kirton, D I Givens, C K Reynolds
It is known that supplementing dairy cow diets with full-fat oilseeds can be used as a strategy to mitigate methane emissions, through their action on rumen fermentation. However, direct comparisons of the effect of different oil sources are very few, as are studies implementing supplementation levels that reflect what is commonly fed on commercial farms. The objective was to investigate the effect of feeding different forms of supplemental plant oils on both methane emissions and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
June 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Katsuhiko Yajima, Kaito Iwayama, Hitomi Ogata, Insung Park, Kumpei Tokuyama
The fatty acid composition of the diet has been linked to the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with monounsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids decrease fat oxidation and diet-induced thermogenesis. A potential limitation of previous studies was the short duration (≦5h) of calorimetry used. The present study compared the effects of a meal rich in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on 24-h of fat oxidation. Ten males participated in two sessions of indirect calorimetry in a whole-room metabolic chamber...
2018: PloS One
Hyun-Young Jang, Jeung-Hyun Koo, Sang-Myeong Lee, Byung-Hyun Park
Previous clinical trials have addressed the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation on atopic dermatitis. Recently, we reported that fat-1 mice, which can convert n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are protected against allergic airway inflammation because their Th2 immune responses are suppressed. Here, we examined the effects of endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs on atopic dermatitis, a representative Th2-dominant allergic inflammatory disease. Mouse models of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions were prepared by epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or house dust mite (HDM) extract to the ears...
June 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
S I Mortimer, N M Fogarty, J H J van der Werf, D J Brown, A A Swan, R H Jacob, G H Geesink, D L Hopkins, J E Hocking Edwards, E N Ponnampalam, R D Warner, K L Pearce, D W Pethick
Genetic correlations between 16 meat quality and nutritional value traits and live weight at various ages, ultrasound fat and muscle depth, carcass measures and carcass dissection traits were estimated for Merino sheep in the Information Nucleus (IN). Genetic correlations between live weight at various ages and the carcass traits are also reported. The IN comprises 8 genetically linked flocks managed across a range of Australian sheep environments. Meat quality traits included between 1,200 and 1,300 records for progeny from over 170 sires for intramuscular fat (IMF), lean meat yield (LMY), shear force (SF5), pH, meat color and meat nutritional value traits including iron and zinc levels and long chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jirayu Tanprasertsuk, Emily S Mohn, Nirupa R Matthan, Alice H Lichtenstein, Kathryn Barger, Rohini Vishwanathan, Mary Ann Johnson, Leonard W Poon, Elizabeth J Johnson
Investigating the role of nutrition on cognitive health is challenging. Human brain tissue is inaccessible in living humans and is often limited in deceased individuals. Therefore, biomarkers of brain nutrient levels are of interest. The objective of this study was to characterize the relationships between levels of fat-soluble nutrients in serum and matched brain tissues from the frontal and temporal cortices of participants in the Georgia Centenarian Study (n = 47). After adjusting for sex, race, cognitive status (global deterioration scale), body mass index, and presence of hypertension and/or diabetes, there was a significant relationship (p < 0...
June 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Hui-Min Zhang, H L Xia, H R Jiang, Y J Mao, K X Qu, B Z Huang, Y C Gong, Z P Yang
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition vary significantly across beef cattle breeds, which play important roles in taste and nutritional value. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypic differences remain unknown. The present study compared meat quality traits between Yunling cattle and Chinese Simmental cattle. Yunling cattle showed a lower IMF content and proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), as well as higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and short chain fatty acids (sc-FA) in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Chinese Simmental cattle...
June 8, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Tracy Severson, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Jennifer G Robinson, John R Guyton
This roundtable discussion on dietary fats was inspired by a recent Presidential Advisory from the American Heart Association giving recommendations about dietary fats for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The Advisory clarifies a long-held position that saturated fat should be reduced in the American diet. New studies and meta-analyses have questioned the adverse role of saturated fat. The Advisory adds a crucial clarification based primarily on 4 randomized controlled diet trials, each conducted over 4 to 8 years during the 1960s extending to the 1970s...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Chuanming Luo, Huixia Ren, Xiaoli Yao, Zhe Shi, Fengyin Liang, Jing X Kang, Jian-Bo Wan, Zhong Pei, Kuan-Pin Su, Huanxing Su
Cerebral microinfarcts have significant effects on the development of geriatric neurological disorders, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the evolution of microinfarcts and potential treatment and prevention against these microvascular ischemic lesions. In the present study, the "single cortical microinfarct model" generated via occluding a penetrating arteriole by femtosecond laser ablation and the "multiple diffuse microinfarcts model" induced by unilateral injection of cholesterol crystals through the internal carotid artery were established to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the evolution of microinfarcts and the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on alleviating microinfarct burdens and functional deficits...
June 4, 2018: EBioMedicine
Yuya Tsurutani, Kosuke Inoue, Chiho Sugisawa, Jun Saito, Masao Omura, Tetsuo Nishikawa
Objective To clarify the associations between serum omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and obesity-related metabolic abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Data from 225 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were cross-sectionally analyzed. The serum levels of n-6 PUFAs [dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) ] and n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) were measured, and the estimated Δ-5 desaturase (D5D) activity was calculated based on the AA to DGLA ratio...
June 6, 2018: Internal Medicine
Charles M Benbrook, Donald R Davis, Bradley J Heins, Maged A Latif, Carlo Leifert, Logan Peterman, Gillian Butler, Ole Faergeman, Silvia Abel-Caines, Marcin Baranski
Consumer demand for milk and meat from grass-fed cattle is growing, driven mostly by perceived health benefits and concerns about animal welfare. In a U. S.-wide study of 1,163 milk samples collected over 3 years, we quantified the fatty acid profile in milk from cows fed a nearly 100% forage-based diet (grassmilk) and compared it to profiles from a similar nationwide study of milk from cows under conventional and organic management. We also explored how much the observed differences might help reverse the large changes in fatty acid intakes that have occurred in the United States over the last century...
May 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Sneha Sundaram, Petr Žáček, Michael R Bukowski, Aaron A Mehus, Lin Yan, Matthew J Picklo
Metabolic reprogramming of lipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Consumption of a high-fat obesogenic diet enhances spontaneous metastasis using a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) model. In order to gain further insights into the mechanisms by which dietary fats impact cancer progression, we conducted a lipidomic analysis of primary tumors originated from LLC from mice fed with a standard AIN93G diet or a soybean oil-based high-fat diet (HFD). Hierarchical clustering heatmap analysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids demonstrated an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-containing phospholipids and a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)-containing lipids in tumors from mice fed the HFD...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
M Garcia-Contreras, F Messaggio, A J Mendez, C Ricordi
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the metabolomic profiling of cryopreserved Lipogems® tissue products and the initial lipoaspirates before microfracturing, to determine altered metabolites that could result from the non-enzymatic processing or the cryopreservation method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human Lipoaspirate samples (n=10) were divided in two aliquots, of which one was non-processed and the other was processed by Lipogems® device. Non-processed lipoaspirates and Lipogems® processed tissues were stored at -80°C fresh frozen (N=3 per group) or in the presence of 0...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jolanta Czerwińska, Małgorzata Nowak, Patrycja Wojtczak, Dorota Dziuban-Lech, Jarosław M Cieśla, Daria Kołata, Beata Gajewska, Anna Barańczyk-Kuźma, Andria R Robinson, Hillary L Shane, Siobhán Q Gregg, Lora H Rigatti, Matthew J Yousefzadeh, Aditi U Gurkar, Sara J McGowan, Konrad Kosicki, Małgorzata Bednarek, Ewelina Zarakowska, Daniel Gackowski, Ryszard Oliński, Elżbieta Speina, Laura J Niedernhofer, Barbara Tudek
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) products are relatively stable and abundant metabolites, which accumulate in tissues of mammals with aging, being able to modify all cellular nucleophiles, creating protein and DNA adducts including crosslinks. Here, we used cells and mice deficient in the ERCC1-XPF endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair and the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks to ask if specifically LPO-induced DNA damage contributes to loss of cell and tissue homeostasis. Ercc1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts were more sensitive than wild-type (WT) cells to the LPO products: 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), crotonaldehyde and malondialdehyde...
May 31, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Olívia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Flávia Galvão Cândido, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Obesity is a serious global health problem that is directly related to various morbidities manifestation. Intestinal dysbiosis has been implicated on obesity pathogenesis. Diet composition can alter gut microbiota, regardless of energy intake. Dietary fatty acids quality may affect gut microbiota composition, which in turn may affect host metabolic health. The mechanisms by which the different type of FFA modulate gut microbiota is yet poor elucidate and there is a lack of studies regard to this. Fatty acids may act in cell membrane, interfere with energy production, inhibit enzymatic activities, impair nutrient absorption and generate toxic compounds to cells, leading to growth inhibition or even bacterial death...
May 31, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Kristin Røen Fauske, Annette Bernhard, Even Fjære, Lene Secher Myrmel, Livar Frøyland, Karsten Kristiansen, Bjørn Liaset, Lise Madsen
A large fraction of the n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in cod fillet is present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). Freezing initiates hydrolysis of the PLs present in the fillet. Here, we compared the effects of Western diets based on frozen cod, fresh cod or pork with a diet based on casein in male C57BL/6J mice fed for 12 weeks at thermoneutrality. Diets based on fresh cod contained more PL-bound n -3 PUFAs (3.12 mg/g diet) than diets based on frozen cod (1.9 mg/g diet). Mice fed diets containing pork and fresh cod, but not frozen cod, gained more body and fat mass than casein-fed mice...
May 30, 2018: Nutrients
Allen Mo, Rong Wu, James P Grady, Matthew P Hanley, Margaret Toro, Helen Swede, Thomas J Devers, Terryl J Hartman, Daniel W Rosenberg
PURPOSE: Excess dietary fat consumption is strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, but less is known about its role in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis, particularly within the proximal colon. In the following case-control study, we evaluated the relationship between the intake of dietary fats and the frequency of early proximal neoplasia [aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or polyps], detectable by high-definition colonoscopy with contrast dye-spray. METHODS: Average-risk screening individuals underwent a high-definition colonoscopy procedure as part of larger ongoing clinical study of precancerous lesions in the proximal colon...
May 30, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Da-Som Kim, Hoe-Sung Kim, Kyoung-Tae Lee, Dong-Lee Hong, Sung-Rae Cho, Jeong Hoon Pan, Yong Bae Park, Yang-Bong Lee, Jae Kyeom Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin
This study was undertaken to evaluate chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of tree-borne seed oils. A total of 15 different fatty acids were identified in six tree-borne seed oils, which included seven types of saturated fatty acids, four types of monounsaturated fatty acids, and four types of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Japanese camphor tree (JCT) had a high content of medium-chain fatty acids (97.94 ± 0.04%), in which fatty acid composition was distinct from those of the other five plant seed oils...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Marzena Zając, Rafał Świątek
BACKGROUND: Liver p&acirc;t&eacute;s are popular all over the world, but they usually contain high amounts of animal fats. It may be beneficial to improve their dietetic value by decreasing the saturated fatty acid content, while maintaining their sensory quality. One way to do this is to add ingredients which are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as hemp seed or linseed. Hemp seeds are valuable because of their fat and protein content and linseed is known for its high &alpha;-linolenic fatty acid (ALA) content...
April 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
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